Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|A||ICC, IP, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified mouse monoclonal IgG2b in buffer containing PBS, pH 7.4 with 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||200 µg|
|Anti-His Tag, clone HIS.H8||3074321|
|Anti-His Tag, clone HIS.H8||2474838|
|Anti-His Tag, clone HIS.H8 (mouse monoclonal IgG2b) - DAM1413921||DAM1413921|
|Anti-His Tag, clone HIS.H8 - 2364898||2364898|
|Anti-His Tag, clone HIS.H8 - 2387750||2387750|
|Anti-His Tag, clone HIS.H8 - 2426469||2426469|
|Anti-His Tag, clone HIS.H8 - 0606032212||0606032212|
|Anti-His Tag, clone HIS.H8 - 0607035977||0607035977|
|Anti-His Tag, clone HIS.H8 - 0609040561||0609040561|
|Anti-His Tag, clone HIS.H8 - 0701050932||0701050932|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Nuclease activity of Legionella pneumophila Cas2 promotes intracellular infection of amoebal host cells.|
Gunderson, FF; Mallama, CA; Fairbairn, SG; Cianciotto, NP
Infection and immunity 83 1008-18 2015
Legionella pneumophila, the primary agent of Legionnaires' disease, flourishes in both natural and man-made environments by growing in a wide variety of aquatic amoebae. Recently, we determined that the Cas2 protein of L. pneumophila promotes intracellular infection of Acanthamoeba castellanii and Hartmannella vermiformis, the two amoebae most commonly linked to cases of disease. The Cas2 family of proteins is best known for its role in the bacterial and archeal clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) system that constitutes a form of adaptive immunity against phage and plasmid. However, the infection event mediated by L. pneumophila Cas2 appeared to be distinct from this function, because cas2 mutants exhibited infectivity defects in the absence of added phage or plasmid and since mutants lacking the CRISPR array or any one of the other cas genes were not impaired in infection ability. We now report that the Cas2 protein of L. pneumophila has both RNase and DNase activities, with the RNase activity being more pronounced. By characterizing a catalytically deficient version of Cas2, we determined that nuclease activity is critical for promoting infection of amoebae. Also, introduction of Cas2, but not its catalytic mutant form, into a strain of L. pneumophila that naturally lacks a CRISPR-Cas locus caused that strain to be 40- to 80-fold more infective for amoebae, unequivocally demonstrating that Cas2 facilitates the infection process independently of any other component encoded within the CRISPR-Cas locus. Finally, a cas2 mutant was impaired for infection of Willaertia magna but not Naegleria lovaniensis, suggesting that Cas2 promotes infection of most but not all amoebal hosts.
|Directed evolution of anti-HER2 DARPins by SNAP display reveals stability/function trade-offs in the selection process.|
Houlihan, G; Gatti-Lafranconi, P; Lowe, D; Hollfelder, F
Protein engineering, design & selection : PEDS 28 269-79 2015
In vitro display technologies have proved to be powerful tools for obtaining high-affinity protein binders. We recently described SNAP display, an entirely in vitro DNA display system that uses the SNAP-tag to link protein with its encoding DNA in water-in-oil emulsions. Here, we apply SNAP display for the affinity maturation of a designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPin) that binds to the extracellular domain of HER2 previously isolated by ribosome display. After four SNAP display selection cycles, proteins that bound specifically to HER2 in vitro, with dissociation constants in the low- to sub-nanomolar range, were isolated. In vitro affinities of the panel of evolved DARPins directly correlated with the fluorescence intensities of evolved DARPins bound to HER2 on a breast cancer cell line. A stability trade-off is observed as the most improved DARPins have decreased thermostability, when compared with the parent DARPin used as a starting point for affinity maturation. Dissection of the framework mutations of the highest affinity variant, DARPin F1, shows that functionally destabilising and compensatory mutations accumulated throughout the four rounds of evolution.
