Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R, Sh||IP, WB, ICC||Rb||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Application||Detect Cyclin A with Anti-Cyclin A Antibody (Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody), that has been shown to work in IP, WB, ICC.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||2 years at -20°C|
|Material Size||200 µg|
|Anti-Cyclin A (rabbit polyclonal IgG)||2989150|
|Anti-Cyclin A - 12189||12189|
|Anti-Cyclin A - 17553||17553|
|Anti-Cyclin A - 21306||21306|
|Anti-Cyclin A - 26059||26059|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Efficient parvovirus replication requires CRL4Cdt2-targeted depletion of p21 to prevent its inhibitory interaction with PCNA.|
Adeyemi, RO; Fuller, MS; Pintel, DJ
PLoS pathogens 10 e1004055 2014
Infection by the autonomous parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVM) induces a vigorous DNA damage response in host cells which it utilizes for its efficient replication. Although p53 remains activated, p21 protein levels remain low throughout the course of infection. We show here that efficient MVM replication required the targeting for degradation of p21 during this time by the CRL4Cdt2 E3-ubiquitin ligase which became re-localized to MVM replication centers. PCNA provides a molecular platform for substrate recognition by the CRL4Cdt2 E3-ubiquitin ligase and p21 targeting during MVM infection required its interaction both with Cdt2 and PCNA. PCNA is also an important co-factor for MVM replication which can be antagonized by p21 in vitro. Expression of a stable p21 mutant that retained interaction with PCNA inhibited MVM replication, while a stable p21 mutant which lacked this interaction did not. Thus, while interaction with PCNA was important for targeting p21 to the CRL4Cdt2 ligase re-localized to MVM replication centers, efficient viral replication required subsequent depletion of p21 to abrogate its inhibition of PCNA.
|Parvovirus-induced depletion of cyclin B1 prevents mitotic entry of infected cells.|
Adeyemi, RO; Pintel, DJ
PLoS pathogens 10 e1003891 2014
Parvoviruses halt cell cycle progression following initiation of their replication during S-phase and continue to replicate their genomes for extended periods of time in arrested cells. The parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVM) induces a DNA damage response that is required for viral replication and induction of the S/G2 cell cycle block. However, p21 and Chk1, major effectors typically associated with S-phase and G2-phase cell cycle arrest in response to diverse DNA damage stimuli, are either down-regulated, or inactivated, respectively, during MVM infection. This suggested that parvoviruses can modulate cell cycle progression by another mechanism. In this work we show that the MVM-induced, p21- and Chk1-independent, cell cycle block proceeds via a two-step process unlike that seen in response to other DNA-damaging agents or virus infections. MVM infection induced Chk2 activation early in infection which led to a transient S-phase block associated with proteasome-mediated CDC25A degradation. This step was necessary for efficient viral replication; however, Chk2 activation and CDC25A loss were not sufficient to keep infected cells in the sustained G2-arrested state which characterizes this infection. Rather, although the phosphorylation of CDK1 that normally inhibits entry into mitosis was lost, the MVM induced DDR resulted first in a targeted mis-localization and then significant depletion of cyclin B1, thus directly inhibiting cyclin B1-CDK1 complex function and preventing mitotic entry. MVM infection thus uses a novel strategy to ensure a pseudo S-phase, pre-mitotic, nuclear environment for sustained viral replication.
|The kinetics of G2 and M transitions regulated by B cyclins.|
Huang, Y; Sramkoski, RM; Jacobberger, JW
PloS one 8 e80861 2013
B cyclins regulate G2-M transition. Because human somatic cells continue to cycle after reduction of cyclin B1 (cycB1) or cyclin B2 (cycB2) by RNA interference (RNAi), and because cycB2 knockout mice are viable, the existence of two genes should be an optimization. To explore this idea, we generated HeLa BD™ Tet-Off cell lines with inducible cyclin B1- or B2-EGFP that were RNAi resistant. Cultures were treated with RNAi and/or doxycycline (Dox) and bromodeoxyuridine. We measured G2 and M transit times and 4C cell accumulation. In the absence of ectopic B cyclin expression, knockdown (kd) of either cyclin increased G2 transit. M transit was increased by cycB1 kd but decreased by cycB2 depletion. This novel difference was further supported by time-lapse microscopy. This suggests that cycB2 tunes mitotic timing, and we speculate that this is through regulation of a Golgi checkpoint. In the presence of endogenous cyclins, expression of active B cyclin-EGFPs did not affect G2 or M phase times. As previously shown, B cyclin co-depletion induced G2 arrest. Expression of either B cyclin-EGFP completely rescued knockdown of the respective endogenous cyclin in single kd experiments, and either cyclin-EGFP completely rescued endogenous cyclin co-depletion. Most of the rescue occurred at relatively low levels of exogenous cyclin expression. Therefore, cycB1 and cycB2 are interchangeable for ability to promote G2 and M transition in this experimental setting. Cyclin B1 is thought to be required for the mammalian somatic cell cycle, while cyclin B2 is thought to be dispensable. However, residual levels of cyclin B1 or cyclin B2 in double knockdown experiments are not sufficient to promote successful mitosis, yet residual levels are sufficient to promote mitosis in the presence of the dispensible cyclin B2. We discuss a simple model that would explain most data if cyclin B1 is necessary.
