Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R||IP, WB||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Application||Anti-IRS1 Antibody is an antibody against IRS1 for use in IP & WB.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µg|
|Anti-IRS1 - 2387826||2387826|
|Anti-IRS1 - 2430423||2430423|
|Anti-IRS1 - DAM1791335||DAM1791335|
|Anti-IRS1 - 16503||16503|
|Anti-IRS1 - 16945||16945|
|Anti-IRS1 - 17612||17612|
|Anti-IRS1 - 17966||17966|
|Anti-IRS1 - 18621||18621|
|Anti-IRS1 - 19407||19407|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Class III PI3K regulates organismal glucose homeostasis by providing negative feedback on hepatic insulin signalling.|
Nemazanyy, I; Montagnac, G; Russell, RC; Morzyglod, L; Burnol, AF; Guan, KL; Pende, M; Panasyuk, G
Nature communications 6 8283 2015
Defective hepatic insulin receptor (IR) signalling is a pathogenic manifestation of metabolic disorders including obesity and diabetes. The endo/lysosomal trafficking system may coordinate insulin action and nutrient homeostasis by endocytosis of IR and the autophagic control of intracellular nutrient levels. Here we show that class III PI3K--a master regulator of endocytosis, endosomal sorting and autophagy--provides negative feedback on hepatic insulin signalling. The ultraviolet radiation resistance-associated gene protein (UVRAG)-associated class III PI3K complex interacts with IR and is stimulated by insulin treatment. Acute and chronic depletion of hepatic Vps15, the regulatory subunit of class III PI3K, increases insulin sensitivity and Akt signalling, an effect that requires functional IR. This is reflected by FoxO1-dependent transcriptional defects and blunted gluconeogenesis in Vps15 mutant cells. On depletion of Vps15, the metabolic syndrome in genetic and diet-induced models of insulin resistance and diabetes is alleviated. Thus, feedback regulation of IR trafficking and function by class III PI3K may be a therapeutic target in metabolic conditions of insulin resistance.
|Role of protein farnesylation in burn-induced metabolic derangements and insulin resistance in mouse skeletal muscle.|
Nakazawa, H; Yamada, M; Tanaka, T; Kramer, J; Yu, YM; Fischman, AJ; Martyn, JA; Tompkins, RG; Kaneki, M
PloS one 10 e0116633 2015
Metabolic derangements, including insulin resistance and hyperlactatemia, are a major complication of major trauma (e.g., burn injury) and affect the prognosis of burn patients. Protein farnesylation, a posttranslational lipid modification of cysteine residues, has been emerging as a potential component of inflammatory response in sepsis. However, farnesylation has not yet been studied in major trauma. To study a role of farnesylation in burn-induced metabolic aberration, we examined the effects of farnesyltransferase (FTase) inhibitor, FTI-277, on burn-induced insulin resistance and metabolic alterations in mouse skeletal muscle.A full thickness burn (30% total body surface area) was produced under anesthesia in male C57BL/6 mice at 8 weeks of age. After the mice were treated with FTI-277 (5 mg/kg/day, IP) or vehicle for 3 days, muscle insulin signaling, metabolic alterations and inflammatory gene expression were evaluated.Burn increased FTase expression and farnesylated proteins in mouse muscle compared with sham-burn at 3 days after burn. Simultaneously, insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1, Akt and GSK-3β was decreased. Protein expression of PTP-1B (a negative regulator of IR-IRS-1 signaling), PTEN (a negative regulator of Akt-mediated signaling), protein degradation and lactate release by muscle, and plasma lactate levels were increased by burn. Burn-induced impaired insulin signaling and metabolic dysfunction were associated with increased inflammatory gene expression. These burn-induced alterations were reversed or ameliorated by FTI-277.Our data demonstrate that burn increased FTase expression and protein farnesylation along with insulin resistance, metabolic alterations and inflammatory response in mouse skeletal muscle, all of which were prevented by FTI-277 treatment. These results indicate that increased protein farnesylation plays a pivotal role in burn-induced metabolic dysfunction and inflammatory response. Our study identifies FTase as a novel potential molecular target to reverse or ameliorate metabolic derangements in burn patients.
