Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H||FC, ICC, WB||M||Affinity Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified mouse monoclonal IgM in buffer containing PBS, pH 7.2, with 50% glycerol. Liquid at -20ºC.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at -20°C from date of receipt. For maximum recovery of the product, centrifuge the original vial prior to removing the cap.|
|Material Size||50 µg|
|Anti-Fas (human, activating)||2453649|
|Anti-Fas (human, activating), clone CH11 - 2145050||2145050|
|Anti-Fas (human, activating), clone CH11 - 2390345||2390345|
|Anti-Fas (human, activating), clone CH11 - 2397046||2397046|
|Anti-Fas (human, activating), -2552129||2552129|
|Anti-Fas (human, activating), -2586497||2586497|
|Anti-Fas (human, activating), -2618494||2618494|
|Anti-Fas (human, activating), -2626044||2626044|
|Anti-Fas (human, activating), -2639454||2639454|
|Anti-Fas (human, activating), -2691384||2691384|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Iridovirus CARD Protein Inhibits Apoptosis through Intrinsic and Extrinsic Pathways.|
Chen, CW; Wu, MS; Huang, YJ; Lin, PW; Shih, CJ; Lin, FP; Chang, CY
PloS one 10 e0129071 2015
Grouper iridovirus (GIV) belongs to the genus Ranavirus of the family Iridoviridae; the genomes of such viruses contain an anti-apoptotic caspase recruitment domain (CARD) gene. The GIV-CARD gene encodes a protein of 91 amino acids with a molecular mass of 10,505 Daltons, and shows high similarity to other viral CARD genes and human ICEBERG. In this study, we used Northern blot to demonstrate that GIV-CARD transcription begins at 4 h post-infection; furthermore, we report that its transcription is completely inhibited by cycloheximide but not by aphidicolin, indicating that GIV-CARD is an early gene. GIV-CARD-EGFP and GIV-CARD-FLAG recombinant proteins were observed to translocate from the cytoplasm into the nucleus, but no obvious nuclear localization sequence was observed within GIV-CARD. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of GIV-CARD in GK cells infected with GIV inhibited expression of GIV-CARD and five other viral genes during the early stages of infection, and also reduced GIV infection ability. Immunostaining was performed to show that apoptosis was effectively inhibited in cells expressing GIV-CARD. HeLa cells irradiated with UV or treated with anti-Fas antibody will undergo apoptosis through the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, respectively. However, over-expression of recombinant GIV-CARD protein in HeLa cells inhibited apoptosis induced by mitochondrial and death receptor signaling. Finally, we report that expression of GIV-CARD in HeLa cells significantly reduced the activities of caspase-8 and -9 following apoptosis triggered by anti-Fas antibody. Taken together, these results demonstrate that GIV-CARD inhibits apoptosis through both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways.
|Cytokine effects on cell viability and death of prostate carcinoma cells.|
Chondrogiannis, G; Kastamoulas, M; Kanavaros, P; Vartholomatos, G; Bai, M; Baltogiannis, D; Sofikitis, N; Arvanitis, D; Galani, V
BioMed research international 2014 536049 2014
We analyzed the effects of IL-13, IFN- γ , and IL-1 β on cell viability and death of LNCaP and PC-3 cells and major signaling pathways involved in these effects. Significant increase of LNCaP cell death (apoptotic and necrotic) and increased levels of active caspase 3 were observed in cells treated with inhibitors of ERK 1/2 (UO126) and p38 (SB203580) prior to IL-1 β treatment in comparison to cells treated with UO126, SB203580, or IL-1 β alone. Significant increase of LNCaP but not PC-3 cell death was detected after treatment with LY-294002 (inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase). No significant increase of LNCaP and PC-3 cell death was observed after treatment with SP600125 (inhibitor of JNK), SB203580 (inhibitor of p38), UO126 (inhibitor of ERK 1/2), or BAY 11-7082 (inhibitor of NF- κ B). Reduced c-FLIPL expression was observed in LNCaP cells treated with LY-294002. The significant potentiation of LNCaP cell death by inhibition of ERK 1/2, p38, and PI3-K pathways may provide a rationale for therapeutic approach in androgen-dependent prostate cancer.
