Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H||ICC, IP, NEUT, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Application||Detect EGFR using this Anti-EGFR Antibody, neutralizing, clone LA1 validated for use in IC, IP, NEUT & WB.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Lyophilized: 2 years at -20°C; Rehydrated: 1 month at 4°C or 6 months at -20°C|
|Material Size||250 µg|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Crucial roles of RSK in cell motility by catalysing serine phosphorylation of EphA2.|
Zhou, Y; Yamada, N; Tanaka, T; Hori, T; Yokoyama, S; Hayakawa, Y; Yano, S; Fukuoka, J; Koizumi, K; Saiki, I; Sakurai, H
Nature communications 6 7679 2015
Crosstalk between inflammatory signalling pathways and receptor tyrosine kinases has been revealed as an indicator of cancer malignant progression. In the present study, we focus on EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase, which is overexpressed in many human cancers. It has been reported that ligand-independent phosphorylation of EphA2 at Ser-897 is induced by Akt. We show that inflammatory cytokines promote RSK-, not Akt-, dependent phosphorylation of EphA2 at Ser-897. In addition, the RSK-EphA2 signalling pathway controls cell migration and invasion of metastatic breast cancer cells. Moreover, Ser-897-phosphorylated EphA2 co-localizes with phosphorylated active form of RSK in various human tumour specimens, and this double positivity is related to poor survival in lung cancer patients, especially those with a smoking history. Taken together, these results indicate that the phosphorylation of EphA2 at Ser-897 is controlled by RSK and the RSK-EphA2 axis might contribute to cell motility and promote tumour malignant progression.
|Epithelial innate immune response to Acinetobacter baumannii challenge.|
Feng, Z; Jia, X; Adams, MD; Ghosh, SK; Bonomo, RA; Weinberg, A
Infection and immunity 82 4458-65 2014
Currently, Acinetobacter baumannii is recognized as one of the major pathogens seriously threatening our health care delivery system. Aspects of the innate immune response to A. baumannii infection are not yet well understood. Human β-defensins (hBDs) are epithelial cell-derived cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that also function to bridge the innate and adaptive immune system. We tested the induction of hBD-2 and -3 by A. baumannii on primary oral and skin epithelial cells and found that A. baumannii induces hBD-3 transcripts to a greater extent than it induces hBD-2 transcripts on both types of cells. In addition, we found that A. baumannii is susceptible to hBD-2 and -3 killing at submicromolar concentrations. Moreover, hBD-3 induction by A. baumannii was found to be dependent on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. Inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase resulted in reduced expression of both hBD-2 and -3. Lastly, a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17; also known as TACE) was found to be critical for hBD-3 induction, while ADAM10 and dual oxidase 1 (Duox1) were not required for hBD-3 induction. Induction of AMPs is an important component of innate sensing of pathogens and may play an important role in triggering systemic immune responses to A. baumannii infection. Further studies on the interactions between epithelial cells and A. baumannii will help us understand early stages of infection and may shed light on why some individuals are more vulnerable to A. baumannii infection.
|Studies of cell signaling in a reconstructed human epidermis exposed to sensitizers: IL-8 synthesis and release depend on EGFR activation.|
Frankart, Aurélie, et al.
Archives of dermatological research, (2012) 2012
Models of reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) holding proliferating and fully differentiated cultured keratinocytes allow in vitro investigation of early molecular and cellular epidermal events during the complex response of keratinocytes at the onset of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) or sensitization. In this study, data collected on RHE exposed to well-characterized sensitizing chemicals, such as dinitrofluorobenzene, oxazolone, cinnamaldehyde and isoeugenol, revealed a transient expression of IL-8 mRNA in association with abundant IL-8 cell release. Investigations of keratinocyte signaling illustrate transient activation by tissue exposure to sensitizing chemicals of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). This activation of EGFR tyrosine kinase is involved in the expression and release of IL-8. The IL-8 release appears also to be partially dependent on p38 and ERK 1/2 MAPK activation. Moreover, data suggest that heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) expression and release induced after exposure of RHE to sensitizing chemicals are also under the control of EGFR tyrosine kinase activity, independently of the IL-8 expression and release. Mechanistic approach of keratinocyte responses in the context of RHE underlying regulation of expression and release of epidermal cytokines and growth factors after topical application of sensitizing chemicals is proposed to identify biomarkers which could then be analysed for in vitro toxicological screening of new or undefined compounds.
