Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, R, M, B, Ca||ICC, IP, Enzyme Assays, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||200 µg|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|2'-OMe-phosphorodithioate-modified siRNAs show increased loading into the RISC complex and enhanced anti-tumour activity.|
Wu, SY; Yang, X; Gharpure, KM; Hatakeyama, H; Egli, M; McGuire, MH; Nagaraja, AS; Miyake, TM; Rupaimoole, R; Pecot, CV; Taylor, M; Pradeep, S; Sierant, M; Rodriguez-Aguayo, C; Choi, HJ; Previs, RA; Armaiz-Pena, GN; Huang, L; Martinez, C; Hassell, T; Ivan, C; Sehgal, V; Singhania, R; Han, HD; Su, C; Kim, JH; Dalton, HJ; Kovvali, C; Keyomarsi, K; McMillan, NA; Overwijk, WW; Liu, J; Lee, JS; Baggerly, KA; Lopez-Berestein, G; Ram, PT; Nawrot, B; Sood, AK
Nature communications 5 3459 2014
Improving small interfering RNA (siRNA) efficacy in target cell populations remains a challenge to its clinical implementation. Here, we report a chemical modification, consisting of phosphorodithioate (PS2) and 2'-O-Methyl (2'-OMe) MePS2 on one nucleotide that significantly enhances potency and resistance to degradation for various siRNAs. We find enhanced potency stems from an unforeseen increase in siRNA loading to the RNA-induced silencing complex, likely due to the unique interaction mediated by 2'-OMe and PS2. We demonstrate the therapeutic utility of MePS2 siRNAs in chemoresistant ovarian cancer mouse models via targeting GRAM domain containing 1B (GRAMD1B), a protein involved in chemoresistance. GRAMD1B silencing is achieved in tumours following MePS2-modified siRNA treatment, leading to a synergistic anti-tumour effect in combination with paclitaxel. Given the previously limited success in enhancing siRNA potency with chemically modified siRNAs, our findings represent an important advance in siRNA design with the potential for application in numerous cancer types.
|An integrated genomic approach identifies persistent tumor suppressive effects of transforming growth factor-β in human breast cancer.|
Sato, M; Kadota, M; Tang, B; Yang, HH; Yang, YA; Shan, M; Weng, J; Welsh, MA; Flanders, KC; Nagano, Y; Michalowski, AM; Clifford, RJ; Lee, MP; Wakefield, LM
Breast cancer research : BCR 16 R57 2014
Transforming growth factor-βs (TGF-βs) play a dual role in breast cancer, with context-dependent tumor-suppressive or pro-oncogenic effects. TGF-β antagonists are showing promise in early-phase clinical oncology trials to neutralize the pro-oncogenic effects. However, there is currently no way to determine whether the tumor-suppressive effects of TGF-β are still active in human breast tumors at the time of surgery and treatment, a situation that could lead to adverse therapeutic responses.Using a breast cancer progression model that exemplifies the dual role of TGF-β, promoter-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation and transcriptomic approaches were applied to identify a core set of TGF-β-regulated genes that specifically reflect only the tumor-suppressor arm of the pathway. The clinical significance of this signature and the underlying biology were investigated using bioinformatic analyses in clinical breast cancer datasets, and knockdown validation approaches in tumor xenografts.TGF-β-driven tumor suppression was highly dependent on Smad3, and Smad3 target genes that were specifically enriched for involvement in tumor suppression were identified. Patterns of Smad3 binding reflected the preexisting active chromatin landscape, and target genes were frequently regulated in opposite directions in vitro and in vivo, highlighting the strong contextuality of TGF-β action. An in vivo-weighted TGF-β/Smad3 tumor-suppressor signature was associated with good outcome in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cohorts. TGF-β/Smad3 effects on cell proliferation, differentiation and ephrin signaling contributed to the observed tumor suppression.Tumor-suppressive effects of TGF-β persist in some breast cancer patients at the time of surgery and affect clinical outcome. Carefully tailored in vitro/in vivo genomic approaches can identify such patients for exclusion from treatment with TGF-β antagonists.
|Early insights into the function of KIAA1199, a markedly overexpressed protein in human colorectal tumors.|
Tiwari, A; Schneider, M; Fiorino, A; Haider, R; Okoniewski, MJ; Roschitzki, B; Uzozie, A; Menigatti, M; Jiricny, J; Marra, G
PloS one 8 e69473 2013
We previously reported that the expression of KIAA1199 in human colorectal tumors (benign and malignant) is markedly higher than that in the normal colonic mucosa. In this study, we investigated the functions of the protein encoded by this gene, which are thus far unknown. Immunostaining studies were used to reveal its subcellular localization, and proteomic and gene expression experiments were conducted to identify proteins that might interact with KIAA1199 and molecular pathways in which it might play roles. Using colon cancer cell lines, we showed that both endogenous and ectopically expressed KIAA1199 is secreted into the extracellular environment. In the cells, it was found mainly in the perinuclear space (probably the ER) and cell membrane. Both cellular compartments were also over-represented in lists of proteins identified by mass spectrometry as putative KIAA1199 interactors and/or proteins encoded by genes whose transcription was significantly changed by KIAA1199 expression. These proteomic and transcriptomic datasets concordantly link KIAA1199 to several genes/proteins and molecular pathways, including ER processes like protein binding, transport, and folding; and Ca(2+), G-protein, ephrin, and Wnt signaling. Immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed KIAA1199's interaction with the cell-membrane receptor ephrin A2 and with the ER receptor ITPR3, a key player in Ca(2+) signaling. By modulating Ca(2+) signaling, KIAA1199 could affect different branches of the Wnt network. Our findings suggest it may negatively regulate the Wnt/CTNNB1 signaling, and its expression is associated with decreased cell proliferation and invasiveness.