|Akt-mediated anti-apoptotic effects of substance P in Anti-Fas-induced apoptosis of human tenocytes.|
Backman, LJ; Danielson, P
Journal of cellular and molecular medicine 17 723-33 2013
Substance P (SP) and its receptor, the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1 R), are expressed by human tenocytes, and they are both up-regulated in cases of tendinosis, a condition associated with excessive apoptosis. It is known that SP can phosphorylate/activate the protein kinase Akt, which has anti-apoptotic effects. This mechanism has not been studied for tenocytes. The aims of this study were to investigate if Anti-Fas treatment is a good apoptosis model for human tenocytes in vitro, if SP protects from Anti-Fas-induced apoptosis, and by which mechanisms SP mediates an anti-apoptotic response. Anti-Fas treatment resulted in a time- and dose-dependent release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), i.e. induction of cell death, and SP dose-dependently reduced the Anti-Fas-induced cell death through a NK-1 R specific pathway. The same trend was seen for the TUNEL assay, i.e. SP reduced Anti-Fas-induced apoptosis via NK-1 R. In addition, it was shown that SP reduces Anti-Fas-induced decrease in cell viability as shown with crystal violet assay. Protein analysis using Western blot confirmed that Anti-Fas induces cleavage/activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP; both of which were inhibited by SP via NK-1 R. Finally, SP treatment resulted in phosphorylation/activation of Akt as shown with Western blot, and it was confirmed that the anti-apoptotic effect of SP was, at least partly, induced through the Akt-dependent pathway. In conclusion, we show that SP reduces Anti-Fas-induced apoptosis in human tenocytes and that this anti-apoptotic effect of SP is mediated through NK-1 R and Akt-specific pathways.
|Asymmetric dimethylarginine attenuates serum starvation-induced apoptosis via suppression of the Fas (APO-1/CD95)/JNK (SAPK) pathway.|
Li, H; Zhou, Y; Zhao, A; Qiu, Y; Xie, G; Jiang, Q; Zheng, X; Zhong, W; Sun, X; Zhou, Z; Jia, W
Cell death & disease 4 e830 2013
Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is synthesized by protein arginine methyltransferases during methylation of protein arginine residues and released into blood upon proteolysis. Higher concentrations of ADMA in blood have been observed in patients with metabolic diseases and certain cancers. However, the role of ADMA in colon cancer has not been well investigated. ADMA serum levels in human patients diagnosed with colon cancer were found to be higher than those present in healthy subjects. ADMA treatment of LoVo cells, a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line, attenuated serum starvation-induced apoptosis and suppressed the activation of the Fas (APO-1/CD95)/JNK (SAPK) (c-Jun N terminal protein kinase/stress-activated protein kinase)pathway. ADMA also suppressed the activation of JNK triggered by death receptor ligand anti-Fas mAb and exogenous C2-ceramide. Moreover, we demonstrated that ADMA pretreatment protected LoVo cells from doxorubicin hydrochloride-induced cell death and activation of the Fas/JNK pathway. In summary, our results suggest that the elevated ADMA in colon cancer patients may contribute to the blocking of apoptosis of cancer cells in response to stress and chemotherapy.
|IF1 limits the apoptotic-signalling cascade by preventing mitochondrial remodelling.|
Faccenda, D; Tan, CH; Seraphim, A; Duchen, MR; Campanella, M
Cell death and differentiation 20 686-97 2013
Mitochondrial structure has a central role both in energy conversion and in the regulation of cell death. We have previously shown that IF1 protects cells from necrotic cell death and supports cristae structure by promoting the oligomerisation of the F1Fo-ATPsynthase. As IF1 is upregulated in a large proportion of human cancers, we have here explored its contribution to the progression of apoptosis and report that an increased expression of IF1, relative to the F1Fo-ATPsynthase, protects cells from apoptotic death. We show that IF1 expression serves as a checkpoint for the release of Cytochrome c (Cyt c) and hence the completion of the apoptotic program. We show that the progression of apoptosis engages an amplification pathway mediated by: (i) Cyt c-dependent release of ER Ca(2+), (ii) Ca(2+)-dependent recruitment of the GTPase Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), (iii) Bax insertion into the outer mitochondrial membrane and (iv) further release of Cyt c. This pathway is accelerated by suppression of IF1 and delayed by its overexpression. IF1 overexpression is associated with the preservation of mitochondrial morphology and ultrastructure, consistent with a central role for IF1 as a determinant of the inner membrane architecture and with the role of mitochondrial ultrastructure in the regulation of Cyt c release. These data suggest that IF1 is an antiapoptotic and potentially tumorigenic factor and may be a valuable predictor of responsiveness to chemotherapy.
