Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M||ICC, WB, IH(P)||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µg|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Uveal melanoma expression of indoleamine 2,3-deoxygenase: establishment of an immune privileged environment by tryptophan depletion.|
Peter W Chen,Jessamee K Mellon,Elizabeth Mayhew,Shixuan Wang,Yu Guang He,Nick Hogan,Jerry Y Niederkorn
Experimental eye research 85 2007
The enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) catalyzes degradation of tryptophan, an essential amino acid required for lymphocyte activation and proliferation. Many tumors express IDO which implies that it acts as a mechanism to evade T cell-mediated immune attack, and also to establish an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether primary and metastatic uveal melanoma expressed the IDO gene and whether uveal melanoma cells could deplete tryptophan. In situ expression of IDO in primary uveal melanoma from tumor bearing eyes and metastatic uveal melanoma liver tissues was determined by immunohistostaining with IDO-specific antibody. Reverse transcription PCR was used to assess IDO gene transcription by primary and metastatic uveal melanoma cell lines. IDO protein expression was determined by Western blot of uveal melanoma cell protein lysate. IDO catalytic activity was assessed by measuring the presence of kynurenine, a product generated by tryptophan degradation, in uveal melanoma culture supernatants. Primary uveal melanoma from tumor-bearing eyes and metastatic uveal melanoma from the liver did not express IDO in situ. IDO was not constitutively expressed in either primary or metastatic uveal melanoma cell lines. However, stimulation of primary and metastatic uveal melanoma cell cultures with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) universally upregulated both IDO gene and protein expression. Culture supernatants from IFN-gamma treated primary and metastatic uveal melanoma cell cultures contained elevated levels of kynurenine. Addition of the IDO inhibitor 1-methyl dl-tryptophan significantly diminished kynurenine levels in IFN-gamma treated uveal melanoma cell cultures. The results from this study suggest that IFN-gamma inducible IDO upregulation by primary and metastatic uveal melanoma may generate a local immune privileged microenvironment to promote escape from T cell-mediated immune surveillance.Full Text Article
|Tryptophan and the immune response.|
Moffett, John R and Namboodiri, Ma Aryan
Immunol. Cell Biol., 81: 247-65 (2003) 2003
The immune system continuously modulates the balance between responsiveness to pathogens and tolerance to non-harmful antigens. The mechanisms that mediate tolerance are not well understood, but recent findings have implicated tryptophan catabolism through the kynurenine metabolic pathway as one of many mechanisms involved. The enzymes that break down tryptophan through this pathway are found in numerous cell types, including cells of the immune system. Some of these enzymes are induced by immune activation, including the rate limiting enzyme present in macrophages and dendritic cells, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). It has recently been found that inhibition of IDO can result in the rejection of allogenic fetuses, suggesting that tryptophan breakdown is necessary for maintaining aspects of immune tolerance. Two theories have been proposed to explain how tryptophan catabolism facilitates tolerance. One theory posits that tryptophan breakdown suppresses T cell proliferation by dramatically reducing the supply of this critical amino acid. The other theory postulates that the downstream metabolites of tryptophan catabolism act to suppress certain immune cells, probably by pro-apoptotic mechanisms. Reconciling these disparate views is crucial to understanding immune-related tryptophan catabolism and the roles it plays in immune tolerance. In this review we examine the issue in detail, and offer additional insight provided by studies with antibodies to quinolinate, a tryptophan catabolite which is also necessary for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD +) production. In addition to the immunomodulatory actions of tryptophan catabolites, we discuss the possible involvement of quinolinate as a means of replenishing NAD + in leucocytes, which is depleted by oxidative stress during an immune response.
|Potential regulatory function of human dendritic cells expressing indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase.|
Munn, David H, et al.
Science, 297: 1867-70 (2002) 2002
Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) can induce tolerance or immunity. We describe a subset of human APCs that express indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and inhibit T cell proliferation in vitro. IDO-positive APCs constituted a discrete subset identified by coexpression of the cell-surface markers CD123 and CCR6. In the dendritic cell (DC) lineage, IDO-mediated suppressor activity was present in fully mature as well as immature CD123+ DCs. IDO+ DCs could also be readily detected in vivo, which suggests that these cells may represent a regulatory subset of APCs in humans.
|Relationship between interferon-gamma, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, and tryptophan catabolism.|
Taylor, M W and Feng, G S
FASEB J., 5: 2516-22 (1991) 1991
Interferons have been shown to be potential anti-cancer agents and to inhibit tumor cell growth in culture. The in vivo mechanism of the anti-proliferative effect may be direct or indirect through the immune system; however, in vitro a primary mechanism of cytotoxicity is through the depletion of tryptophan. In particular, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) induces an enzyme of tryptophan catabolism, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), which is responsible for conversion of tryptophan and other indole derivatives to kynurenine. The inhibitory effect of interferon on many intracellular parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii and Chlamydia trachomatis is by the same mechanism. Elevated kynurenine levels have been found in humans in a number of diseases and after interferon treatment, and the enzyme is induced in rodents after administration of interferon inducers, or influenza virus. IDO induction also occurs in vivo during rejection of allogeneic tumors, indicating a possible role for this enzyme in the tumor rejection process. The gene for IDO has been cloned and shown to be differentially regulated by IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma. IDO induction has been correlated with induction of GTP-cyclohydrolase, the key enzyme in pteridine biosynthesis. A direct role for IDO in pteridine synthesis has not been shown, and this parallel induction may reflect coordinate regulation of genes induced by IFN-gamma. A possible role for IDO in O2-radical scavenging and in inflammation is discussed.
|Mechanism of interferon-gamma action. Characterization of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in cultured human cells induced by interferon-gamma and evaluation of the enzyme-mediated tryptophan degradation in its anticellular activity.|
Takikawa, O, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 263: 2041-8 (1988) 1988
Induction by interferon-gamma of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (a tryptophan degradation enzyme) was examined with 11 human cell lines. The enzyme induction was demonstrated in 7 of the 11 cell lines. The induced enzyme in each of the 7 cell lines was identical to the enzyme purified from human placenta, as evidenced by immunoblot analysis with a monoclonal antibody specific to the placental one. The extent of the induction varied largely with the cell line; a relatively high induction was observed with HEL (lung fibroblasts), NY (osteosarcoma), and A-431 (epidermoid carcinoma). The enzyme induction was dependent on the concentration of interferon-gamma and occurred 12-18 h after addition of interferon-gamma to the cultures. Interferon-alpha or -beta was completely ineffective in this induction. Interferon-gamma inhibited the growth of the 7 cell lines observed with the enzyme induction, and this growth inhibition was accompanied with a complete deletion of tryptophan (less than 1 microM) in the culture medium by the induction of the enzyme. For two of these cell lines, the inhibition was partially reversed by an addition of exogenous tryptophan to the medium not to be depleted. These findings indicated that the growth inhibition by interferon-gamma was in part explained by the tryptophan depletion in the medium caused by the enzyme induction.