|EphA2-induced angiogenesis in ewing sarcoma cells works through bFGF production and is dependent on caveolin-1.|
Sáinz-Jaspeado, M; Huertas-Martinez, J; Lagares-Tena, L; Martin Liberal, J; Mateo-Lozano, S; de Alava, E; de Torres, C; Mora, J; Del Muro, XG; Tirado, OM
PloS one 8 e71449 2013
Angiogenesis is the result of the combined activity of the tumor microenvironment and signaling molecules. The angiogenic switch is represented as an imbalance between pro- and anti-angiogenic factors and is a rate-limiting step in the development of tumors. Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and their membrane-anchored ligands, known as ephrins, constitute the largest receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) subfamily and are considered a major family of pro-angiogenic RTKs. Ewing sarcoma (EWS) is a highly aggressive bone and soft tissue tumor affecting children and young adults. As other solid tumors, EWS are reliant on a functional vascular network for the delivery of nutrients and oxygen and for the removal of waste. Based on the biological roles of EphA2 in promoting angiogenesis, we explored the functional role of this receptor and its relationship with caveolin-1 (CAV1) in EWS angiogenesis. We demonstrated that lack of CAV1 results in a significant reduction in micro vascular density (MVD) on 3 different in vivo models. In vitro, this phenomenon correlated with inactivation of EphA2 receptor, lack of AKT response and downregulation of bFGF. We also demonstrated that secreted bFGF from EWS cells acted as chemoattractant for endothelial cells. Furthermore, interaction between EphA2 and CAV1 was necessary for the right localization and signaling of the receptor to produce bFGF through AKT and promote migration of endothelial cells. Finally, introduction of a dominant-negative form of EphA2 into EWS cells mostly reproduced the effects occurred by CAV1 silencing, strongly suggesting that the axis EphA2-CAV1 participates in the promotion of endothelial cell migration toward the tumors favoring EWS angiogenesis.
|The ephrin receptor tyrosine kinase A2 is a cellular receptor for Kaposi's sarcoma–associated herpesvirus.|
Hahn, AS; Kaufmann, JK; Wies, E; Naschberger, E; Panteleev-Ivlev, J; Schmidt, K; Holzer, A; Schmidt, M; Chen, J; König, S; Ensser, A; Myoung, J; Brockmeyer, NH; Stürzl, M; Fleckenstein, B; Neipel, F
Nature medicine 18 961-6 2012
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of Kaposi's sarcoma(1), a highly vascularized tumor originating from lymphatic endothelial cells, and of at least two different B cell malignancies(2,3). A dimeric complex formed by the envelope glycoproteins H and L (gH-gL) is required for entry of herpesviruses into host cells(4). We show that the ephrin receptor tyrosine kinase A2 (EphA2) is a cellular receptor for KSHV gH-gL. EphA2 co-precipitated with both gH-gL and KSHV virions. Infection of human epithelial cells with a GFP-expressing recombinant KSHV strain, as measured by FACS analysis, was increased upon overexpression of EphA2. Antibodies against EphA(2) and siRNAs directed against EphA2 inhibited infection of endothelial cells. Pretreatment of KSHV with soluble EphA2 resulted in inhibition of KSHV infection by up to 90%. This marked reduction of KSHV infection was seen with all the different epithelial and endothelial cells used in this study. Similarly, pretreating epithelial or endothelial cells with the soluble EphA2 ligand ephrinA4 impaired KSHV infection. Deletion of the gene encoding EphA2 essentially abolished KSHV infection of mouse endothelial cells. Binding of gH-gL to EphA2 triggered EphA2 phosphorylation and endocytosis, a major pathway of KSHV entry(5,6). Quantitative RT-PCR and in situ histochemistry revealed a close correlation between KSHV infection and EphA2 expression both in cultured cells derived from human Kaposi's sarcoma lesions or unaffected human lymphatic endothelium, and in situ in Kaposi's sarcoma specimens, respectively. Taken together, our results identify EphA2, a tyrosine kinase with known functions in neovascularization and oncogenesis, as an entry receptor for KSHV.