|Histone modifications are responsible for decreased Fas expression and apoptosis resistance in fibrotic lung fibroblasts.|
Huang, SK; Scruggs, AM; Donaghy, J; Horowitz, JC; Zaslona, Z; Przybranowski, S; White, ES; Peters-Golden, M
Cell death & disease 4 e621 2013
Although the recruitment of fibroblasts to areas of injury is critical for wound healing, their subsequent apoptosis is necessary in order to prevent excessive scarring. Fibroproliferative diseases, such as pulmonary fibrosis, are often characterized by fibroblast resistance to apoptosis, but the mechanism(s) for this resistance remains elusive. Here, we employed a murine model of pulmonary fibrosis and cells from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) to explore epigenetic mechanisms that may be responsible for the decreased expression of Fas, a cell surface death receptor whose expression has been observed to be decreased in pulmonary fibrosis. Murine pulmonary fibrosis was elicited by intratracheal injection of bleomycin. Fibroblasts cultured from bleomycin-treated mice exhibited decreased Fas expression and resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis compared with cells from saline-treated control mice. Although there were no differences in DNA methylation, the Fas promoter in fibroblasts from bleomycin-treated mice exhibited decreased histone acetylation and increased histone 3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9Me3). This was associated with increased histone deacetylase (HDAC)-2 and HDAC4 expression. Treatment with HDAC inhibitors increased Fas expression and restored susceptibility to Fas-mediated apoptosis. Fibroblasts from patients with IPF likewise exhibited decreased histone acetylation and increased H3K9Me3 at the Fas promoter and increased their expression of Fas in the presence of an HDAC inhibitor. These findings demonstrate the critical role of histone modifications in the development of fibroblast resistance to apoptosis in both a murine model and in patients with pulmonary fibrosis and suggest novel approaches to therapy for progressive fibroproliferative disorders.
|Apoptotic DNA degradation into oligonucleosomal fragments, but not apoptotic nuclear morphology, relies on a cytosolic pool of DFF40/CAD endonuclease.|
Iglesias-Guimarais, V; Gil-Guiñon, E; Gabernet, G; García-Belinchón, M; Sánchez-Osuna, M; Casanelles, E; Comella, JX; Yuste, VJ
The Journal of biological chemistry 287 7766-79 2012
Apoptotic cell death is characterized by nuclear fragmentation and oligonucleosomal DNA degradation, mediated by the caspase-dependent specific activation of DFF40/CAD endonuclease. Here, we describe how, upon apoptotic stimuli, SK-N-AS human neuroblastoma-derived cells show apoptotic nuclear morphology without displaying concomitant internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Cytotoxicity afforded after staurosporine treatment is comparable with that obtained in SH-SY5Y cells, which exhibit a complete apoptotic phenotype. SK-N-AS cell death is a caspase-dependent process that can be impaired by the pan-caspase inhibitor q-VD-OPh. The endogenous inhibitor of DFF40/CAD, ICAD, is correctly processed, and dff40/cad cDNA sequence does not reveal mutations altering its amino acid composition. Biochemical approaches show that both SH-SY5Y and SK-N-AS resting cells express comparable levels of DFF40/CAD. However, the endonuclease is poorly expressed in the cytosolic fraction of healthy SK-N-AS cells. Despite this differential subcellular distribution of DFF40/CAD, we find no differences in the subcellular localization of both pro-caspase-3 and ICAD between the analyzed cell lines. After staurosporine treatment, the preferential processing of ICAD in the cytosolic fraction allows the translocation of DFF40/CAD from this fraction to a chromatin-enriched one. Therefore, the low levels of cytosolic DFF40/CAD detected in SK-N-AS cells determine the absence of DNA laddering after staurosporine treatment. In these cells DFF40/CAD cytosolic levels can be restored by the overexpression of their own endonuclease, which is sufficient to make them proficient at degrading their chromatin into oligonucleosome-size fragments after staurosporine treatment. Altogether, the cytosolic levels of DFF40/CAD are determinants in achieving a complete apoptotic phenotype, including oligonucleosomal DNA degradation.