|EGFR/Src/Akt signaling modulates Sox2 expression and self-renewal of stem-like side-population cells in non-small cell lung cancer.|
Singh, S; Trevino, J; Bora-Singhal, N; Coppola, D; Haura, E; Altiok, S; Chellappan, SP
Molecular cancer 11 73 2012
Cancer stem cells are thought to be responsible for the initiation and progression of cancers. In non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs), Hoechst 33342 dye effluxing side population (SP) cells are shown to have stem cell like properties. The oncogenic capacity of cancer stem-like cells is in part due to their ability to self-renew; however the mechanistic correlation between oncogenic pathways and self-renewal of cancer stem-like cells has remained elusive. Here we characterized the SP cells at the molecular level and evaluated its ability to generate tumors at the orthotopic site in the lung microenvironment. Further, we investigated if the self-renewal of SP cells is dependent on EGFR mediated signaling.SP cells were detected and isolated from multiple NSCLC cell lines (H1650, H1975, A549), as well as primary human tumor explants grown in nude mice. SP cells demonstrated stem-like properties including ability to self-renew and grow as spheres; they were able to generate primary and metastatic tumors upon orthotopic implantation into the lung of SCID mice. In vitro study revealed elevated expression of stem cell associated markers like Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog as well as demonstrated intrinsic epithelial to mesenchymal transition features in SP cells. Further, we show that abrogation of EGFR, Src and Akt signaling through pharmacological or genetic inhibitors suppresses the self-renewal growth and expansion of SP-cells and resulted in specific downregulation of Sox2 protein expression. siRNA mediated depletion of Sox2 significantly blocked the SP phenotype as well as its self-renewal capacity; whereas other transcription factors like Oct4 and Nanog played a relatively lesser role in regulating self-renewal. Interestingly, Sox2 was elevated in metastatic foci of human NSCLC samples.Our findings suggest that Sox2 is a novel target of EGFR-Src-Akt signaling in NSCLCs that modulates self-renewal and expansion of stem-like cells from NSCLC. Therefore, the outcome of the EGFR-Src-Akt targeted therapy may rely upon the expression and function of Sox2 within the NSCLC-CSCs.
|EGFR and EphA2 are host factors for hepatitis C virus entry and possible targets for antiviral therapy.|
Lupberger, Joachim, et al.
Nature medicine, (2011) 2011
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease, but therapeutic options are limited and there are no prevention strategies. Viral entry is the first step of infection and requires the cooperative interaction of several host cell factors. Using a functional RNAi kinase screen, we identified epidermal growth factor receptor and ephrin receptor A2 as host cofactors for HCV entry. Blocking receptor kinase activity by approved inhibitors broadly impaired infection by all major HCV genotypes and viral escape variants in cell culture and in a human liver chimeric mouse model in vivo. The identified receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) mediate HCV entry by regulating CD81-claudin-1 co-receptor associations and viral glycoprotein-dependent membrane fusion. These results identify RTKs as previously unknown HCV entry cofactors and show that tyrosine kinase inhibitors have substantial antiviral activity. Inhibition of RTK function may constitute a new approach for prevention and treatment of HCV infection.
