Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M||IP, WB||Rb||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-Gq/11α Antibody, CT|
|Presentation||PBS, pH 7.4|
|Application||This Anti-Gq/11α Antibody, CT is validated for use in IP, WB for the detection of Gq/11α.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||2 years at -20°C|
|Material Size||50 µL|
|Anti-Gq/11#945;, CT (rabbit polyclonal IgG) - 2091717||2091717|
|Anti-Gq/11#945;, CT (rabbit polyclonal IgG) - 2122433||2122433|
|Anti-Gq/11#945;, CT - DAM1810812||DAM1810812|
|Anti-Gq/11#945;, CT - JBC1860891||JBC1860891|
|Anti-Gq/11a, CT (rabbit polyclonal IgG)||2893304|
|Anti-Gq/11a, CT (rabbit polyclonal IgG)||2952616|
|Anti-Gq/11a, CT (rabbit polyclonal IgG) - 2148235||2148235|
|Anti-Gq/11a, CT (rabbit polyclonal IgG) - NG1901828||NG1901828|
|Anti-Gq/11a, CT (rabbit polyclonal IgG) - NG1926403||NG1926403|
|Anti-Gq/11a, CT - 1969691||1969691|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Down-regulation of G-protein-mediated Ca2+ sensitization in smooth muscle.|
Gong, M C, et al.
Mol. Biol. Cell, 8: 279-86 (1997) 1997
Prolonged treatment with guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP gamma S; 5-16 h, 50 microM) of smooth muscle permeabilized with Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin down-regulated (abolished) the acute Ca2+ sensitization of force by GTP gamma S, AIF-4, phenylephrine, and endothelin, but not the response to phorbol dibutyrate or a phosphatase inhibitor, tautomycin. Down-regulation also abolished the GTP gamma S-induced increase in myosin light chain phosphorylation at constant [Ca2+] and was associated with extensive translocation of p21rhoA to the particulate fraction, prevented its immunoprecipitation, and inhibited its ADP ribosylation without affecting the immunodetectable content of G-proteins (p21rhoA, p21ras, G alpha q/11, G alpha i3, and G beta) or protein kinase C (types alpha, beta 1, beta 2, delta, epsilon, eta, theta, and zeta). We conclude that the loss of GTP gamma S- and agonist-induced Ca2+ sensitization through prolonged treatment with GTP gamma S is not due to a decrease in the total content of either trimeric (G alpha q/11, G alpha i3, and G beta) or monomeric (p21rhoA and p21ras) G-protein or protein kinase C but may be related to a structural change of p21rhoA and/or to down-regulation of its (yet to be identified) effector.
|4-Hydroxynonenal, an aldehydic product of lipid peroxidation, impairs signal transduction associated with muscarinic acetylcholine and metabotropic glutamate receptors: possible action on G alpha(q/11).|
Blanc, E M, et al.
J. Neurochem., 69: 570-80 (1997) 1997
Considerable data indicate that oxidative stress and membrane lipid peroxidation contribute to neuronal degeneration in an array of age-related neurodegenerative disorders. In contrast, the impact of subtoxic levels of membrane lipid peroxidation on neuronal function is largely unknown. We now report that 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), an aldehydic product of lipid peroxidation, disrupts coupling of muscarinic cholinergic receptors and metabotropic glutamate receptors to phospholipase C-linked GTP-binding proteins in cultured rat cerebrocortical neurons. At subtoxic concentrations, HNE markedly inhibited GTPase activity, inositol phosphate release, and elevation of intracellular calcium levels induced by carbachol (muscarinic agonist) and (RS)-3,5-dihydroxyphenyl glycine (metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist). Maximal impairment of agonist-induced responses occurred within 30 min of exposure to HNE. Other aldehydes, including malondialdehyde, had little effect on agonist-induced responses. Antioxidants that suppress lipid peroxidation did not prevent impairment of agonist-induced responses by HNE, whereas glutathione, which is known to bind and detoxify HNE, did prevent impairment of agonist-induced responses. HNE itself did not induce oxidative stress. Immunoprecipitation-western blot analysis using an antibody to HNE-protein conjugates showed that HNE can bind to G alpha(q/11). HNE also significantly suppressed inositol phosphate release induced by aluminum fluoride. Collectively, our data suggest that HNE plays a role in altering receptor-G protein coupling in neurons under conditions of oxidative stress that may occur both normally, and before cell degeneration and death in pathological settings.
|Association of the G protein alpha(q)/alpha11-subunit with cytoskeleton in adrenal glomerulosa cells: role in receptor-effector coupling.|
Côté, M, et al.
