Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M||IP, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||200 µg|
|Anti-Cyclin B1 - 17772||17772|
|Anti-Cyclin B1 - 1942575||1942575|
|Anti-Cyclin B1 - 1984833||1984833|
|Anti-Cyclin B1 - 2080303||2080303|
|Anti-Cyclin B1 - 2111281||2111281|
|Anti-Cyclin B1 - 21920||21920|
|Anti-Cyclin B1 - 2199734||2199734|
|Anti-Cyclin B1 - 2327462||2327462|
|Anti-Cyclin B1 - 24012||24012|
|Anti-Cyclin B1 - 26051||26051|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Rac1-dependent recruitment of PAK2 to G2 phase centrosomes and their roles in the regulation of mitotic entry.|
May, M; Schelle, I; Brakebusch, C; Rottner, K; Genth, H
Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 13 2211-21 2014
During mitotic entry, the centrosomes provide a scaffold for initial activation of the CyclinB/Cdk1 complex, the mitotic kinase Aurora A, and the Aurora A-activating kinase p21-activated kinase (PAK). The activation of PAK at the centrosomes is yet regarded to happen independently of the Rho-GTPases Rac/Cdc42. In this study, Rac1 (but not RhoA or Cdc42) is presented to associate with the centrosomes from early G2 phase until prometaphase in a cell cycle-dependent fashion, as evidenced by western blot analysis of prepared centrosomes and by immunolabeling. PAK associates with the G2/M-phase centrosomes in a Rac1-dependent fashion. Furthermore, specific inhibition of Rac1 by C. difficile toxinB-catalyzed glucosylation or by knockout results in inhibited activation of PAK1/2, Aurora A, and the CyclinB/Cdk1 complex in late G2 phase/prophase and delayed mitotic entry. Inhibition of PAK activation at late G2-phase centrosomes caused by Rac1 inactivation coincides with impeded activation of Aurora A and the CyclinB/Cdk1 complex and delayed mitotic entry.
|Parvovirus-induced depletion of cyclin B1 prevents mitotic entry of infected cells.|
Adeyemi, RO; Pintel, DJ
PLoS pathogens 10 e1003891 2014
Parvoviruses halt cell cycle progression following initiation of their replication during S-phase and continue to replicate their genomes for extended periods of time in arrested cells. The parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVM) induces a DNA damage response that is required for viral replication and induction of the S/G2 cell cycle block. However, p21 and Chk1, major effectors typically associated with S-phase and G2-phase cell cycle arrest in response to diverse DNA damage stimuli, are either down-regulated, or inactivated, respectively, during MVM infection. This suggested that parvoviruses can modulate cell cycle progression by another mechanism. In this work we show that the MVM-induced, p21- and Chk1-independent, cell cycle block proceeds via a two-step process unlike that seen in response to other DNA-damaging agents or virus infections. MVM infection induced Chk2 activation early in infection which led to a transient S-phase block associated with proteasome-mediated CDC25A degradation. This step was necessary for efficient viral replication; however, Chk2 activation and CDC25A loss were not sufficient to keep infected cells in the sustained G2-arrested state which characterizes this infection. Rather, although the phosphorylation of CDK1 that normally inhibits entry into mitosis was lost, the MVM induced DDR resulted first in a targeted mis-localization and then significant depletion of cyclin B1, thus directly inhibiting cyclin B1-CDK1 complex function and preventing mitotic entry. MVM infection thus uses a novel strategy to ensure a pseudo S-phase, pre-mitotic, nuclear environment for sustained viral replication.