|Mutant p53 initiates a feedback loop that involves Egr-1/EGF receptor/ERK in prostate cancer cells.|
L Sauer,D Gitenay,C Vo,V T Baron
Oncogene 29 2010
Early growth response-1 (Egr-1) is overexpressed in human prostate tumors and contributes to cancer progression. On the other hand, mutation of p53 is associated with advanced prostate cancer, as well as with metastasis and hormone independence. This study shows that in prostate cell lines in culture, Egr-1 overexpression correlated with an alteration of p53 activity because of the expression of SV40 large T-antigen or because of a mutation in the TP53 gene. In cells containing altered p53 activity, Egr-1 expression was abolished by pharmacological inhibition or RNAi silencing of p53. Although forced expression of wild-type p53 was not sufficient to trigger Egr-1 transcription, four different mutants of p53 were shown to induce Egr-1. Direct binding of p53 to the EGR1 promoter could not be detected. Instead, Egr-1 transcription was driven by the ERK1/2 pathway, as it was abrogated by specific inhibitors of MEK. Egr-1 increased the transcription of HB-EGF (epidermal growth factor), amphiregulin and epiregulin, resulting in autocrine activation of the EGF receptor (EGFR) and downstream MEK/ERK cascade. Thus, mutant p53 initiates a feedback loop that involves ERK1/2-mediated transactivation of Egr-1, which in turn increases the secretion of EGFR ligands and stimulates the EGFR signaling pathway. Finally, p53 may further regulate this feedback loop by altering the level of EGFR expression.Full Text Article
|Dexamethasone and methylprednisolone do not inhibit neuritic outgrowth while inhibiting outgrowth of fibroblasts from spiral ganglion explants.|
Alexis Furze,Deanna Kralick,Anand Vakharia,Korey Jaben,Reid Graves,Eelam Adil,Adrien A Eshraghi,Thomas J Balkany,Thomas R Van de Water
Acta oto-laryngologica 128 2008
Dexamethasone and methylprednisolone do not inhibit neuritic outgrowth while inhibiting fibroblastic outgrowth from spiral ganglion micro-explants.
|Acrolein-activated matrix metalloproteinase 9 contributes to persistent mucin production.|
Deshmukh, HS; Shaver, C; Case, LM; Dietsch, M; Wesselkamper, SC; Hardie, WD; Korfhagen, TR; Corradi, M; Nadel, JA; Borchers, MT; Leikauf, GD
American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology 38 446-54 2008
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a global public health problem, is characterized by progressive difficulty in breathing, with increased mucin production, especially in the small airways. Acrolein, a constituent of cigarette smoke and an endogenous mediator of oxidative stress, increases airway mucin 5, subtypes A and C (MUC5AC) production; however, the mechanism remains unclear. In this study, increased mMUC5AC transcripts and protein were associated with increased lung matrix metalloproteinase 9 (mMMP9) transcripts, protein, and activity in acrolein-exposed mice. Increased mMUC5AC transcripts and mucin protein were diminished in gene-targeted Mmp9 mice [Mmp9((-/-))] or in mice treated with an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor, erlotinib. Acrolein also decreased mTissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase protein 3 (an MMP9 inhibitor) transcript levels. In a cell-free system, acrolein increased pro-hMMP9 cleavage and activity in concentrations (100-300 nM) found in sputum from subjects with COPD. Acrolein increased hMMP9 transcripts in human airway cells, which was inhibited by an MMP inhibitor, EGFR-neutralizing antibody, or a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) 3/2 inhibitor. Together these findings indicate that acrolein can initiate cleavage of pro-hMMP9 and EGFR/MAPK signaling that leads to additional MMP9 formation. Augmentation of hMMP9 activity, in turn, could contribute to persistent excessive mucin production.