|Endoplasmic reticulum stress impairs insulin receptor signaling in the brains of obese rats.|
Liang, L; Chen, J; Zhan, L; Lu, X; Sun, X; Sui, H; Zheng, L; Xiang, H; Zhang, F
PloS one 10 e0126384 2015
The incidence of obesity is increasing worldwide. It was reported that endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) could inhibit insulin receptor signaling by activating c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in the liver. However, the relationship between ERS and insulin receptor signaling in the brain during obesity remains unclear. The aim of the current study was to assess whether ERS alters insulin receptor signaling through the hyper-activation of JNK in the hippocampus and frontal cortex in the brains of obese rats. Obesity was induced using a high fat diet (HFD). The Morris water maze test was then performed to evaluate decreases in cognitive function, and western blot was used to verify whether abnormal insulin receptor signaling was induced by ERS in HFD rats exhibiting cognitive decline. In addition, to determine whether ERS activated JNK and consequently impaired insulin receptor signaling, SH-SY5Y cells were treated with the JNK inhibitor, SP600125, followed by tunicamycin or thapsigargin, and primary rat hippocampal and cortical neurons were transfected with siRNA against IRE1α and JNK. We found that the expression of phosphorylation of PKR-like kinase (PERK), phosphorylation of α subunit of translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α), and phosphorylation of inositol-requiring kinase-1α (IRE-1α) were increased in the brains of rats with HFD when compared with control rats. The level of serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) was also increased, while protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) was reduced. ERS was also found to inhibit insulin receptor signaling via the activation of JNK in SH-SY5Y cells, primary rat hippocampal, and cortical neurons. These results indicate that ERS was increased, thereby resulting in impaired insulin receptor signaling in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of obese rats.
|Diet-induced obesity in mice reduces placental efficiency and inhibits placental mTOR signaling.|
Lager, S; Samulesson, AM; Taylor, PD; Poston, L; Powell, TL; Jansson, T
Physiological reports 2 e00242 2014
As in humans, obesity during pregnancy in mice results in elevated maternal insulin levels and metabolic programming of offspring. mTOR signaling regulates amino acid transport and may function as a placental nutrient sensor. Because obesity is a condition with increased nutrient availability, we hypothesized that diet-induced obesity activates placental mTOR signaling. To test this hypothesis, female C57BL/6J mice were fed an obesogenic diet or standard chow prior to and throughout pregnancy. Fetuses and placentas were collected at gestational day 18. Using Western blot analysis, placental mTOR activity was determined along with energy, inflammatory, and insulin signaling pathways (upstream modulators of mTOR). At gestational day 18, fetal and placental weights did not differ, however, in obese dams, the fetal/placental weight ratio was lower (P less than 0.01). In placentas from obese dams, mTOR signaling was inhibited, as determined by decreased Rheb and S6K1 expression, and lower rpS6 phosphorylation (P less than 0.05). In contrast, energy, inflammatory, and insulin signaling pathways were unaffected. Contrary to our hypothesis, diet-induced obesity in pregnant mice was associated with inhibition of placental mTOR signaling. However, this finding is consistent with the lower fetal/placental weight ratio, indicating reduced placental efficiency.
|Oxidative stress and altered lipid homeostasis in the programming of offspring fatty liver by maternal obesity.|
Alfaradhi, MZ; Fernandez-Twinn, DS; Martin-Gronert, MS; Musial, B; Fowden, A; Ozanne, SE
American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology 307 R26-34 2014
Changes in the maternal nutritional environment during fetal development can influence offspring's metabolic risk in later life. Animal models have demonstrated that offspring of diet-induced obese dams develop metabolic complications, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In this study we investigated the mechanisms in young offspring that lead to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Female offspring of C57BL/6J dams fed either a control or obesogenic diet were studied at 8 wk of age. We investigated the roles of oxidative stress and lipid metabolism in contributing to fatty liver in offspring. There were no differences in body weight or adiposity at 8 wk of age; however, offspring of obese dams were hyperinsulinemic. Oxidative damage markers were significantly increased in their livers, with reduced levels of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase-1. Mitochondrial complex I and II activities were elevated, while levels of mitochondrial cytochrome c were significantly reduced and glutamate dehydrogenase was significantly increased, suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction. Offspring of obese dams also had significantly greater hepatic lipid content, associated with increased levels of PPARγ and reduced triglyceride lipase. Liver glycogen and protein content were concomitantly reduced in offspring of obese dams. In conclusion, offspring of diet-induced obese dams have disrupted liver metabolism and develop NAFLD prior to any differences in body weight or body composition. Oxidative stress may play a mechanistic role in the progression of fatty liver in these offspring.
