|The angiogenic factor angiopoietin-1 is a proneurogenic peptide on subventricular zone stem/progenitor cells.|
Rosa, AI; Gonçalves, J; Cortes, L; Bernardino, L; Malva, JO; Agasse, F
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
In the adult mammalian brain, the subventricular zone (SVZ) hosts stem cells constantly generating new neurons. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) is an endothelial growth factor with a critical role in division, survival, and adhesion of endothelial cells via Tie-2 receptor activity. Expression of Tie-2 in nonendothelial cells, especially neurons and stem cells, suggests that Ang-1 may be involved in neurogenesis. In the present work, we investigated the putative role of Ang-1 on SVZ neurogenesis. Immature cells from SVZ-derived neurospheres express Ang-1 and Tie-2 mRNA, suggesting a role for the Ang-1/Tie-2 system in the neurogenic niche. Moreover, we also found that Tie-2 protein expression is retained on differentiation in neurons and glial cells. Ang-1 triggered proliferation via activation of the ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase pathway but did not induce cell death. Accordingly, coincubation with an anti-Tie-2 neutralizing antibody prevented the pro-proliferative effect of Ang-1. Furthermore, Ang-1 increased the number of NeuN (neuronal nuclear protein)-positive neurons in cultures treated for 7 d, as well as the number of functional neurons, as assessed by monitoring [Ca(2+)](i) rises after application of specific stimuli for neurons and immature cells. The proneurogenic effect of Ang-1 is mediated by Tie-2 activation and subsequent mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin kinase) mobilization. In agreement, neuronal differentiation significantly decreased after exposure to an anti-Tie-2 neutralizing antibody and to rapamycin. Moreover, Ang-1 elicited the activation of the SAPK (stress-activated protein kinase)/JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) MAPK, involved in axonogenesis. Our work shows a proneurogenic effect of Ang-1, highlighting the relevance of blood vessel/stem cell cross talk in health and disease.
|Somatic mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor and non-small-cell lung cancer.|
Zhang, Xiaozhu and Chang, Alex
J. Med. Genet., 44: 166-72 (2007)
Frequent overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) makes EGFR a new therapeutic target. Two specific EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, gefitinib (ZD1839, Iressa) and erlotinib (OSI-774, Tarceva), have been developed and approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for second-line and third-line treatment of advanced NSCLC. Clinical trials have shown considerable variability in the response rate between different patients with NSCLC, which led to the discovery of somatic EGFR-activating mutations. This brief review summarises the discovery and functional consequences of the mutations, their clinicopathological features and significant implications in the treatment and prognosis of NSCLC.
|Gefitinib induces premature senescence in non-small cell lung cancer cells with or without EGFR gene mutation.|
Hotta, Katsuyuki, et al.
Oncol. Rep., 17: 313-7 (2007)
Despite its tremendous antitumor effect in a subset of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the exact mechanism of gefitinib-induced cell death has not been fully determined. In this study, forms of cell death in various NSCLC cell lines after gefitinib exposure was analyzed to elucidate the cell death mechanism of gefitinib. Though higher concentration of gefitinib (10 microM) induced extensive apoptosis in two cell lines (EGFR-mutated PC-9 cells and EGFR wild- type EBC-2/R cells), clinically relevant concentrations of gefitinib (1 microM) induced prominent premature senescence instead of apoptosis in these cells. This induction of senescence was preceded by immediate increase of p16INK4A, p21WAF1/Cip1 and p27Kip1 levels and subsequent G1 cell cycle arrest. These phenomena were not observed in gefitinib-resistant (RERF-LC-MS) cells. Additionally, ex vivo exposure to gefitinib induced senescence in short-term cultured tumor cells that were obtained from malignant pleural effusion of a patient with NSCLC, whose tumor was later revealed to be clinically sensitive to gefitinib. Our results indicate that senescence might be a major anti-tumor mechanism of gefitinib in these NSCLC cells regardless of the EGFR gene mutation status.