|Delineation of molecular mechanisms of sensitivity to lapatinib in breast cancer cell lines using global gene expression profiles.|
Priti S Hegde,David Rusnak,Melissa Bertiaux,Krystal Alligood,Jay Strum,Robert Gagnon,Tona M Gilmer
Molecular cancer therapeutics 6 2007
Lapatinib (GW572016) is a small-molecule dual inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (ErbB1) and ErbB2 receptor kinase activities currently in phase III clinical trials. We used phosphoprotein and microarray analyses to carry out targeted pathway studies of phosphorylation and gene expression changes in human breast cancer cell lines in the presence or absence of lapatinib. Studies were done in four breast cancer cell lines, two of which were responsive and two of which were nonresponsive to lapatinib. Responsive cell lines, BT474 and SKBr3, constitutively overexpress ErbB2 and show an IC(50) of 25 or 32 nmol/L for lapatinib, respectively. In contrast, nonresponsive MDA-MB-468 and T47D cells expressed a low basal level of ErbB2 and showed IC(50) values in the micromolar range. Cells responsive to lapatinib exhibited strong differential effects on multiple genes in the AKT pathway. After 12 h of exposure to 1.0 micromol/L of lapatinib, AKT1, MAPK9, HSPCA, IRAK1, and CCND1 transcripts were down-regulated 7- to 25-fold in responsive BT474 and SKBr3 cells. In contrast, lapatinib weakly down-regulated the AKT pathway in nonresponsive breast cancer cell lines (<5-fold down-regulation of most genes in the pathway). Furthermore, the proapoptotic gene FOXO3A, which is negatively regulated by AKT, was up-regulated 7- and 25-fold in lapatinib-responsive SKBr3 and BT474 cells, respectively. Phosphorylated Akt and Akt-mediated phosphorylation of FOXO3A also decreased in responsive breast cancer cell lines exposed to lapatinib. Gene expression profiling also revealed that lapatinib stimulated the expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors and modulated the expression of genes involved in cell cycle control, glycolysis, and fatty acid metabolism. In BT474 and T47D cells, which expressed moderate basal levels of the estrogen and progesterone receptors, 1.0 micromol/L of lapatinib induced expression by 7- to 11-fold. These data provide insight into the mechanism of action of lapatinib in breast cancer cells.
|Roles of an IkappaB kinase-related pathway in human cytomegalovirus-infected vascular smooth muscle cells: a molecular link in pathogen-induced proatherosclerotic conditions.|
Gravel, SP; Servant, MJ
The Journal of biological chemistry 280 7477-86 2005
Viral and bacterial pathogens have long been suspected to affect atherogenesis directly. However, mechanisms linking innate immunity to chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis are still poorly defined. Here we show that infection of primary human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAOSMC) with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) leads to activation of the novel IkappaB kinase (IKK)-related kinase, Tank-binding kinase-1 (TBK1), a major effector of the cellular innate immune response. We demonstrate that part of the HCMV inflammatory response is most likely mediated via this novel kinase because the canonical IKK complex was only poorly activated upon infection of HAOSMC. An increase in TBK1 phosphotransferase activity led to a strong activation of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3 transcription factor as measured by its C-terminal phosphorylation, dimerization, and DNA binding activity. In addition to TBK1, HAOSMC also express another IKK-related kinase isoform, IKKepsilon, albeit at a lower level. Nevertheless, both isoforms were required for full activation of IRF-3 by HCMV. The transcripts of proatherosclerotic genes Ccl5 (encoding for the chemokine RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted)) and Cxcl10 (encoding for the chemokine IP-10 (interferon-gamma-inducible protein 10)) were induced in an IRF-3-dependent manner after HCMV infection of smooth muscle cells. In addition, cytokine arrays analysis showed that RANTES and IP-10 were the predominant chemokines present in the supernatant of HCMV-infected HAOSMC. Activation of the TBK1/IRF-3 pathway was independent of epidermal growth factor receptor and pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein-coupled receptor activation. Our results thus add additional molecular clues to a possible role of HCMV as a modulator of atherogenesis through the induction of a proinflammatory response that is, in part, dependent of an IKK-related kinase pathway.
|How do I prepare a non-reducing sample buffer?||Non-reducing sample buffer can be made and stored for months at room temperature. Here is the formulation for a 2X Non-reducing sample buffer: Water (37ml), 0.5M Tris-HCl (10ml), Glycerol (8ml), 10% SDS (16ml), 0.05% Bromophenol Blue (5ml).|