Endocrinology, 138: 3299-307 (1997) 1997
In 3-day primary cultures of rat glomerulosa cells, a 30-min pre-incubation with either 10 microM colchicine (a microtubule-disrupting agent) or 10 microM cytochalasin B (a microfilament-disrupting agent) decreased angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced inositol phosphate accumulation by 50%. Moreover, both drugs decreased inositol phosphate production induced by fluoroaluminate (a nonspecific activator of all G proteins), indicating that both microtubules and microfilaments are essential for phospholipase C activation. Analysis of microfilament- and microtubule-enriched fractions and immunoprecipitation of actin and tubulin revealed that the alpha(q)/alpha11-subunit of the G(q/11) protein was associated with both structures. Ang II stimulation induced a rapid translocation of alpha(q)/alpha11, microfilaments, and microtubules to the membrane and induced a time-dependent increase in the level of alpha(q)/alpha11 associated with both microfilaments and microtubules. Moreover, double immunofluorescence staining clearly showed a colocalization of the alpha(q)/alpha11-subunit of the G(q/11) coupling protein and microfilament distribution. These associations and plasma membrane redistribution under Ang II stimulation indicate that microfilaments and microtubules are both involved in phospholipase C activation and inositol phosphate production. Moreover, our results indicate that the alpha(q)/alpha11 protein is closely associated with cytoskeletal elements and is found both at the plasma membrane level as well as on intracellular stress fibers.
|Specific coupling of a cation-sensing receptor to G protein alpha-subunits in MDCK cells.|
Arthur, J M, et al.
Am. J. Physiol., 273: F129-35 (1997) 1997
|Involvement of G alpha q/11 in the contractile signal transduction pathway of muscarinic M3 receptors in caecal smooth muscle.|
Cuq, P, et al.
Eur. J. Pharmacol., 315: 213-9 (1996) 1996
The nature of the pertussis toxin-insensitive G-protein involved in muscarinic-mediated phosphoinositides breakdown and contraction of isolated smooth muscle cells from the circular layer of the rabbit caecum was investigated. Immunoblotting of membrane proteins using affinity purified antibodies directed against different G-protein alpha-subunits revealed the expression of G alpha q/11, G alpha 11 and G alpha 12 in these cells. The carbachol-mediated [3H]inositol phosphates accumulation in saponin-permeabilized cells was abolished by anti-G alpha q/11-antibodies whereas anti-G alpha i1,2-antibodies were ineffective. Moreover, the carbachol-induced contraction of permeabilized cells, as determined by videomicrocopic measurements, was reversed by anti-G alpha q/11-antibodies but not affected by anti-G alpha i1,2-antibodies. From these data, we conclude that carbachol stimulates phosphoinositides hydrolysis and cell contraction through activation of specific muscarinic M3 receptors coupled to the pertussis toxin-insensitive G alpha q/11-protein. This is the first demonstration of G alpha q/11 implication in the contractile signal transduction pathway of muscarinic M3 receptors in smooth muscle cells.
|G proteins of the Gq family couple the H2 histamine receptor to phospholipase C.|
Kühn, B, et al.
