Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|M, H, Rb, Gt||WB, IF, IHC, IP, ICC||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified mouse monoclonal IgG1κ antibody in buffer containing 0.1 M Tris-Glycine (pH 7.4), 150 mM NaCl with 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at 2-8°C from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 μg|
|Anti-GRP94, clone 3C4 -Q2589908||Q2589908|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|The stress protein/chaperone Grp94 counteracts muscle disuse atrophy by stabilizing subsarcolemmal neuronal nitric oxide synthase.|
Vitadello, M; Gherardini, J; Gorza, L
Antioxidants & redox signaling 20 2479-96 2014
Redox and growth-factor imbalance fosters muscle disuse atrophy. Since the endoplasmic-reticulum chaperone Grp94 is required for folding insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and for antioxidant cytoprotection, we investigated its involvement in muscle mass loss due to inactivity.Rat soleus muscles were transfected in vivo and analyzed after 7 days of hindlimb unloading, an experimental model of muscle disuse atrophy, or standard caging. Increased muscle protein carbonylation and decreased Grp94 protein levels (p<0.05) characterized atrophic unloaded solei. Recombinant Grp94 expression significantly reduced atrophy of transfected myofibers, compared with untransfected and empty-vector transfected ones (p<0.01), and decreased the percentage of carbonylated myofibers (p=0.001). Conversely, expression of two different N-terminal deleted Grp94 species did not attenuate myofiber atrophy. No change in myofiber trophism was detected in transfected ambulatory solei. The absence of effects on atrophic untransfected myofibers excluded a major role for IGFs folded by recombinant Grp94. Immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy assays to investigate chaperone interaction with muscle atrophy regulators identified 160?kDa neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) as a new Grp94 partner. Unloading was demonstrated to untether nNOS from myofiber subsarcolemma; here, we show that such nNOS localization, revealed by means of NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry, appeared preserved in unloaded myofibers expressing recombinant Grp94, compared to those transfected with the empty vector or deleted Grp94 cDNA (p<0.02).Grp94 interacts with nNOS and prevents its untethering from sarcolemma in unloaded myofibers.Maintenance of Grp94 expression is sufficient to counter unloading atrophy and oxidative stress by mechanistically stabilizing nNOS-multiprotein complex at the myofiber sarcolemma.
|Impact of the phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase signaling pathway on the cardioprotection induced by intermittent hypoxia.|
Milano, G; Abruzzo, PM; Bolotta, A; Marini, M; Terraneo, L; Ravara, B; Gorza, L; Vitadello, M; Burattini, S; Curzi, D; Falcieri, E; von Segesser, LK; Samaja, M
PloS one 8 e76659 2013
Exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH) may enhance cardiac function and protects heart against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we developed a cardioprotective IH model that was characterized at hemodynamic, biochemical and molecular levels.Mice were exposed to 4 daily IH cycles (each composed of 2-min at 6-8% O2 followed by 3-min reoxygenation for 5 times) for 14 days, with normoxic mice as controls. Mice were then anesthetized and subdivided in various subgroups for analysis of contractility (pressure-volume loop), morphology, biochemistry or resistance to I/R (30-min occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) followed by reperfusion and measurement of the area at risk and infarct size). In some mice, the phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor wortmannin was administered (24 µg/kg ip) 15 min before LAD.We found that IH did not induce myocardial hypertrophy; rather both contractility and cardiac function improved with greater number of capillaries per unit volume and greater expression of VEGF-R2, but not of VEGF. Besides increasing the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and the endothelial isoform of NO synthase with respect to control, IH reduced the infarct size and post-LAD proteins carbonylation, index of oxidative damage. Administration of wortmannin reduced the level of Akt phosphorylation and worsened the infarct size.We conclude that the PI3K/Akt pathway is crucial for IH-induced cardioprotection and may represent a viable target to reduce myocardial I/R injury.
