Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H||IH(P), WB||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified rabbit polyclonal antibody in buffer containing 0.1 M Tris-Glycine (pH 7.4), 150 mM NaCl with 0.05% sodium azide.
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at 2-8°C from date of receipt.
|Material Size||100 μg|
|Anti-FADD (28kDa) (rabbit polyclonal IgG) - 2106962||2106962|
|Anti-FADD (28kDa) (rabbit polyclonal IgG) - 2375558||2375558|
|Anti-FADD (28kDa) - 1957282||1957282|
|Anti-FADD (28kDa) - 2536517||2536517|
|Anti-FADD (28kDa) - DAM1487553||DAM1487553|
|Anti-FADD (28kDa) - JBC1884537||JBC1884537|
|Anti-FADD (28kDa) -2507234||2507234|
|Anti-FADD (28kDa) -2606788||2606788|
|Anti-FADD - 16673||16673|
|Anti-FADD - JBC1353434||JBC1353434|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|PCTAIRE1-knockdown sensitizes cancer cells to TNF family cytokines.|
Yanagi, T; Shi, R; Aza-Blanc, P; Reed, JC; Matsuzawa, S
PloS one 10 e0119404 2015
While PCTAIRE1/PCTK1/Cdk16 is overexpressed in malignant cells and is crucial in tumorigenesis, its function in apoptosis remains unclear. Here we investigated the role of PCTAIRE1 in apoptosis, especially in the extrinsic cell death pathway. Gene-knockdown of PCTAIRE1 sensitized prostate cancer PPC1 and Du145 cells, and breast cancer MDA-MB-468 cells to TNF-family cytokines, including TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Meanwhile, PCTAIRE1-knockdown did not sensitize non-malignant cells, including diploid fibroblasts IMR-90 and the immortalized prostate epithelial cell line 267B1. PCTAIRE1-knockdown did not up-regulate death receptor expression on the cell surface or affect caspase-8, FADD and FLIP expression levels. PCTAIRE1-knockdown did promote caspase-8 cleavage and RIPK1 degradation, while RIPK1 mRNA knockdown sensitized PPC1 cells to TNF-family cytokines. Furthermore, the kinase inhibitor SNS-032, which inhibits PCTAIRE1 kinase activity, sensitized PPC1 cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Together these results suggest that PCTAIRE1 contributes to the resistance of cancer cell lines to apoptosis induced by TNF-family cytokines, which implies that PCTAIRE1 inhibitors could have synergistic effects with TNF-family cytokines for cytodestruction of cancer cells.
|Novel phosphorylation and ubiquitination sites regulate reactive oxygen species-dependent degradation of anti-apoptotic c-FLIP protein.|
Wilkie-Grantham, RP; Matsuzawa, S; Reed, JC
The Journal of biological chemistry 288 12777-90 2013
The cytosolic protein c-FLIP (cellular Fas-associated death domain-like interleukin 1β-converting enzyme inhibitory protein) is an inhibitor of death receptor-mediated apoptosis that is up-regulated in a variety of cancers, contributing to apoptosis resistance. Several compounds found to restore sensitivity of cancer cells to TRAIL, a TNF family death ligand with promising therapeutic potential, act by targeting c-FLIP ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in c-FLIP protein degradation. However, the mechanism by which ROS post-transcriptionally regulate c-FLIP protein levels is not well understood. We show here that treatment of prostate cancer PPC-1 cells with the superoxide generators menadione, paraquat, or buthionine sulfoximine down-regulates c-FLIP long (c-FLIP(L)) protein levels, which is prevented by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Furthermore, pretreatment of PPC-1 cells with a ROS scavenger prevented ubiquitination and loss of c-FLIP(L) protein induced by menadione or paraquat. We identified lysine 167 as a novel ubiquitination site of c-FLIP(L) important for ROS-dependent degradation. We also identified threonine 166 as a novel phosphorylation site and demonstrate that Thr-166 phosphorylation is required for ROS-induced Lys-167 ubiquitination. The mutation of either Thr-166 or Lys-167 was sufficient to stabilize c-FLIP protein levels in PPC-1, HEK293T, and HeLa cancer cells treated with menadione or paraquat. Accordingly, expression of c-FLIP T166A or K167R mutants protected cells from ROS-mediated sensitization to TRAIL-induced cell death. Our findings reveal novel ROS-dependent post-translational modifications of the c-FLIP protein that regulate its stability, thus impacting sensitivity of cancer cells to TRAIL.