|Salinomycin induces apoptosis and senescence in breast cancer: upregulation of p21, downregulation of survivin and histone H3 and H4 hyperacetylation.|
Al Dhaheri, Y; Attoub, S; Arafat, K; Abuqamar, S; Eid, A; Al Faresi, N; Iratni, R
Biochimica et biophysica acta 3121-35 2013
In the present study, we investigated the effect of Salinomycin on the survival of three human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, T47D and MDA-MB-231 grown in adherent culture conditions.Cell viability was measured by Cell Titer-Glo and Trypan blue exclusion assay. Apoptosis was determined by caspase 3/7 activation, PARP cleavage and Annexin V staining. Cell cycle distribution was assessed by propidium iodide flow cytometry. Senescence was confirmed by measuring the senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. Changes in protein expression and histone hyperacetylation was determined by western blot and confirmed by immunofluorescence assay.Salinomycin was able to inhibit the growth of the three cell lines in time- and concentration-dependent manners. We showed that depending on the concentrations used, Salinomycin elicits different effects on the MDA-MB-231 cells. High concentrations of Salinomycin induced a G2 arrest, downregulation of survivin and triggered apoptosis. Interestingly, treatment with low concentrations of Salinomycin induced a transient G1 arrest at earlier time point and G2 arrest at later point and senescence associated with enlarged cellmorphology, upregulation of p21 protein, increase in histone H3 and H4 hyperacetylation and expression of SA-β-Gal activity. Furthermore, we found that Salinomycin was able to potentiate the killing of the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, by the chemotherapeutic agents, 4-Hydroxytamoxifen and frondo side A, respectively.Our data are the first to link senescence and histone modifications to Salinomycin.This study provides a new insight to better understand the mechanism of action of Salinomycin, at least in breast cancer cells.
|The deubiquitylase USP15 stabilizes newly synthesized REST and rescues its expression at mitotic exit.|
Faronato, M; Patel, V; Darling, S; Dearden, L; Clague, MJ; Urbé, S; Coulson, JM
Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 12 1964-77 2013
Reversible ubiquitylation of proteins contributes to their integrity, abundance and activity. The RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) plays key physiological roles and is dysregulated in a spectrum of disease. It is rapidly turned over and is phosphorylated, polyubiquitylated and degraded en masse during neuronal differentiation and cell cycle progression. Through siRNA screening we identified the deubiquitylase USP15 as a key regulator of cellular REST. Both antagonism of REST polyubiquitylation and rescue of endogenous REST levels are dependent on the deubiquitylase activity of USP15. However, USP15 depletion does not destabilize pre-existing REST, but rather specifically impairs de novo REST synthesis. Indeed, we find that a small fraction of endogenous USP15 is associated with polysomes. In accordance with these findings, USP15 does not antagonize the degradation of phosphorylated REST at mitosis. Instead it is required for the rapid accumulation of newly synthesized REST on mitotic exit, thus playing a key role in its cell cycle oscillations. Importantly, this study reveals a novel role for a DUB in specifically promoting new protein synthesis.
|Mitotic arrest and apoptosis in breast cancer cells induced by Origanum majorana extract: upregulation of TNF-α and downregulation of survivin and mutant p53.|
Al Dhaheri, Y; Eid, A; AbuQamar, S; Attoub, S; Khasawneh, M; Aiche, G; Hisaindee, S; Iratni, R
PloS one 8 e56649 2013
In the present study, we investigated the effect of Origanum majorana ethanolic extract on the survival of the highly proliferative and invasive triple-negative p53 mutant breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231.We found that O. majorana extract (OME) was able to inhibit the viability of the MDA-MB-231 cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The effect of OME on cellular viability was further confirmed by the inhibition of colony growth. We showed, depending on the concentration used, that OME elicited different effects on the MDA-MB 231 cells. Concentrations of 150 and 300 µg/mL induced an accumulation of apoptotic-resistant population of cells arrested in mitotis and overexpressing the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21 and the inhibitor of apoptosis, survivin. On the other hand, higher concentrations of OME (450 and 600 µg/mL) triggered a massive apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway, including the activation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), caspase 8, caspase 3, and cleavage of PARP, downregulation of survivin as well as depletion of the mutant p53 in MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, OME induced an upregulation of γ-H2AX, a marker of double strand DNA breaks and an overall histone H3 and H4 hyperacetylation.Our findings provide strong evidence that O. majorana may be a promising chemopreventive and therapeutic candidate against cancer especially for highly invasive triple negative p53 mutant breast cancer; thus validating its complementary and alternative medicinal use.
