|Caspase-3 cleavage links delta-catenin to the novel nuclear protein ZIFCAT.|
Gu, D; Tonthat, NK; Lee, M; Ji, H; Bhat, KP; Hollingsworth, F; Aldape, KD; Schumacher, MA; Zwaka, TP; McCrea, PD
The Journal of biological chemistry
δ-Catenin is an Armadillo protein of the p120-catenin subfamily capable of modulating cadherin stability, small GTPase activity, and nuclear transcription. From yeast two-hybrid screening of a human embryonic stem cell cDNA library, we identified δ-catenin as a potential interacting partner of the caspase-3 protease, which plays essential roles in apoptotic as well as non-apoptotic processes. Interaction of δ-catenin with caspase-3 was confirmed using cleavage assays conducted in vitro, in Xenopus apoptotic extracts, and in cell line chemically induced contexts. The cleavage site, a highly conserved caspase consensus motif (DELD) within Armadillo repeat 6 of δ-catenin, was identified through peptide sequencing. Cleavage thus generates an amino-terminal (residues 1-816) and carboxyl-terminal (residues 817-1314) fragment, each containing about half of the central Armadillo domain. We found that cleavage of δ-catenin both abolishes its association with cadherins and impairs its ability to modulate small GTPases. Interestingly, 817-1314 possesses a conserved putative nuclear localization signal that may facilitate the nuclear targeting of δ-catenin in defined contexts. To probe for novel nuclear roles of δ-catenin, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening of a mouse brain cDNA library, resolving and then validating interaction with an uncharacterized KRAB family zinc finger protein, ZIFCAT. Our results indicate that ZIFCAT is nuclear and suggest that it may associate with DNA as a transcriptional repressor. We further determined that other p120 subfamily catenins are similarly cleaved by caspase-3 and likewise bind ZIFCAT. Our findings potentially reveal a simple yet novel signaling pathway based upon caspase-3 cleavage of p120-catenin subfamily members, facilitating the coordinate modulation of cadherins, small GTPases, and nuclear functions.
|Delta-catenin-induced dendritic morphogenesis. An essential role of p190RhoGEF interaction through Akt1-mediated phosphorylation.|
Kim, H; Han, JR; Park, J; Oh, M; James, SE; Chang, S; Lu, Q; Lee, KY; Ki, H; Song, WJ; Kim, K
The Journal of biological chemistry
Delta-catenin was first identified through its interaction with Presenilin-1 and has been implicated in the regulation of dendrogenesis and cognitive function. However, the molecular mechanisms by which delta-catenin promotes dendritic morphogenesis were unclear. In this study, we demonstrated delta-catenin interaction with p190RhoGEF, and the importance of Akt1-mediated phosphorylation at Thr-454 residue of delta-catenin in this interaction. We have also found that delta-catenin overexpression decreased the binding between p190RhoGEF and RhoA, and significantly lowered the levels of GTP-RhoA but not those of GTP-Rac1 and -Cdc42. Delta-catenin T454A, a defective form in p190RhoGEF binding, did not decrease the binding between p190RhoGEF and RhoA. Delta-catenin T454A also did not lower GTP-RhoA levels and failed to induce dendrite-like process formation in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Furthermore, delta-catenin T454A significantly reduced the length and number of mature mushroom shaped spines in primary hippocampal neurons. These results highlight signaling events in the regulation of delta-catenin-induced dendrogenesis and spine morphogenesis.
|Phosphotyrosine signaling networks in epidermal growth factor receptor overexpressing squamous carcinoma cells.|
Thelemann, A; Petti, F; Griffin, G; Iwata, K; Hunt, T; Settinari, T; Fenyo, D; Gibson, N; Haley, JD
Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP
Overexpression and enhanced activation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor are frequent events in human cancers that correlate with poor prognosis. Anti-phosphotyrosine and anti-EGFr affinity chromatography, isotope-coded muLC-MS/MS, and immunoblot methods were combined to describe and measure signaling networks associated with EGF receptor activation and pharmacological inhibition. The squamous carcinoma cell line HN5, which overexpresses EGF receptor and displays sustained receptor kinase activation, was used as a model system, where pharmacological inhibition of EGF receptor kinase by erlotinib markedly reduced auto and substrate phosphorylation, Src family phosphorylation at EGFR Y845, while increasing total EGF receptor protein. Diverse sets of known and poorly described functional protein classes were unequivocally identified by affinity selection, comprising either proteins tyrosine phosphorylated or complexed therewith, predominantly through EGF receptor and Src family kinases, principally 1) immediate EGF receptor signaling complexes (18%); 2) complexes involved in adhesion and cell-cell contacts (34%); and 3) receptor internalization and degradation signals. Novel and known phosphorylation sites could be located despite the complexity of the peptide mixtures. In addition to interactions with multiple signaling adaptors Grb2, SHC, SCK, and NSP2, EGF receptors in HN5 cells were shown to form direct or indirect physical interactions with additional kinases including ACK1, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Pyk2, Yes, EphA2, and EphB4. Pharmacological inhibition of EGF receptor kinase activity by erlotinib resulted in reduced phosphorylation of downstream signaling, for example through Cbl/Cbl-B, phospholipase Cgamma (PLCgamma), Erk1/2, PI-3 kinase, and STAT3/5. Focal adhesion proteins, FAK, Pyk2, paxillin, ARF/GIT1, and plakophillin were down-regulated by transient EGF stimulation suggesting a complex balance between growth factor induced kinase and phosphatase activities in the control of cell adhesion complexes. The functional interactions between IGF-1 receptor, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling, and EGF receptor were observed, both direct and/or indirectly on phospho-Akt, phospho-Erk1/2, and phospho-ribosomal S6.