|Akt-phosphorylated mitogen-activated kinase-activating death domain protein (MADD) inhibits TRAIL-induced apoptosis by blocking Fas-associated death domain (FADD) association with death receptor 4.|
Li, P; Jayarama, S; Ganesh, L; Mordi, D; Carr, R; Kanteti, P; Hay, N; Prabhakar, BS
The Journal of biological chemistry 285 22713-22 2010
MADD plays an essential role in cancer cell survival. Abrogation of endogenous MADD expression results in significant spontaneous apoptosis and enhanced susceptibility to tumor necrosis factor alpha-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis. However, the regulation of MADD function is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous MADD is phosphorylated at three highly conserved sites by Akt, and only the phosphorylated MADD can directly interact with the TRAIL receptor DR4 thereby preventing Fas-associated death domain recruitment. However, in cells susceptible to TRAIL treatment, TRAIL induces a reduction in MADD phosphorylation levels resulting in MADD dissociation from, and Fas-associated death domain association with DR4, which allows death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) formation leading to apoptosis. Thus, the pro-survival function of MADD is dependent upon its phosphorylation by Akt. Because Akt is active in most cancer cells and phosphorylated MADD confers resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, co-targeting Akt-MADD axis is likely to increase efficacy of TRAIL-based therapies.Full Text Article
|Molecular determinants of kinase pathway activation by Apo2 ligand/tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand.|
Varfolomeev, E; Maecker, H; Sharp, D; Lawrence, D; Renz, M; Vucic, D; Ashkenazi, A
The Journal of biological chemistry 280 40599-608 2005
Apo2 ligand/tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (Apo2L/TRAIL) mainly activates programmed cell death through caspases. By contrast, TNF primarily induces gene transcription through the inhibitor of kappaB kinase (IKK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Apo2L/TRAIL also can stimulate these kinases, albeit less strongly; however, the underlying mechanisms of this stimulation and its relation to apoptosis are not well understood. Here we show that Apo2L/TRAIL activates kinase pathways by promoting the association of a secondary signaling complex, subsequent to assembly of a primary, death-inducing signaling complex (DISC). The secondary complex retained the DISC components FADD and caspase-8, but recruited several factors involved in kinase activation by TNF, namely, RIP1, TRAF2, and NEMO/IKKgamma. Secondary complex formation required Fas-associated death domain (FADD), as well as caspase-8 activity. Apo2L/TRAIL stimulation of JNK and p38 further depended on RIP1 and TRAF2, whereas IKK activation required NEMO. Apo2L/TRAIL induced secretion of interleukin-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, augmenting macrophage migration. Thus, Apo2L/TRAIL and TNF organize common molecular determinants in distinct signaling complexes to stimulate similar kinase pathways. One function of kinase stimulation by Apo2L/TRAIL may be to promote phagocytic engulfment of apoptotic cells.
|JNK regulates HIPK3 expression and promotes resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis in DU 145 prostate carcinoma cells.|
Curtin, James F and Cotter, Thomas G
J. Biol. Chem., 279: 17090-100 (2004) 2004
Elevated endogenous JNK activity and resistance to Fas receptor-mediated apoptosis have recently been implicated in progression of prostate cancer and can promote resistance to apoptosis in response to chemotherapeutic drugs. In addition, JNK has been demonstrated to promote transformation of epithelial cells by increasing both proliferation and survival. Although numerous studies have reported a role for JNK in promoting Fas receptor-mediated apoptosis, there is a paucity in the literature studying the antiapoptotic function of JNK during Fas receptor-mediated apoptosis. Consequently, we have used the recently described specific JNK inhibitor SP600125 and RNA interference to inhibit endogenous JNK activity in the prostate carcinoma cell line DU 145. We demonstrated that endogenous JNK activity increased the expression of a kinase, HIPK3, that has previously been implicated in multidrug resistance in a number of tumors. HIPK3 has also been reported to phosphorylate FADD. The interaction between FADD and caspase-8 was inhibited, but abrogation of JNK activity or HIPK3 expression was found to restore this interaction and increased the sensitivity of DU 145 cells to Fas receptor-mediated apoptosis. In conclusion, we present novel evidence that JNK regulates the expression of HIPK3 in prostate cancer cells, and this contributes to increased resistance to Fas receptor-mediated apoptosis by reducing the interaction between FADD and caspase-8.
|FADD, a novel death domain-containing protein, interacts with the death domain of Fas and initiates apoptosis.|
Chinnaiyan, A M, et al.
Cell, 81: 505-12 (1995) 1995
Using the cytoplasmic domain of Fas in the yeast two-hybrid system, we have identified a novel interacting protein, FADD, which binds Fas and Fas-FD5, a mutant of Fas possessing enhanced killing activity, but not the functionally inactive mutants Fas-LPR and Fas-FD8. FADD contains a death domain homologous to the death domains of Fas and TNFR-1. A point mutation in FADD, analogous to the lpr mutation of Fas, abolishes its ability to bind Fas, suggesting a death domain to death domain interaction. Overexpression of FADD in MCF7 and BJAB cells induces apoptosis, which, like Fas-induced apoptosis, is blocked by CrmA, a specific inhibitor of the interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme. These findings suggest that FADD may play an important role in the proximal signal transduction of Fas.