Mol. Endocrinol., 10: 1697-707 (1996) 1996
In several cell systems histamine has been shown to stimulate both adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C through activation of a G protein-coupled H2 receptor. To analyze the bifurcating signal emanating from the activated H2 receptor and to identify the G proteins involved, H1 and H2 histamine receptors were functionally expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells. Histamine challenge lead to concentration-dependent cAMP formation and Ca2+ mobilization in Sf9 cells infected with a virus encoding the H2 receptor, whereas H1 receptor stimulation only resulted in pronounced phospholipase C activation. To analyze the G protein coupling pattern of histamine receptors, activated G proteins were labeled with [alpha-32P]GTP azidoanilide and identified by selective immunoprecipitation. In insect cell membranes expressing H1 histamine receptors, histamine led to incorporation of the label into alpha q-like proteins, whereas activation of the H2 receptor resulted in labeling of alpha q- and alpha s-like G protein alpha-subunits. In COS cells transfected with H2 receptor complementary DNA, histamine caused concentration-dependent accumulation of cAMP and inositol phosphates; the latter effect was insensitive to pertussis toxin treatment. Histamine stimulation led to a pronounced increase in inositol phosphate production when complementary DNAs coding for alpha q, alpha 11, alpha 14, or alpha 15 G protein alpha-subunits were cotransfected. This increase was specific for Gq family members, as overexpression of alpha 12 or alpha s did not enhance histamine-stimulated phospholipase C activation. In membranes of guinea pig heart, addition of [alpha-32P]GTP azidoanilide resulted in labeling of alpha q and alpha 11 via the activated H1 and also via H2 receptors. These data demonstrate that dual signaling of the activated H2 histamine receptor is mediated by coupling of the receptor to Gs and Gq family members.
|Characterization and use of crude alpha-subunit preparations for quantitative immunoblotting of G proteins.|
Gettys, T W, et al.
Anal. Biochem., 220: 82-91 (1994) 1994
G proteins are heterotrimeric membrane-associated proteins that couple a large number of receptors to a variety of effector systems within the cell. Characterization of G proteins expressed in a particular cell type represents an important first step in defining the potential candidates to which a receptor might couple. A difficulty often encountered using G protein antisera from various commercial and private sources is relating the intensity of bands on a Western blot to the relative amount of G protein present in a membrane preparation. This problem is especially noteworthy when comparing across G protein subtypes due to differences in titer, affinity, and specificity among various antisera. Conventional approaches to obtaining G protein standards of sufficient purity to address these issues in a quantitative manner are time-consuming and difficult, but the procedures outlined herein demonstrate a method for using DEAE fractions from Escherichia coli expressing individual alpha-subunits. The key features of the present approach are to estimate saturable GTP gamma S binding in each alpha-subunit preparation and calculate the moles of alpha-subunit present in the respective preparations based on the known stoichiometry of GTP gamma S binding (1:1). The extent of correspondence between GTP gamma S binding and immunoreactivity is then determined by trypsin protection assays, which estimate the proportion of immunodetectable G protein which can bind GTP gamma S. After characterization in this manner, DEAE fractions from bacteria transformed with the respective cDNA for Gi alpha-1, G1 alpha-2, and G1 alpha-3 were used to construct standard curves on Western blots and estimate endogenous G protein concentrations in cell lines (CHO and HeLa) and across species (rat and mouse) in isolated adipocyte preparations. Plasma membranes from CHO cells contained Gi alpha-2 (4.8 +/- 0.3 pmol/mg protein) and Gi alpha-3 (0.6 +/- 0.1 pmol/mg protein), but not Gi alpha-1, while HeLa cell membranes contained Gi alpha-1 (0.11 +/- 0.01 pmol/mg protein) and Gi alpha-3 (1.3 +/- 0.1 pmol/mg protein), but not Gi alpha-2. In contrast, rat and mouse adipocyte membranes contained Gi alpha-1 (48 +/- 2 vs 36 +/- 2 pmol/mg protein), Gi alpha-2 (77 +/- 1.5 vs 25 +/- 1.4 pmol/mg protein), and Gi alpha-3 (26 +/- 1.2 vs 15 +/- 1 pmol/mg protein). The method described herein provides an innovative solution to the technically difficult problem of obtaining pure standards for the assay of G protein alpha-subunits and does so using simple biochemical and immunological techniques.