|PTEN is a protein tyrosine phosphatase for IRS1.|
Shi, Y; Wang, J; Chandarlapaty, S; Cross, J; Thompson, C; Rosen, N; Jiang, X
Nature structural & molecular biology 21 522-7 2014
The biological function of the PTEN tumor suppressor is mainly attributed to its lipid phosphatase activity. This study demonstrates that mammalian PTEN is a protein tyrosine phosphatase that selectively dephosphorylates insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1), a mediator of insulin and IGF signals. IGF signaling was defective in cells lacking NEDD4, a PTEN ubiquitin ligase, whereas AKT activation triggered by EGF or serum was unimpaired. Defective IGF signaling caused by NEDD4 deletion, including phosphorylation of IRS1 and AKT, was rescued by PTEN ablation. We demonstrate the nature of PTEN as an IRS1 phosphatase by direct biochemical analysis and cellular reconstitution, showing that NEDD4 supports insulin-mediated glucose metabolism and is required for the proliferation of IGF1 receptor-dependent but not EGF receptor-dependent tumor cells. Thus, PTEN is a protein phosphatase for IRS1, and its antagonism by NEDD4 promotes signaling by IGF and insulin.
|In vivo siRNA delivery of Keap1 modulates death and survival signaling pathways and attenuates concanavalin-A-induced acute liver injury in mice.|
González-Rodríguez, Á; Reibert, B; Amann, T; Constien, R; Rondinone, CM; Valverde, ÁM
Disease models & mechanisms 7 1093-100 2014
Oxidative stress contributes to the progression of acute liver failure (ALF). Transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) serves as an endogenous regulator by which cells combat oxidative stress. We have investigated liver damage and the balance between death and survival signaling pathways in concanavalin A (ConA)-mediated ALF using in vivo siRNA delivery targeting Keap1 in hepatocytes. For that goal, mice were injected with Keap1- or luciferase-siRNA-containing liposomes via the tail vein. After 48 hours, ALF was induced by ConA. Liver histology, pro-inflammatory mediators, antioxidant responses, cellular death, and stress and survival signaling were assessed. Keap1 mRNA and protein levels significantly decreased in livers of Keap1-siRNA-injected mice. In these animals, histological liver damage was less evident than in control mice when challenged with ConA. Likewise, markers of cellular death (FasL and caspases 8, 3 and 1) decreased at 4 and 8 hours post-injection. Nuclear Nrf2 and its target, hemoxygenase 1 (HO1), were elevated in Keap1-siRNA-injected mice compared with control animals, resulting in reduced oxidative stress in the liver. Similarly, mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were reduced in livers from Keap1-siRNA-injected mice. At the molecular level, activation of c-jun (NH2) terminal kinase (JNK) was ameliorated, whereas the insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGFIR) survival pathway was maintained upon ConA injection in Keap1-siRNA-treated mice. In conclusion, our results have revealed a potential therapeutic use of in vivo siRNA technology targeted to Keap1 to combat oxidative stress by modulating Nrf2-mediated antioxidant responses and IGFIR survival signaling during the progression of ALF.
|Essential role of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B in the modulation of insulin signaling by acetaminophen in hepatocytes.|
Mobasher, MA; de Toro-Martín, J; González-Rodríguez, Á; Ramos, S; Letzig, LG; James, LP; Muntané, J; Álvarez, C; Valverde, ÁM
The Journal of biological chemistry 289 29406-19 2014
Many drugs are associated with the development of glucose intolerance or deterioration in glycemic control in patients with pre-existing diabetes. We have evaluated the cross-talk between signaling pathways activated by acetaminophen (APAP) and insulin signaling in hepatocytes with or without expression of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and in wild-type and PTP1B-deficient mice chronically treated with APAP. Human primary hepatocytes, Huh7 hepatoma cells with silenced PTP1B, mouse hepatocytes from wild-type and PTP1B-deficient mice, and a mouse model of chronic APAP treatment were used to examine the mechanisms involving PTP1B in the effects of APAP on glucose homeostasis and hepatic insulin signaling. In APAP-treated human hepatocytes at concentrations that did not induce death, phosphorylation of JNK and PTP1B expression and enzymatic activity were increased. APAP pretreatment inhibited activation of the early steps of insulin signaling and decreased Akt phosphorylation. The effects of APAP in insulin signaling were prevented by suramin, a PTP1B inhibitor, or rosiglitazone that decreased PTP1B levels. Likewise, PTP1B deficiency in human or mouse hepatocytes protected against APAP-mediated impairment in insulin signaling. These signaling pathways were modulated in mice with chronic APAP treatment, resulting in protection against APAP-mediated hepatic insulin resistance and alterations in islet alpha/beta cell ratio in PTP1B(-/-) mice. Our results demonstrate negative cross-talk between signaling pathways triggered by APAP and insulin signaling in hepatocytes, which is in part mediated by PTP1B. Moreover, our in vivo data suggest that chronic use of APAP may be associated with insulin resistance in the liver.