|The stress-activated protein kinases p38α/β and JNK1/2 cooperate with Chk1 to inhibit mitotic entry upon DNA replication arrest.|
Llopis, A; Salvador, N; Ercilla, A; Guaita-Esteruelas, S; Barrantes, Idel B; Gupta, J; Gaestel, M; Davis, RJ; Nebreda, AR; Agell, N
Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 11 3627-37 2012
Accurate DNA replication is crucial for the maintenance of genome integrity. To this aim, cells have evolved complex surveillance mechanisms to prevent mitotic entry in the presence of partially replicated DNA. ATR and Chk1 are key elements in the signal transduction pathways of DNA replication checkpoint; however, other kinases also make significant contributions. We show here that the stress kinases p38 and JNK are activated when DNA replication is blocked, and that their activity allows S/M, but not G 2/M, checkpoint maintenance when Chk1 is inhibited. Activation of both kinases by DNA replication inhibition is not mediated by the caffeine-sensitive kinases ATR or ATM. Phosphorylation of MKK3/6 and MKK4, p38 and JNK upstream kinases was also observed upon DNA replication inhibition. Using a genetic approach, we dissected the p38 pathway and showed that both p38α and p38β isoforms collaborate to inhibit mitotic entry. We further defined MKK3/6 and MK2/3 as the key upstream and downstream elements in the p38 signaling cascade after replication arrest. Accordingly, we found that the stress signaling pathways collaborate with Chk1 to keep cyclin B1/Cdk1 complexes inactive when DNA replication is inhibited, thereby preventing cell cycle progression when DNA replication is stalled. Our results show a complex response to replication stress, where multiple pathways are activated and fulfill overlapping roles to prevent mitotic entry with unreplicated DNA.
|Sensitivity of cancer cells to Plk1 inhibitor GSK461364A is associated with loss of p53 function and chromosome instability.|
Degenhardt, Y; Greshock, J; Laquerre, S; Gilmartin, AG; Jing, J; Richter, M; Zhang, X; Bleam, M; Halsey, W; Hughes, A; Moy, C; Liu-Sullivan, N; Powers, S; Bachman, K; Jackson, J; Weber, B; Wooster, R
Molecular cancer therapeutics 9 2079-89 2010
Polo-like kinases are a family of serine threonine kinases that are critical regulators of cell cycle progression and DNA damage response. Predictive biomarkers for the Plk1-selective inhibitor GSK461364A were identified by comparing the genomics and genetics of a panel of human cancer cell lines with their response to a drug washout followed by an outgrowth assay. In this assay, cell lines that have lost p53 expression or carry mutations in the TP53 gene tended to be more sensitive to GSK461364A. These more sensitive cell lines also had increased levels of chromosome instability, a characteristic associated with loss of p53 function. Further mechanistic studies showed that p53 wild-type (WT) and not mutant cells can activate a postmitotic tetraploidy checkpoint and arrest at pseudo-G(1) state after GSK461364A treatment. RNA silencing of WT p53 increased the antiproliferative activity of GSK461364A. Furthermore, silencing of p53 or p21/CDKN1A weakened the tetraploidy checkpoint in cells that survived mitotic arrest and mitotic slippage. As many cancer therapies tend to be more effective in p53 WT patients, the higher sensitivity of p53-deficient tumors toward GSK461364A could potentially offer an opportunity to treat tumors that are refractory to other chemotherapies as well as early line therapy for these genotypes.