|Increased myocardial GRP94 amounts during sustained atrial fibrillation: a protective response?|
Vitadello, M; Ausma, J; Borgers, M; Gambino, A; Casarotto, DC; Gorza, L
Circulation 103 2201-6 2001
Structural and phenotypic changes of cardiomyocytes characterize atrial fibrillation. We investigated whether changes in the glucose-regulated protein GRP94, which is essential for cell viability, occur in the presence of chronic atrial fibrillation.Samples of fibrillating atrial myocardium obtained from both goat and human hearts were analyzed for GRP94 expression by an immunologic approach. In goats, atrial fibrillation was induced and maintained for 2, 4, 8, and 16 weeks. After 16 weeks of atrial fibrillation, cardioversion was applied and followed by 8 weeks of sinus rhythm. GRP94 levels doubled in goat atrial myocytes after 4 to 16 weeks of fibrillation with respect to normal atria and returned to control levels in atrial myocardium of cardioverted goats. Immunohistochemical analyses confirm that GRP94 increase occurred within cardiomyocytes. Significantly, increased levels of GRP94 were also observed in samples from human fibrillating atria. In the absence of signs of myocyte irreversible damage, the GRP94 increase in fibrillating atria is comparable to GRP94 levels observed in perinatal goat myocardium. However, calreticulin, another endoplasmic reticulum protein highly expressed in perinatal hearts, does not increase in fibrillating atria, whereas inducible HSP70, a cytoplasm stress protein that is expressed in perinatal goat hearts at levels comparable to those observed in the adult heart, shows a significant increase in chronic fibrillating atria.Our data demonstrate a large, reversible increase in GRP94 in fibrillating atrial myocytes, which may be related to the appearance of a protective phenotype.
|Reduced amount of the glucose-regulated protein GRP94 in skeletal myoblasts results in loss of fusion competence.|
Gorza, L; Vitadello, M
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 14 461-75 2000
We previously showed that skeletal myocytes of the adult rabbit do not accumulate the endoplasmic reticulum glucose-regulated protein GRP94, neither constitutively nor inducibly, at variance with skeletal myocytes during perinatal development (5). Here we show that C2C12 cells up-regulate GRP94 during differentiation and, similarly to primary cultures of murine skeletal myocytes, specifically display GRP94 immunoreactivity on the cell surface. Stable transfection of C2C12 cells with grp94 antisense cDNA shows lack of myotube formation in clones displaying >40% reduction in GRP94 amount. The same result is obtained after in vivo injection of grp94-antisense myoblasts. Conversely, GRP94 overexpression is accompanied by accelerated myotube formation. Analyses of BrdU incorporation, p21 nuclear translocation, and muscle-gene expression show that muscle differentiation is not apparently affected in grp94-antisense clones. In contrast, cell-surface GRP94 is greatly reduced in grp94-antisense clones, as shown by immunocytochemistry and precipitation of cell-surface biotinylated proteins. Thus, cell-surface expression of GRP94 is necessary for maintenance of fusion competence. Furthermore, differentiating C2C12 cells grown in the presence of anti-GRP94 antibody show decreased myotube number suggesting that cell-surface GRP94 is directly involved in myoblast fusion process.
|Rabbit cardiac and skeletal myocytes differ in constitutive and inducible expression of the glucose-regulated protein GRP94.|
Vitadello, M; Colpo, P; Gorza, L
The Biochemical journal 332 ( Pt 2) 351-9 1998
The glucose-regulated protein GRP94 is a stress-inducible glycoprotein that is known to be constitutively and ubiquitously expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum of mammalian cells. From a rabbit heart cDNA library we isolated four overlapping clones coding for the rabbit homologue of GRP94 mRNA. Northern blot analysis shows that a 3200 nt mRNA species corresponding to GRP94 mRNA is detectable in several tissues and it is 5-fold more abundant in the heart than in the skeletal muscle. Hybridization analysis in situ shows that GRP94 mRNA accumulates in cardiac myocytes, whereas in skeletal muscles it is not detectable in myofibres. A monoclonal antibody raised by using a 35 kDa recombinant GRP94 polypeptide as immunogen detects a single reactive polypeptide of 94 kDa in a Western blot of liver and heart homogenates and does not react with skeletal muscle homogenates. Conversely, GRP94 mRNA and protein are detectable in both cardiac and skeletal muscle myocytes of fetal and neonatal rabbits. After 24 h of endotoxin administration to adult rabbits, GRP94 mRNA accumulation increases 3-fold in both heart and skeletal muscle and it is followed by a comparable increase in protein accumulation. However, hybridization and immunohistochemistry in situ do not reveal any change in the expression of GRP94 mRNA and protein in skeletal muscle myocytes after endotoxin treatment. Thus skeletal muscle fibres display a unique regulation of the GRP94 gene, which is up-regulated during perinatal development, whereas in the adult animal it is apparently silent and not responsive to endotoxin treatment.
|Characterization of Estrogen Receptor α Phosphorylation Sites in Breast Cancer Tissue Using the SNAP i.d® 2.0 System|
|White Paper: Further considerations of antibody validation and usage.|