Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R||WB, FC||Rb||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified rabbit polylclonal IgG in buffer containing 70% storage buffer (0.1 M Tris-glycine, pH 7.4, 0.15 M NaCl, 0.05% sodium azide) and 30% glycerol.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||200 µg|
|Anti-Fcepsilon;RI gamma; subunit - 16409||16409|
|Anti-Fcepsilon;RI gamma; subunit - 22781||22781|
|Anti-FcepsilonRI, gamma subunit - 29561||29561|
|Anti-FcεRI, γ subunit||2474897|
|Anti-FcεRI, γ subunit - 2459611||2459611|
|Anti-FcεRI, γ subunit -2554079||2554079|
|Anti-FcεRI, γ subunit -2554864||2554864|
|Anti-FcεRI, γ subunit -2557582||2557582|
|Anti-FcεRI, γ subunit -2593887||2593887|
|Anti-FcεRI, γ subunit -2654232||2654232|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|A role for the ITAM signaling module in specifying cytokine-receptor functions.|
Bezbradica, JS; Rosenstein, RK; DeMarco, RA; Brodsky, I; Medzhitov, R
Nature immunology 15 333-42 2014
Diverse cellular responses to external cues are controlled by a small number of signal-transduction pathways, but how the specificity of functional outcomes is achieved remains unclear. Here we describe a mechanism for signal integration based on the functional coupling of two distinct signaling pathways widely used in leukocytes: the ITAM pathway and the Jak-STAT pathway. Through the use of the receptor for interferon-γ (IFN-γR) and the ITAM adaptor Fcγ as an example, we found that IFN-γ modified responses of the phagocytic antibody receptor FcγRI (CD64) to specify cell-autonomous antimicrobial functions. Unexpectedly, we also found that in peritoneal macrophages, IFN-γR itself required tonic signaling from Fcγ through the kinase PI(3)K for the induction of a subset of IFN-γ-specific antimicrobial functions. Our findings may be generalizable to other ITAM and Jak-STAT signaling pathways and may help explain signal integration by those pathways.
|Toll-like receptor 4 and MAIR-II/CLM-4/LMIR2 immunoreceptor regulate VLA-4-mediated inflammatory monocyte migration.|
Totsuka, N; Kim, YG; Kanemaru, K; Niizuma, K; Umemoto, E; Nagai, K; Tahara-Hanaoka, S; Nakahasi-Oda, C; Honda, S; Miyasaka, M; Shibuya, K; Shibuya, A
Nature communications 5 4710 2014
Inflammatory monocytes play an important role in host defense against infections. However, the regulatory mechanisms of transmigration into infected tissue are not yet completely understood. Here we show that mice deficient in MAIR-II (also called CLM-4 or LMIR2) are more susceptible to caecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced peritonitis than wild-type (WT) mice. Adoptive transfer of inflammatory monocytes from WT mice, but not from MAIR-II, TLR4 or MyD88-deficient mice, significantly improves survival of MAIR-II-deficient mice after CLP. Migration of inflammatory monocytes into the peritoneal cavity after CLP, which is dependent on VLA-4, is impaired in above mutant and FcRγ chain-deficient mice. Lipopolysaccharide stimulation induces association of MAIR-II with FcRγ chain and Syk, leading to enhancement of VLA-4-mediated adhesion to VCAM-1. These results indicate that activation of MAIR-II/FcRγ chain by TLR4/MyD88-mediated signalling is essential for the transmigration of inflammatory monocytes from the blood to sites of infection mediated by VLA-4.
|The response of human macrophages to β-glucans depends on the inflammatory milieu.|
Municio, C; Alvarez, Y; Montero, O; Hugo, E; Rodríguez, M; Domingo, E; Alonso, S; Fernández, N; Crespo, MS
PloS one 8 e62016 2013
β-glucans are fungal cell wall components that bind to the C-type lectin-like receptor dectin-1. Polymorphisms of dectin-1 gene are associated with susceptibility to invasive fungal infection and medically refractory ulcerative colitis. The purpose of this study has been addressing the response of human macrophages to β-glucans under different conditions mimicking the composition of the inflammatory milieu in view of the wide plasticity and large range of phenotypical changes showed by these cells, and the relevant role of dectin-1 in several pathophysiological conditions.Serum-differentiated macrophages stimulated with β-glucans showed a low production of TNFα and IL-1β, a high production of IL-6 and IL-23, and a delayed induction of cyclooxygenase-2 and PGE2 biosynthesis that resembled the responses elicited by crystals and those produced when phagosomal degradation of the phagocytic cargo increases ligand access to intracellular pattern recognition receptors. Priming with a low concentration of LPS produced a rapid induction of cyclooxygenase-2 and a synergistic release of PGE2. When the differentiation of the macrophages was carried out in the presence of M-CSF, an increased expression of dectin-1 B isoform was observed. In addition, this treatment made the cells capable to release arachidonic acid in response to β-glucan.These results indicate that the macrophage response to fungal β-glucans is strongly influenced by cytokines and microbial-derived factors that are usual components of the inflammatory milieu. These responses can be sorted into three main patterns i) an elementary response dependent on phagosomal processing of pathogen-associated molecular patterns and/or receptor-independent, direct membrane binding linked to the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-bearing transmembrane adaptor DNAX-activating protein 12, ii) a response primed by TLR4-dependent signals, and iii) a response dependent on M-CSF and dectin-1 B isoform expression that mainly signals through the dectin-1 B/spleen tyrosine kinase/cytosolic phospholipase A2 route.