|TopBP1 mediates mutant p53 gain of function through NF-Y and p63/p73.|
Liu, K; Ling, S; Lin, WC
Molecular and cellular biology 31 4464-81 2011
Nearly half of human cancers harbor p53 mutations, which can promote cancerous growth, metastasis, and resistance to therapy. The gain of function of mutant p53 is partly mediated by its ability to form a complex with NF-Y or p63/p73. Here, we demonstrate that TopBP1 mediates these activities in cancer, and we provide both in vitro and in vivo evidence to support its role. We show that TopBP1 interacts with p53 hot spot mutants and NF-YA and promotes mutant p53 and p300 recruitment to NF-Y target gene promoters. TopBP1 also facilitates mutant p53 interaction with and inhibition of the transcriptional activities of p63/p73. Depletion of TopBP1 in mutant p53 cancer cells leads to downregulation of NF-Y target genes cyclin A and Cdk1 and upregulation of p63/p73 target genes such as Bax and Noxa. Mutant p53-mediated resistance to chemotherapeutic agents depends on TopBP1. The growth-promoting activity of mutant p53 in a xenograft model also requires TopBP1. Thus, TopBP1 mediates mutant p53 gain of function in cancer. Since TopBP1 is often overexpressed in cancer cells and is recruited to cooperate with mutant p53 for tumor progression, TopBP1/mutant p53 interaction may be a new therapeutic target in cancer.
|Lin28 modulates cell growth and associates with a subset of cell cycle regulator mRNAs in mouse embryonic stem cells.|
Xu, B; Zhang, K; Huang, Y
RNA (New York, N.Y.) 15 357-61 2009
Lin28 is highly expressed in human and mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Here, we show that in mouse ES cells, specific repression of Lin28 results in decreased cell proliferation, while overexpression of Lin28 accelerates cell proliferation. Further, Lin28 associates specifically with ribonucleoprotein particles containing mRNAs for cyclins A and B and cdk4. Importantly, changes in Lin28 levels lead to corresponding changes in the levels of these proteins, and sequences from the 3' untranslated regions of cyclin B and cdk4 mRNAs exhibit stimulatory effects on translation of reporter genes in a Lin28-dependent fashion. Thus, we postulate that Lin28 may play a role in the regulation of translation of genes important for the growth and maintenance of pluripotent cells.Full Text Article
|Regulation of p53 by TopBP1: a potential mechanism for p53 inactivation in cancer.|
Liu, K; Bellam, N; Lin, HY; Wang, B; Stockard, CR; Grizzle, WE; Lin, WC
Molecular and cellular biology 29 2673-93 2009
Proper control of the G(1)/S checkpoint is essential for normal proliferation. The activity of p53 must be kept at a very low level under unstressed conditions to allow growth. Here we provide evidence supporting a crucial role for TopBP1 in actively repressing p53. Depletion of TopBP1 upregulates p53 target genes involved in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and enhances DNA damage-induced apoptosis. The regulation is mediated by an interaction between the seventh and eighth BRCT domains of TopBP1 and the DNA-binding domain of p53, leading to inhibition of p53 promoter binding activity. Importantly, TopBP1 overexpression is found in 46 of 79 primary breast cancer tissues and is associated with high tumor grade and shorter patient survival time. Overexpression of TopBP1 to a level comparable to that seen in breast tumors leads to inhibition of p53 target gene expression and DNA damage-induced apoptosis and G(1) arrest. Thus, a physiological level of TopBP1 is essential for normal G(1)/S transition, but a pathological level of TopBP1 in cancer may perturb p53 function and contribute to an aggressive tumor behavior.
|Cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression in MCF-10F human breast epithelial cells inhibits proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation, and causes partial transformation.|
Suying Lu, Guo Yu, Yonghong Zhu, Michael C Archer
International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer 116 847-52 2005
To investigate the effects of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) overexpression on breast cancer development, we stably transfected MCF-10F human breast epithelial cells with an expression vector containing human COX-2 cDNA oriented in the sense (10F-S) or antisense (10F-AS) direction. As expected, 10F-S cells expressed elevated levels of COX-2 protein, whereas this protein was undetectable in the 10F-AS cells. Prostaglandin E(2) production in these cells reflected COX-2 levels. The 10F-S cells had a significantly decreased rate of proliferation compared to 10F-AS or parental cells, and a delay in progression through the G(1) phase of the cell cycle. COX-2 overexpression also caused resistance to detachment-induced apoptosis (anoikis) as well as an inhibition of differentiation in cells cultured in Matrigel. Furthermore, after approximately 20 passages in culture, 10F-S cells developed fibroblast-like features, expressed vimentin, and formed foci of dense growth when cultured at confluence, suggesting that the cells were undergoing epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). The 10F-S cells, however, were unable to grow in soft agar or form tumors in nude mice, suggesting that they were only partially transformed. Our observations suggest that COX-2 overexpression in human breast epithelial cells will predispose the mammary gland to carcinogenesis.