|Enzyme replacement therapy rescues weakness and improves muscle pathology in mice with X-linked myotubular myopathy.|
Lawlor, MW; Armstrong, D; Viola, MG; Widrick, JJ; Meng, H; Grange, RW; Childers, MK; Hsu, CP; O'Callaghan, M; Pierson, CR; Buj-Bello, A; Beggs, AH
Human molecular genetics 22 1525-38 2013
No effective treatment exists for patients with X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM), a fatal congenital muscle disease caused by deficiency of the lipid phosphatase, myotubularin. The Mtm1δ4 and Mtm1 p.R69C mice model severely and moderately symptomatic XLMTM, respectively, due to differences in the degree of myotubularin deficiency. Contractile function of intact extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles from Mtm1δ4 mice, which produce no myotubularin, is markedly impaired. Contractile forces generated by chemically skinned single fiber preparations from Mtm1δ4 muscle were largely preserved, indicating that weakness was largely due to impaired excitation contraction coupling. Mtm1 p.R69C mice, which produce small amounts of myotubularin, showed impaired contractile function only in EDL muscles. Short-term replacement of myotubularin with a prototypical targeted protein replacement agent (3E10Fv-MTM1) in Mtm1δ4 mice improved contractile function and muscle pathology. These promising findings suggest that even low levels of myotubularin protein replacement can improve the muscle weakness and reverse the pathology that characterizes XLMTM.
|Acetylation limits 53BP1 association with damaged chromatin to promote homologous recombination.|
Tang, Jiangbo, et al.
Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol., 20: 317-25 (2013) 2013
The pathogenic sequelae of BRCA1 mutation in human and mouse cells are mitigated by concomitant deletion of 53BP1, which binds histone H4 dimethylated at Lys20 (H4K20me2) to promote nonhomologous end joining, suggesting that a balance between BRCA1 and 53BP1 regulates DNA double strand-break (DSB) repair mechanism choice. Here we document that acetylation is a key determinant of this balance. TIP60 acetyltransferase deficiency reduced BRCA1 at DSB chromatin with commensurate increases in 53BP1, whereas HDAC inhibition yielded the opposite effect. TIP60-dependent H4 acetylation diminished 53BP1 binding to H4K20me2 in part through disruption of a salt bridge between H4K16 and Glu1551 in the 53BP1 Tudor domain. Moreover, TIP60 deficiency impaired homologous recombination and conferred sensitivity to PARP inhibition in a 53BP1-dependent manner. These findings demonstrate that acetylation in cis to H4K20me2 regulates relative BRCA1 and 53BP1 DSB chromatin occupancy to direct DNA repair mechanism.
|ATX1-generated H3K4me3 is required for efficient elongation of transcription, not initiation, at ATX1-regulated genes.|
Ding, Y; Ndamukong, I; Xu, Z; Lapko, H; Fromm, M; Avramova, Z
PLoS genetics 8 e1003111 2012
Tri-methylated H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) is associated with transcriptionally active genes, but its function in the transcription process is still unclear. Point mutations in the catalytic domain of ATX1 (ARABIDOPSIS TRITHORAX1), a H3K4 methyltransferase, and RNAi knockdowns of subunits of the AtCOMPASS-like (Arabidopsis Complex Proteins Associated with Set) were used to address this question. We demonstrate that both ATX1 and AtCOMPASS-like are required for high level accumulation of TBP (TATA-binding protein) and Pol II at promoters and that this requirement is independent of the catalytic histone modifying activity. However, the catalytic function is critically required for transcription as H3K4me3 levels determine the efficiency of transcription elongation. The roles of H3K4me3, ATX1, and AtCOMPASS-like may be of a general relevance for transcription of Trithorax-activated eukaryotic genes.
|Upregulating CD59: a new strategy for protection of neurons from complement-mediated degeneration.|
M V Kolev,T Tediose,B Sivasankar,C L Harris,J Thome,B P Morgan,R M Donev
The pharmacogenomics journal 10 2010
An increasing number of studies have shown a critical role for the membrane attack complex, synthesized on activation of the terminal pathway of the complement system, in causing demyelination and neuronal death in neurodegeneration. The aim of this study was to develop a strategy to increase the resistance of neurons to complement damage by modulating the expression of membrane complement regulatory protein CD59, the only inhibitor of the terminal pathway of the complement cascade. We exploited our recent finding that CD59 expression is regulated by the neural-restrictive silencer factor (REST) and designed a novel REST-derived peptide (REST5) containing the nuclear localization domain of the wild-type protein. The effect of REST5 and the mechanism by which it modulates CD59 expression were modelled in neuroblastoma cells transfected with expression constructs, and then confirmed in human neurons differentiated from neural progenitor cells. REST5 increased the expression of CD59 in neurons by fivefold and protected them from complement-mediated lysis spontaneously triggered by neurons. As a source of complement, we used either human serum or conditioned medium from primary human oligodendroglia. This study brings new insight into immunopharmacological research that may serve to inhibit neuronal death triggered by the terminal pathway of complement activation.
|Interplay between REST and nucleolin transcription factors: a key mechanism in the overexpression of genes upon increased phosphorylation.|
Tediose, Teeo, et al.