|FcγRI mediates serum amyloid P inhibition of fibrocyte differentiation.|
Crawford, JR; Pilling, D; Gomer, RH
Journal of leukocyte biology 92 699-711 2012
Fibrotic diseases, such as cardiac and pulmonary fibrosis, have a poor prognosis with no FDA approved therapies. Monocyte-derived, fibroblast-like cells, called fibrocytes, participate in the formation of fibrotic lesions. The conserved pentraxin protein SAP inhibits fibrocyte differentiation in cell culture, and injections of SAP significantly reduce fibrosis in several animal models. SAP binds to the receptors for the Fc portion of IgG (FcγR) and has been crystallized bound to FcγRIIa (CD32a). The in vivo activity of SAP appears to be dependent on the FcRγ. We find that mutagenesis of the residues critical for SAP binding to FcγRIIa only moderately decreases the ability of SAP to inhibit fibrocyte differentiation. In murine cells, deletion of FcRγ or FcγRI (CD64) significantly reduced sensitivity to SAP. Deletion of the combination of FcγRIIb, FcγRIIIa, and FcγRIV did not significantly affect sensitivity to SAP, whereas deletion of just the inhibitory receptor FcγRIIb (CD32b) increased sensitivity to SAP. In human cells, siRNA-mediated reduction of FcRγ or FcγRI levels significantly decreased sensitivity to SAP, whereas reduction of FcγRIIb levels increased sensitivity to SAP. These observations suggest that SAP, at least in part, uses FcγRI and FcRγ to inhibit fibrocyte differentiation.
|T cells stimulated with an analog peptide of type II collagen require the Fc receptor γ-chain to secrete interleukin-4 and suppress autoimmune arthritis in mice.|
Myers LK, Cullins DL, Brand DD, Kleinau S, Stuart JM, Kang AH.
Arthritis and rheumatism 63 2661-70 2011
To explore the characteristics of the T cell population that responds to an analog peptide (A9) of type II collagen and regulates autoimmunity, using the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model.
|β2 integrin induces TCRζ-Syk-phospholipase C-γ phosphorylation and paxillin-dependent granule polarization in human NK cells.|
March, ME; Long, EO
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 186 2998-3005 2011
Cytotoxic lymphocytes kill target cells through polarized release of the content of lytic granules at the immunological synapse. In human NK cells, signals for granule polarization and for degranulation can be uncoupled: Binding of β(2) integrin LFA-1 to ICAM is sufficient to induce polarization but not degranulation, whereas CD16 binding to IgG triggers unpolarized degranulation. In this study, we investigated the basis for this difference. IL-2-expanded human NK cells were stimulated by incubation with plate-bound ligands of LFA-1 (ICAM-1) and CD16 (human IgG). Surprisingly, LFA-1 elicited signals similar to those induced by CD16, including tyrosine phosphorylation of the TCR ζ-chain, tyrosine kinase Syk, and phospholipase C-γ. Whereas CD16 activated Ca(2+) mobilization and LAT phosphorylation, LFA-1 did not, but induced strong Pyk2 and paxillin phosphorylation. LFA-1-dependent granule polarization was blocked by inhibition of Syk, phospholipase C-γ, and protein kinase C, as well as by paxillin knockdown. Therefore, common signals triggered by CD16 and LFA-1 bifurcate to provide independent control of Ca(2+)-dependent degranulation and paxillin-dependent granule polarization.