|Vasculogenic mimicry and its clinical significance in medulloblastoma.|
Shi-Yong Wang,Li Yu,Geng-Qiang Ling,Sha Xiao,Xin-Lin Sun,Zhen-Hua Song,Yi-Jing Liu,Xiao-Dan Jiang,Ying-Qian Cai,Yi-Quan Ke
Cancer biology & therapy 13 2012
Vasculogenic mimicry (VM), a process involving the formation of a tubular structure by highly invasive and genetically dysregulated tumor cells, can supplement the function of blood vessels to transport nutrients and oxygen to maintain the growth of tumor cells in many malignant tumors. We aimed to explore the existence of VM and its clinical significance in medulloblastoma in this study. VM was identified in 9 out of 41 (22%) medulloblastoma tissues. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that the presence of VM was associated with the expression of MMP-2, MMP-14, EphA2 and laminin 5γ2. Tumor tissues with VM were associated with lower microvessel density (MVD), which was indirect evidence of the blood supply function of VM. Survival analysis and log-rank tests showed that patients with VM had shorter overall survival time than those without VM. Multivariate analysis and the Cox proportional hazards model identified VM as independent prognostic factor for overall survival. Our results confirmed the existence of VM for the first time and revealed that VM is a strong independent prognostic factor for survival in patients with medulloblastoma.
|Using patterned supported lipid membranes to investigate the role of receptor organization in intercellular signaling.|
Pradeep M Nair,Khalid Salaita,Rebecca S Petit,Jay T Groves
Nature protocols 6 2011
Physical inputs, both internal and external to a cell, can directly alter the spatial organization of cell surface receptors and their associated functions. Here we describe a protocol that combines solid-state nanolithography and supported lipid membrane techniques to trigger and manipulate specific receptors on the surface of living cells and to develop an understanding of the interplay between spatial organization and receptor function. While existing protein-patterning techniques are capable of presenting cells with well-defined clusters of protein, this protocol uniquely allows for the control of the spatial organization of laterally fluid receptor-ligand complex at an intermembrane junction. A combination of immunofluorescence and single-cell microscopy methods and complementary biochemical analyses are used to characterize receptor signaling pathways and cell functions. The protocol requires 2-5 d to complete depending on the parameters to be studied. In principle, this protocol is widely applicable to eukaryotic cells and herein is specifically developed to study the role of physical organization and translocation of the EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase across a library of model breast cancer cell lines.
|Kinase-dependent and -independent roles of EphA2 in the regulation of prostate cancer invasion and metastasis.|
Taddei, Maria Letizia, et al.
Am. J. Pathol., 174: 1492-503 (2009) 2009
Ligand-activated Eph tyrosine kinases regulate cellular repulsion, morphology, adhesion, and motility. EphA2 kinase is frequently up-regulated in several different types of cancers, including prostate, breast, colon, and lung carcinomas, as well as in melanoma. The existing data do not clarify whether EphA2 receptor phosphorylation or its simple overexpression, which likely leads to Eph kinase-independent responses, plays a role in the progression of malignant prostate cancer. In this study, we address the role of EphA2 tyrosine phosphorylation in prostate carcinoma cell adhesion, motility, invasion, and formation of metastases. Tumor cells expressing kinase-deficient EphA2 mutants, as well as an EphA2 variant lacking the cytoplasmic domain, are defective in ephrinA1-mediated cell rounding, retraction fiber formation, de-adhesion from the extracellular matrix, RhoA and Rac1 GTPase regulation, three-dimensional matrix invasion, and in vivo metastasis, suggesting a key role for EphA2 kinase activity. Nevertheless, EphA2 regulation of cell motility and invasion, as well as the formation of bone and visceral tumor colonies, reveals a component of both EphA2 kinase-dependent and -independent features. These results uncover a differential requirement for EphA2 kinase activity in the regulation of prostate carcinoma metastasis outcome, suggesting that although the kinase activity of EphA2 is required for the regulation of cell adhesion and cytoskeletal rearrangement, some distinct kinase-dependent and -independent pathways likely cooperate to drive cancer cell migration, invasion, and metastasis outcome.
|Regulation of mammary gland branching morphogenesis by EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase.|
Vaught, David, et al.
Mol. Biol. Cell, 20: 2572-81 (2009) 2009
Eph receptor tyrosine kinases, including EphA2, are expressed in the mammary gland. However, their role in mammary gland development remains poorly understood. Using EphA2-deficient animals, we demonstrate for the first time that EphA2 receptor function is required for mammary epithelial growth and branching morphogenesis. Loss of EphA2 decreased penetration of mammary epithelium into fat pad, reduced epithelial proliferation, and inhibited epithelial branching. These defects appear to be intrinsic to loss of EphA2 in epithelium, as transplantation of EphA2-deficient mammary tissue into wild-type recipient stroma recapitulated these defects. In addition, HGF-induced mammary epithelial branching morphogenesis was significantly reduced in EphA2-deficient cells relative to wild-type cells, which correlated with elevated basal RhoA activity. Moreover, inhibition of ROCK kinase activity in EphA2-deficient mammary epithelium rescued branching defects in primary three-dimensional cultures. These results suggest that EphA2 receptor acts as a positive regulator in mammary gland development, functioning downstream of HGF to regulate branching through inhibition of RhoA. Together, these data demonstrate a positive role for EphA2 during normal mammary epithelial proliferation and branching morphogenesis.
|EphA2 as a promoter of melanoma tumorigenicity.|
Margaryan, Naira, et al.
Cancer Biol. Ther., 8: (2009) 2009