Nucleic acids research, (2010) 2010
Non-malignant cells can be transformed via the activation of kinases that control degradation of neural-restrictive silencer factor (REST). Here, we identify a mechanism that contributes to the activation of genes, expression of which is controlled by responsive elements containing overlapping binding sites for REST and nucleolin. We demonstrate that both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated nucleolin-bound DNA; however, only phosphorylated nucleolin successfully competed with either full-length REST or a REST-derived DNA-binding peptide, REST68, for binding to the overlapping binding sites. We show that this interplay between the two transcription factors regulates the activation of cell survival and immunomodulatory genes in tumors and non-malignant cells with activated protein kinase C, which is accompanied with alterations in cell proliferation and apoptosis. We propose a model for the regulation of these genes, which brings a new insight into the molecular mechanisms that control cellular transformation driven by activation of protein kinases.
|Solution structure of a novel zinc finger motif in the SAP30 polypeptide of the Sin3 corepressor complex and its potential role in nucleic acid recognition.|
He, Y; Imhoff, R; Sahu, A; Radhakrishnan, I
Nucleic acids research 37 2142-52 2009
Giant chromatin-modifying complexes regulate gene transcription in eukaryotes by acting on chromatin substrates and 'setting' the histone code. The histone deacetylase (HDAC)-associated mammalian Sin3 corepressor complex regulates a wide variety of genes involved in all aspects of cellular physiology. The recruitment of the corepressor complex by transcription factors to specific regions of the genome is mediated by Sin3 as well as 10 distinct polypeptides that comprise the corepressor complex. Here we report the solution structure of a novel CCCH zinc finger (ZnF) motif in the SAP30 polypeptide, a key component of the corepressor complex. The structure represents a novel fold comprising two beta-strands and two alpha-helices with the zinc organizing center showing remote resemblance to the treble clef motif. In silico analysis of the structure revealed a highly conserved surface that is dominated by basic residues. NMR-based analysis of potential ligands for the SAP30 ZnF motif indicated a strong preference for nucleic acid substrates. We propose that the SAP30 ZnF functions as a double-stranded DNA-binding motif, thereby expanding the known functions of both SAP30 and the mammalian Sin3 corepressor complex. Our results also call into question the common assumption about the exclusion of DNA-binding core subunits within chromatin-modifying/remodeling complexes.
|Thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP) of Plasmodium falciparum: expression during sporozoite ontogeny and binding to human hepatocytes.|
Robson, K J, et al.
EMBO J., 14: 3883-94 (1995) 1995
Plasmodium sporozoites collected from oocysts, haemocoel and salivary glands of the mosquito show profound differences in their biological properties such as motility, ability to induce protective immune response and infectivity for vertebrate host cells. Sporozoites from salivary glands are much more infectious than those from oocysts and haemocoel. Differential expression of proteins, such as the circumsporozoite (CS) protein and the thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP), implicated in sporozoite recognition and entry into hepatocytes may account for the development of infectivity during ontogeny. We have carried out a series of experiments to: (i) analyse the expression and localization of TRAP in P.falciparum sporozoites during development in the mosquito; and (ii) elucidate the biochemical and adhesive properties of recombinant TRAP. Our data indicate that TRAP is not expressed in oocysts, whereas variable amounts of CS protein are found in this parasite developmental stage. Hemocoel sporozoites display the distinct phenotypes TRAP- CS protein+ and TRAP+ CS protein+ at a frequency of 98.5 and 1.5% respectively. Salivary gland sporozoites are all TRAP+ CS protein+. We also provide experimental evidence showing that recombinant TRAP binds to the basolateral cell membrane of hepatocytes in the Disse's space and that sulfated glycoconjugates function as TRAP ligands on human hepatocytes.