|Oxysterol represses high-affinity IgE receptor-stimulated mast cell activation in Liver X receptor-dependent and -independent manners.|
Nunomura S, Endo K, Makishima M, Ra C
FEBS Lett 584 1143-8 Epub 2010 Feb 9 2010
Oxysterols activating liver X receptors (LXRs) repress expression of pro-inflammatory genes and have anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we show for the first time that bone marrow-derived murine mast cells (BMMCs) predominantly express LXRbeta. 25-hydroxycholesterol, a representative LXR activating oxysterol, suppressed IL-6 production and degranulation response in BMMCs following engagement of high-affinity IgE receptor (FcepsilonRI). Interestingly, 25-hydroxycholesterol reduced cell-surface FcepsilonRI expression by inhibiting assembly of FcepsilonRIalpha and FcepsilonRIbeta. We demonstrate that LXR activation was involved in the suppression of IL-6 production in BMMCs, but that reduced FcepsilonRI expression and degranulation response was mediated in an LXR-independent manner. Copyright 2010 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
|The human megakaryocytic cell line UT-7/TPO expresses functional platelet agonist signals mediated through GPVI and thromboxane receptor.|
Tatsuya Kawaguchi,Ryuji Hashimoto,Hiroshi Yokota
Cell biology international 34 2010
We have demonstrated that a unique megakaryocytic cell line UT-7/TPO could respond to one of the primary platelet signals through GP (glycoprotein) VI and a secondary signal of the AA (arachidonic acid) cascade. Unlike other megakaryocytic cell lines, UT-7/TPO was found to express GPVI and its associate signal molecule of FcRgamma (Fc receptor gamma chain). When UT-7/TPO was stimulated with the GPVI agonist convulxin, the [Ca2+]i (intracellular Ca2+) was elevated in a convulxin concentration-dependent manner, and [Ca2+]i elevation was blocked by pretreatment with the Src family kinase inhibitor PP2 and the phospholipase inhibitor U73122. These results strongly indicate that endogenously expressed GPVI signal molecules are functional in UT-7/TPO. Concerning the AA cascade, the expression of COX (cyclooxygenase)-1 and TX (thromboxane) synthase was observed, and this cell line was able to produce TX by exogenous AA, followed by [Ca2+]i elevation mediated through the TX receptor. It is worth noting that convulxin stimulation did not cause TX generation, even through the GPVI pathway and the AA cascade are functional in this cell line. As there are many reports that convulxin-stimulated platelets failed to produce TX, it is suggested that UT-7/TPO has the same property as the platelets in regards to convulxin stimulation. Thus, UT-7/TPO is useful for the observation of both the GPVI pathway and AA cascade without requiring either the induction of differentiation or GPVI transfection. Furthermore, this cell line provides a new tool for research on platelet activation signals.
|Osteoclast inhibitory peptide-1 binding to the Fc gammaRIIB inhibits osteoclast differentiation.|
Shanmugarajan, S; Beeson, CC; Reddy, SV
Endocrinology 151 4389-99 2010
Osteoclast inhibitory peptide-1 (OIP) is an autocrine/paracrine inhibitor of osteoclast differentiation, and mice that overexpress OIP-1 in osteoclast lineage cells develop an osteopetrosis bone phenotype. In this study, we show that OIP-1 binding to the Fc gamma receptor IIB (Fc gammaRIIB) inhibits osteoclast differentiation. Confocal microscopy revealed colocalization of OIP-1 with Fc gammaRIIB in osteoclasts, and we observed that OIP-1 carboxy-terminal GPI-linked peptide forms a 1:1 complex with recombinant Fc gammaRIIB protein with an affinity binding of a dissociation constant of approximately 4 microm. Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-bearing adapter proteins (FcR gamma and DNAX-activating protein of molecular mass 12 kDa) are critical for osteoclast development, and OIP-1 transgenic mouse-derived preosteoclast cells demonstrated suppression (6-fold) of ITAM phosphorylation of FcR gamma but not DNAX-activating protein of molecular mass 12 kDa. Interestingly, these preosteoclast cells demonstrated increased levels (4-fold) of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif phosphorylation of Fc gammaRIIB and Src homology 2-domain-containing proteins tyrosine phosphatase 1 activation. Further, OIP-1 mouse-derived preosteoclasts cells demonstrated inhibition of spleen tyrosine kinase activation (4.5-fold), compared with wild-type mice. These results suggest that cross-regulation of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif and ITAM bearing Fc receptors may play a role in OIP-1 suppression of spleen tyrosine kinase activation and inhibition of osteoclast differentiation. Thus, OIP-1 is an important physiologic regulator of osteoclast development and may have therapeutic utility for bone diseases with high bone turnover.
|IgEb immune complexes activate macrophages through FcgammaRIV binding.|
Masayuki Hirano, Randall S Davis, W David Fine, Shugo Nakamura, Kentaro Shimizu, Hirokazu Yagi, Koichi Kato, Robert P Stephan, Max D Cooper
Nature immunology 8 762-71 2007
Because functional analysis of Fc receptors (FcRs) relies heavily on mouse models, the identification of another Fcgamma receptor is particularly noteworthy. We demonstrate that FcgammaRIV, identified here as the mouse ortholog of primate FcgammaRIII, required association of the FcR gamma-chain for optimal expression and function on myeloid cells; its signaling potential was also enhanced by a cytoplasmic 'YEEP' motif that was able to recruit the adaptor molecule Crk-L and phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase. Unexpectedly, FcgammaRIV 'preferentially' bound immunoglobulin E antibodies of the 'b' allotype (IgE(b)) as well as IgG2a and IgG2b antibodies. Ligation of FcgammaRIV by antigen-IgE(b) immune complexes promoted macrophage-mediated phagocytosis, presentation of antigen to T cells, production of proinflammatory cytokines and the late phase of cutaneous allergic reactions. IgE(b) antibody-mediated modification of macrophage responses may therefore influence mouse asthma models and strain-dependent differences in parasite susceptibility.