|Clustering phenotype populations by genome-wide RNAi and multiparametric imaging.|
Florian Fuchs,Gregoire Pau,Dominique Kranz,Oleg Sklyar,Christoph Budjan,Sandra Steinbrink,Thomas Horn,Angelika Pedal,Wolfgang Huber,Michael Boutros
Molecular systems biology 6 2010
Genetic screens for phenotypic similarity have made key contributions to associating genes with biological processes. With RNA interference (RNAi), highly parallel phenotyping of loss-of-function effects in cells has become feasible. One of the current challenges however is the computational categorization of visual phenotypes and the prediction of biological function and processes. In this study, we describe a combined computational and experimental approach to discover novel gene functions and explore functional relationships. We performed a genome-wide RNAi screen in human cells and used quantitative descriptors derived from high-throughput imaging to generate multiparametric phenotypic profiles. We show that profiles predicted functions of genes by phenotypic similarity. Specifically, we examined several candidates including the largely uncharacterized gene DONSON, which shared phenotype similarity with known factors of DNA damage response (DDR) and genomic integrity. Experimental evidence supports that DONSON is a novel centrosomal protein required for DDR signalling and genomic integrity. Multiparametric phenotyping by automated imaging and computational annotation is a powerful method for functional discovery and mapping the landscape of phenotypic responses to cellular perturbations.Full Text Article
|Quantitative site-specific phosphorylation dynamics of human protein kinases during mitotic progression.|
Dulla, K; Daub, H; Hornberger, R; Nigg, EA; Körner, R
Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 9 1167-81 2010
Reversible protein phosphorylation is a key regulatory mechanism of mitotic progression. Importantly, protein kinases themselves are also regulated by phosphorylation-dephosphorylation processes; hence, phosphorylation dynamics of kinases hold a wealth of information about phosphorylation networks. Here, we investigated the site-specific phosphorylation dynamics of human kinases during mitosis using synchronization of HeLa suspension cells, kinase enrichment, and high resolution mass spectrometry. In biological triplicate analyses, we identified 206 protein kinases and more than 900 protein kinase phosphorylation sites, including 61 phosphorylation sites on activation segments, and quantified their relative abundances across three specific mitotic stages. Around 25% of the kinase phosphorylation site ratios were found to be changed by at least 50% during mitotic progression. Further network analysis of jointly regulated kinase groups suggested that Cyclin-dependent kinase- and mitogen-activated kinase-centered interaction networks are coordinately down- and up-regulated in late mitosis, respectively. Importantly, our data cover most of the already known mitotic kinases and, moreover, identify attractive candidates for future studies of phosphorylation-based mitotic signaling. Thus, the results of this study provide a valuable resource for cell biologists and provide insight into the system properties of the mitotic phosphokinome.
|Phosphorylation-dependent binding of cyclin B1 to a Cdc6-like domain of human separase.|
Boos, D; Kuffer, C; Lenobel, R; Körner, R; Stemmann, O
The Journal of biological chemistry 283 816-23 2008
Sister chromatids are held together by the ring-shaped cohesin complex, which likely entraps both DNA-double strands in its middle. This tie is resolved in anaphase when separase, a giant protease, becomes active and cleaves the kleisin subunit of cohesin. Premature activation of separase and, hence, chromosome missegregation are prevented by at least two inhibitory mechanisms. Although securin has long been appreciated as a direct inhibitor of separase, surprisingly its loss has basically no phenotype in mammals. Phosphorylation-dependent binding of Cdk1 constitutes an alternative way to inhibit vertebrate separase. Its importance is illustrated by the premature loss of cohesion when Cdk1-resistant separase is expressed in mammalian cells without or with limiting amounts of securin. Here, we demonstrate that crucial inhibitory phosphorylations occur within a region of human separase that is also shown to make direct contact with the cyclin B1 subunit of Cdk1. This region exhibits a weak homology to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc6 of similar Cdk1 binding behavior, thereby establishing phosphoserine/threonine-mediated binding of partners as a conserved characteristic of B-type cyclins. In contrast to the Cdc6-like domain, the previously identified serine 1126 phosphorylation is fully dispensable for Cdk1 binding to separase fragments. This suggests that despite its in vivo relevance, it promotes complex formation indirectly, possibly by inducing a conformational change in full-length separase.