Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M||IP, WB||Rb||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Protein A Purified immunoglobulin in 30% glycerol, 0.07M Tris-glycine, pH 7.4, 0.105 M NaCl, 0.035% sodium azide as a preservative.|
|Application||Detect IRAK using this Anti-IRAK Antibody validated for use in IP & WB.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||200 µg|
|Anti-IRAK (rabbit polyclonal IgG) - 2362876||2362876|
|Anti-IRAK (rabbit polyclonal IgG)||3111588|
|Anti-IRAK (rabbit polyclonal IgG) - 2270296||2270296|
|Anti-IRAK (rabbit polyclonal IgG) -2504283||2504283|
|Anti-IRAK - 17526||17526|
|Anti-IRAK - 19703||19703|
|Anti-IRAK - 21500||21500|
|Anti-IRAK - 23104||23104|
|Anti-IRAK - 24707||24707|
|Anti-IRAK - 2535271||2535271|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Genetically modified "obligate" anaerobic Salmonella typhimurium as a therapeutic strategy for neuroblastoma.|
Guo, ZL; Yu, B; Ning, BT; Chan, S; Lin, QB; Li, JC; Huang, JD; Chan, GC
Journal of hematology & oncology 8 99 2015
Neuroblastoma currently has poor prognosis, therefore we proposed a new strategy by targeting neuroblastoma with genetically engineered anaerobic Salmonella (Sal-YB1).Nude and nonobese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD-SCID) orthotopic mouse models were used, and Sal-YB1 was administered via tail vein. The therapeutic effectiveness, bio-safety, and mechanisms were studied.No mice died of therapy-related complications. Tumor size reduction was 70 and 30% in nude and NOD-SCID mice, respectively. No Salmonella was detected in the urine; 75% mice had positive stool culture if diaminopimelic acid was added, but all turned negative subsequently. Tumor tissues had more Sal-YB1 infiltration, necrosis, and shrinkage in Sal-YB1-treated mice. Significantly higher expression of TLR4, TNF-stimulated gene 6 protein (TSG6), and cleaved caspase 1, 3, 8, and 9 was found in the tumor masses of the Sal-YB1-treated group with a decrease of interleukin 1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) and nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor alpha (IκBα). There was a high release of TNFα both in human macrophages and mouse tumor tissues with Sal-YB1 treatment. The antitumor effect of the supernatant derived from macrophages treated with Sal-YB1 could be reversed with TNFα and pan-caspase inhibitors.This new approach in targeting neuroblastoma by bio-engineered Salmonella with the assistance of macrophages indirectly may have a clinical therapeutic impact in the future.
|Rotavirus Non-Structural Protein-1 suppresses virus induced cellular apoptosis to facilitate viral growth by activating the cell-survival pathways during early stages of infection.|
Bagchi P, Dutta D, Chattopadhyay S, Mukherjee A, Halder UC, Sarkar S, Kobayashi N, Komoto S, Taniguchi K, Chawla-Sarkar M
J Virol 2010
Following virus infection, one of the cellular responses to limit the virus spread is induction of apoptosis. In this study, we report role of rotavirus nonstructural protein-1 (NSP1) in regulating apoptosis by activating the pro-survival pathways like PI3K/Akt and NFkappaB during early hours of infections (2-8 hpi). The NSP1 mutant strain A5-16 induces weak and transient activation of Akt (protein kinase B) and p65 NFkappaB (nuclear factor kappa B) compared to the isogenic wild type strain A5-13 in MA104 or HT29 cells. The weak NFkappaB promoter activity or Akt phosphorylation following A5-16 infection could be complemented in cells transfected with plasmid expressing NSP1 following infection with rotavirus A5-16 strain. In cells either infected with A5-13 or transfected with pcD-NSP1, co-immunoprecipitation of NSP1 with PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) was observed indicating that strong activation of PI3K/Akt could be due to its interaction with NSP1. In addition, after infection with same moi, A5-16 showed reduced number of viral particles compared to the A5-13 strain at the end of replication cycle. Lower growth rate could be due to weak induction of PI3K/Akt and NFkappaB, since A5-13 strain also showed reduced growth in presence of PI3K or NFkappaB inhibitors. This effect was interferon independent, however was partly due to significantly higher caspase-3 activity, poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage and apoptosis during earlier stages of infection with the NSP1 mutant. Thus our data suggests that NSP1 positively supports rotavirus growth by suppression of premature apoptosis for improved virus growth following infection.