|Adenovirus-mediated expression of mutated forkhead human transcription like-1 suppresses tumor growth in a mouse melanoma xenograft model.|
Gomez-Gutierrez, JG; Egger, ME; Hao, H; Zhou, HS; McMasters, KM
Cancer biology & therapy 13 1195-204 2012
Melanoma is generally resistant to chemotherapy, which may be related to defects in death receptor signaling and to defects in induction of apoptosis. Forkhead family transcription factors induce the expression of death receptor ligands such as Fas ligand (Fas-L) resulting in apoptosis. We therefore investigated whether a triple mutant form of forkhead transcription factor FKHRL1 (FKHRL1/TM) can enhance Fas-L mediated-apoptosis in melanoma cells. Two melanoma cells A2058 or DM6 were tested for their sensitivity to agonistic anti-Fas antibody (CH-11); adenovirus expressing FKHRL1/TM (Ad-FKHRL1/TM) was assessed for its capability to induce activation of the caspase pathway; the role of Fas-L in the Ad-FKHRL1/TM mediated-cell death was also assessed in vitro. Ad-FKHRL1/TM antitumor activity in vivo was also evaluated in a mouse melanoma xenograft model. We found that DM6 melanoma cells were more resistant to Fas/Fas-L-mediated apoptosis induced by agonistic anti-Fas antibody than A2058 melanoma cells. Ectopic expression of FKHRL1/TM in melanoma cells upregulated Fas-L expression, decreased procaspase-8 levels, and significantly increased Fas/FasL-mediated cell death in both cells lines; this induced cell death was partially blocked by a Fas/Fas-L antagonist. Importantly, Ad-FKHRL1/TM treatment of subcutaneous melanoma xenografts in mice resulted in approximately 70% decrease in tumor size compared with controls. These data indicate that overexpression of FKHRL1/TM can induce the Fas-L pathway in melanoma cells. Ad-FKHRL1/TM therefore might represent a promising vector for melanoma treatment.
|XB130, a novel adaptor protein, promotes thyroid tumor growth.|
Shiozaki, Atsushi, et al.
Am. J. Pathol., 178: 391-401 (2011) 2011
Adaptor proteins with multimodular structures can participate in the regulation of various cellular functions. We have cloned a novel adaptor protein, XB130, which binds the p85α subunit of phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase and subsequently mediates signaling through RET/PTC in TPC-1 thyroid cancer cells. In the present study, we sought to determine the role of XB130 in the tumorigenesis in vivo and in related molecular mechanisms. In WRO thyroid cancer cells, knockdown of XB130 using small interfering RNA inhibited G(1)-S phase progression, induced spontaneous apoptosis, and enhanced intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic stimulus-induced cell death. Growth of tumors in nude mice formed from XB130 shRNA stably transfected WRO cells were significantly reduced, with decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. Microarray analysis identified 246 genes significantly changed in XB130 shRNA transfected cells. Among them, 57 genes are related to cell proliferation or survival, including many transcription regulators. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis showed that the top-ranked disease related to XB130 is cancer, and the top molecular and cellular functions are cellular growth and proliferation and cell cycle. A human thyroid tissue microarray study identified expression of XB130 in normal thyroid tissue as well as in human thyroid carcinomas. These observations suggest that the expression of XB130 in these cancer cells may affect cell proliferation and survival by controlling the expression of multiple genes, especially transcription regulators.
|Development of cell-based high-throughput assays for the identification of inhibitors of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B signaling.|
Ashley, JW; McCoy, EM; Clements, DA; Shi, Z; Chen, T; Feng, X
Assay and drug development technologies 9 40-9 2011
Bone loss due to metabolic or hormonal disorders and osteolytic tumor metastasis continues to be a costly health problem, but current therapeutics offer only modest efficacy. Unraveling of the critical role for the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (RANK) and its ligand, RANK ligand (RANKL), in osteoclast biology provides an opportunity to develop more effective antiresorptive drugs. The in vivo effectiveness of RANKL inhibitors demonstrates the potency of the RANKL/RANK system as a drug target. Here, we report the development of cell-based assays for high-throughput screening to identify compounds that inhibit signaling from two RANK cytoplasmic motifs (PVQEET(559-564) and PVQEQG(604-609)), which play potent roles in osteoclast formation and function. Inhibitors of these motifs' signaling have the potential to be developed into new antiresorptive drugs that can complement current therapies. The cell-based assays consist of cell lines generated from RAW264.7 macrophages stably expressing a nuclear factor-kappa B-responsive luciferase reporter and a chimeric receptor containing the human Fas external domain linked to a murine RANK transmembrane and intracellular domain in which only one of the RANK motifs is functional. With these cells, specific RANK motif activation after chimeric receptor stimulation can be measured as an increase in luciferase activity. These assays demonstrated greater than 300% increases in luciferase activity after RANK motif activation and Z '-factor values over 0.55. Our assays will be used to screen compound libraries for molecules that exhibit inhibitory activity. Follow-up assays will refine hits to a smaller group of more specific inhibitors of RANK signaling.