|Roles of polo-like kinase 1 in the assembly of functional mitotic spindles.|
Izabela Sumara, Juan F Giménez-Abián, Daniel Gerlich, Toru Hirota, Claudine Kraft, Consuelo de la Torre, Jan Ellenberg, Jan-Michael Peters
Current biology : CB 14 1712-22 2004
BACKGROUND: The stable association of chromosomes with both poles of the mitotic spindle (biorientation) depends on spindle pulling forces. These forces create tension across sister kinetochores and are thought to stabilize microtubule-kinetochore interactions and to silence the spindle checkpoint. Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) has been implicated in regulating centrosome maturation, mitotic entry, sister chromatid cohesion, the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), and cytokinesis, but it is unknown if Plk1 controls chromosome biorientation. RESULTS: We have analyzed Plk1 functions in synchronized mammalian cells by RNA interference (RNAi). Plk1-depleted cells enter mitosis after a short delay, accumulate in a preanaphase state, and subsequently often die by apoptosis. Spindles in Plk1-depleted cells lack focused poles and are not associated with centrosomes. Chromosomes attach to these spindles, but the checkpoint proteins Mad2, BubR1, and CENP-E are enriched at many kinetochores. When Plk1-depleted cells are treated with the Aurora B inhibitor Hesperadin, which silences the spindle checkpoint by stabilizing microtubule-kinetochore interactions, cells degrade APC/C substrates and exit mitosis without chromosome segregation and cytokinesis. Experiments with monopolar spindles that are induced by the kinesin inhibitor Monastrol indicate that Plk1 is required for the assembly of spindles that are able to generate poleward pulling forces. CONCLUSIONS: Our results imply that Plk1 is not essential for mitotic entry and APC/C activation but is required for proper spindle assembly and function. In Plk1-depleted cells spindles may not be able to create enough tension across sister kinetochores to stabilize microtubule-kinetochore interactions and to silence the spindle checkpoint.
|Sole BCR-ABL inhibition is insufficient to eliminate all myeloproliferative disorder cell populations.|
Wong, S; McLaughlin, J; Cheng, D; Zhang, C; Shokat, KM; Witte, ON
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101 17456-61 2004
Protein kinase inhibitors can be effective in treating selected cancers, but most suppress several kinases. Imatinib mesylate has been useful in the treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia and B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia through the inhibition of BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase activity. Imatinib mesylate has also been shown to inhibit KIT, ARG, and platelet-derived growth factor receptors alpha and beta, and potentially other tyrosine kinases. We have produced a mutant allele of BCR-ABL (T315A) that is uniquely inhibitable by the small molecule 4-amino-1-tert-butyl-3-(1-naphthyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine and used it to demonstrate that sole suppression of BCR-ABL activity was insufficient to eliminate BCR-ABL(+) KIT(+)-expressing immature murine myeloid leukemic cells. In contrast, imatinib mesylate effectively eliminated BCR-ABL(+) KIT(+)-expressing leukemic cells. In the cellular context of mature myeloid cells and Pro/Pre B cells that do not express KIT, monospecific BCR-ABL inhibition was quantitatively as effective as imatinib mesylate in suppressing cell growth and inducing apoptosis. These results suggest that the therapeutic effectiveness of small molecule drugs such as imatinib mesylate could be due to the inhibitor's ability to suppress protein kinases in addition to the dominant target.Full Text Article
|The human histone gene expression regulator HBP/SLBP is required for histone and DNA synthesis, cell cycle progression and cell proliferation in mitotic cells.|
Zhao, X; McKillop-Smith, S; Müller, B
Journal of cell science 117 6043-51 2004
Histone proteins are essential for chromatin formation, and histone gene expression is coupled to DNA synthesis. In metazoans, the histone RNA binding protein HBP/SLBP is involved in post-transcriptional control of histone gene expression. In vitro assays have demonstrated that human HBP/SLBP is involved in histone mRNA 3' end formation and translation. We have inhibited human HBP/SLBP expression by RNA interference to determine its function during the mitotic cell cycle. Inhibition of HBP/SLBP expression resulted in the inhibition of histone gene expression and DNA synthesis, the inhibition of cell cycle progression in S phase and the inhibition of cell proliferation. These findings indicate that human HBP/SLBP is essential for the coordinate synthesis of DNA and histone proteins and is required for progression through the cell division cycle.