|Cigarette smoke induces CXCL8 production by human neutrophils via activation of TLR9 receptor.|
Mortaz, E; Adcock, IM; Ito, K; Kraneveld, AD; Nijkamp, FP; Folkerts, G
The European respiratory journal 36 1143-54 2010
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major health problem and cigarette smoke is the main risk factor for the development of COPD. The characteristic changes in airway morphology, inflammatory cell infiltration and mediator expression in COPD may result from direct effects of cigarette smoke on airway cells. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key elements in pathogen recognition by the host immune system. Although TLRs have been intensely studied in innate immunity and infection, their critical role in noninfectious challenges has only recently emerged. Here we investigate whether cigarette smoke induces TLR9 signalling in human neutrophils. Human neutrophils were isolated from buffy coat and exposed to cigarette smoke extract. The production of CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)8 was measured as a functional readout and the role of TLR9 signalling was investigated. Cigarette smoke extract induced CXCL8 release via TLR9 activation in neutrophils, which was confirmed in TLR9 stably transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Moreover, cigarette smoke extract upregulated the expression of TLR9 and the upregulated expression was suppressed by N-acetylcysteine. TLR9 mediates cigarette smoke-induced release of CXCL8 and this may contribute to the accumulation of neutrophils and inflammation within the airways of smokers.
|Selective control of type I IFN induction by the Rac activator DOCK2 during TLR-mediated plasmacytoid dendritic cell activation.|
Gotoh, K; Tanaka, Y; Nishikimi, A; Nakamura, R; Yamada, H; Maeda, N; Ishikawa, T; Hoshino, K; Uruno, T; Cao, Q; Higashi, S; Kawaguchi, Y; Enjoji, M; Takayanagi, R; Kaisho, T; Yoshikai, Y; Fukui, Y
The Journal of experimental medicine 207 721-30 2010
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play a key role in antiviral immunity, but also contribute to the pathogenesis of certain autoimmune diseases, by producing large amounts of type I IFNs. Although activation of pDCs is triggered by engagement of nucleotide-sensing toll-like receptors (TLR) 7 and 9, type I IFN induction additionally requires IkappaB kinase (IKK) alpha-dependent activation of IFN regulatory factor (IRF) 7. However, the signaling pathway mediating IKK-alpha activation is poorly defined. We show that DOCK2, an atypical Rac activator, is essential for TLR7- and TLR9-mediated IFN-alpha induction in pDCs. We found that the exposure of pDCs to nucleic acid ligands induces Rac activation through a TLR-independent and DOCK2-dependent mechanism. Although this Rac activation was dispensable for induction of inflammatory cytokines, phosphorylation of IKK-alpha and nuclear translocation of IRF-7 were impaired in Dock2-deficient pDCs, resulting in selective loss of IFN-alpha induction. Similar results were obtained when a dominant-negative Rac mutant was expressed in wild-type pDCs. Thus, the DOCK2-Rac signaling pathway acts in parallel with TLR engagement to control IKK-alpha activation for type I IFN induction. Owing to its hematopoietic cell-specific expression, DOCK2 may serve as a therapeutic target for type I IFN-related autoimmune diseases.
|Candida albicans triggers activation of distinct signaling pathways to establish a proinflammatory gene expression program in primary human endothelial cells.|
Verena Müller, Dorothee Viemann, Marc Schmidt, Nicole Endres, Stephan Ludwig, Martin Leverkus, Johannes Roth, Matthias Goebeler
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 179 8435-45 2007
Endothelial cells (EC) actively participate in the innate defense against microbial pathogens. Under unfavorable conditions, defense reactions can turn life threatening resulting in sepsis. We therefore studied the so far largely unknown EC reaction patterns to the fungal pathogen Candida albicans, which is a major cause of lethality in septic patients. Using oligonucleotide microarray analysis, we identified 56 genes that were transcriptionally up-regulated and 69 genes that were suppressed upon exposure of ECs to C. albicans. The most significantly up-regulated transcripts were found in gene ontology groups comprising the following categories: chemotaxis/migration; cell death and proliferation; signaling; transcriptional regulation; and cell-cell contacts/intercellular signaling. Further examination of candidate signaling cascades established a central role of the proinflammatory NF-kappaB pathway in the regulation of the Candida-modulated transcriptome of ECs. As a second major regulatory pathway we identified the stress-activated p38 MAPK pathway, which critically contributes to the regulation of selected Candida target genes such as CXCL8/IL-8. Depletion of MyD88 and IL-1R-associated kinase-1 by RNA interference demonstrates that Candida-induced NF-kappaB activation is mediated by pattern recognition receptor signaling. Additional experiments suggest that C. albicans-induced CXCL8/IL-8 expression is mediated by TLR3 rather than TLR2 and TLR4, which previously have been implicated with MyD88/IkappaB kinase-2/NF-kappaB activation by this fungus in other systems. Our study provides the first comprehensive analysis of endothelial gene responses to C. albicans and presents novel insights into the complex signaling patterns triggered by this important pathogen.
|Neutrophil signaling pathways activated by bacterial DNA stimulation.|
María E Alvarez, Juan I Fuxman Bass, Jorge R Geffner, Paula X Fernández Calotti, Mónica Costas, Omar A Coso, Romina Gamberale, Mónica E Vermeulen, Gabriela Salamone, Diego Martinez, Tamara Tanos, Analía S Trevani
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 177 4037-46 2006
We have previously shown that bacterial DNA activates human neutrophils in a CpG-independent manner. In this study, we have characterized the signaling pathways involved in the activation mechanism. We found that p38 MAPK, ERK1/2, and JNK pathways, as well as the PI3K/Akt pathway, are activated by bacterial DNA. We also determined that bacterial DNA induces NF-kappaB and AP-1 activation. When analyzing the role of these pathways on neutrophil functions, we observed that up-regulation of CD11b triggered by bacterial DNA was decreased by pharmacological inhibitors of the p38 MAPK, ERK1/2, and JNK, whereas stimulation of IL-8 release was dependent on p38, ERK1/2, and NF-kappaB. Moreover, we found that IL-8 production was markedly enhanced by inhibition of JNK, suggesting that this pathway negatively modulates NF-kappaB-dependent transcription. We also observed that bacterial DNA stimulated IL-1R-associated kinase-1 kinase activity and its partial degradation. Finally, we determined that bacterial DNA stimulated CD11b up-regulation in TLR9(-/-) but not in MyD88(-/-) mouse neutrophils, supporting that bacterial DNA induces neutrophil activation through a TLR9-independent and MyD88-dependent pathway.
|Regulation of IL-1 receptor-associated kinases by lipopolysaccharide|
Hu, J., et al
J Immunol, 168:3910-4 (2002) 2002
|Characterization of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase in normal and endotoxin-tolerant cells|
Li, L., et al
J Biol Chem, 275:23340-5 (2000) 2000
|IRAK: a kinase associated with the interleukin-1 receptor.|
Cao, Z, et al.
Science, 271: 1128-31 (1996) 1996
The pleiotropic biological activities of interleukin-1 (IL-1) are mediated by its type I receptor (IL-1RI). When the ligand binds, IL-1RI initiates a signaling cascade that results in the activation of the transcription regulator nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B). A protein kinase designated IRAK (IL-1 receptor-associated kinase) was purified, and its complementary DNA was molecularly cloned. When human embryonic kidney cells (cell line 293) over-expressing IL-1RI or HeLa cells were exposed to IL-1, IRAK rapidly associated with the IL-1RI complex and was phosphorylated. The primary amino acid sequence of IRAK shares similarity with that of Pelle, a protein kinase that is essential for the activation of a NF-kappa B homolog in Drosophila.
|Developmental and tissue-specific expression of mouse pelle-like protein kinase.|
Trofimova, M, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 271: 17609-12 (1996) 1996
The NF-kappaB/c-Rel proteins are a family of evolutionarily conserved transcription factors activated during development that in the adult, mediate many processes including the immune response. A high degree of sequence similarity is shared between the NF-kappaB/c-Rel family of transcription factors and the Drosophila Dorsal protein as well as between its cytoplasmic inhibitor, IkappaBalpha, and the Drosophila Cactus protein. Genetic analyses of Dorsal have defined components of a signaling pathway for Dorsal activation, including a serine/threonine kinase, Pelle, placed upstream of Dorsal and Cactus. We demonstrate that this pathway is likely to be conserved in mammals by the isolation of a cDNA that encodes a novel mouse protein highly related to Pelle, mPLK (mouse Pelle-like protein kinase). Expression of mPLK mRNA is developmentally regulated in the mouse and in adult tissue mPLK expression is greatest in the liver, a tissue that expresses a high level of NF-kappaB. Recombinant mPLK produced in bacteria is a protein kinase capable of autophosphorylating and phosphorylating IkappaBalpha.
|Pathways and Biomarkers of Toll-like Receptor (TLR) Signaling|