|Inhibition of Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase 7 by simian virus 40 large T antigen.|
Hartmann, T; Xu, X; Kronast, M; Muehlich, S; Meyer, K; Zimmermann, W; Hurwitz, J; Pan, ZQ; Engelhardt, S; Sarikas, A
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111 3371-6 2014
Simian virus 40 (SV40) large tumor antigen (LT) triggers oncogenic transformation by inhibition of key tumor suppressor proteins, including p53 and members of the retinoblastoma family. In addition, SV40 transformation requires binding of LT to Cullin 7 (CUL7), a core component of Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase 7 (CRL7). However, the pathomechanistic effects of LT-CUL7 interaction are mostly unknown. Here we report both in vitro and in vivo experimental evidence that SV40 LT suppresses the ubiquitin ligase function of CRL7. We show that SV40 LT, but not a CUL7 binding-deficient mutant (LT(Δ69-83)), impaired 26S proteasome-dependent proteolysis of the CRL7 target protein insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), a component of the insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling pathway. SV40 LT expression resulted in the accumulation and prolonged half-life of IRS1. In vitro, purified SV40 LT reduced CRL7-dependent IRS1 ubiquitination in a concentration-dependent manner. Expression of SV40 LT, or depletion of CUL7 by RNA interference, resulted in the enhanced activation of IRS1 downstream signaling pathways phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/AKT and Erk mitogen-activated pathway kinase, as well as up-regulation of the downstream target gene c-fos. Finally, SV40 LT-positive carcinoma of carcinoembryonic antigen 424/SV40 LT transgenic mice displayed elevated IRS1 protein levels and activation of downstream signaling. Taken together, these data suggest that SV40 LT protects IRS1 from CRL7-mediated degradation, thereby sustaining high levels of promitogenic IRS1 downstream signaling pathways.
|Variant NKX3.1 and Serum IGF-1: Investigation of Interaction in Prostate Cancer.|
Muhlbradt, E; Ma, J; Severi, G; Ortner, E; Hayes, V; Hoang, HN; Stampfer, M; Giles, G; Pollak, M; Gelmann, EP
Genes & cancer 4 535-45 2013
NKX3.1 is a tumor suppressor down-regulated in early prostate cancers. A SNP (rs2228013), which represents a polymorphic NKX3.1(C154T) coding for a variant protein NKX3.1(R52C), is present in 10% of the population and is related to prostatic enlargement and prostate cancer. We investigated rs2228013 in prostate cancer risk for 937 prostate cancer cases and 1,086 age-matched controls from a nested case-control study within the prospective Physicians' Health Study (PHS) and among 798 cases and 527 controls retrospectively collected in the Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer Study of the Victoria Cancer Council (RFPCS). We also investigated the interaction between serum IGF-I levels and NKX3.1 genotype in the populations from PHS and RFPCS. In the PHS, we found no overall association between the variant T allele in rs2228013 in NKX3.1 and prostate cancer risk (odd ratio = 1.25; 95% confidence interval = 0.92-1.71). A subgroup analysis for cases diagnosed before age 70 showed an increased risk (relative risk = 1.55; 95% confidence interval = 1.04-2.31) of overall prostate cancer. In this age-group, the risk of metastatic cancer at diagnosis or of fatal cancer was even higher in carriers of the T allele (relative risk = 2.15; 95% confidence interval = 1.00-4.63). These associations were not replicated in the RFPCS. Serum IGF-I levels were found to be a risk factor for prostate cancer in both study populations. The wild type NKX3.1 protein can induce IGFBP-3 expression in vitro. We report that variant NKX3.1 cannot induce IGFBP-3 expression, but the NKX3.1 genotype does not modify the association between serum IGF-I levels and prostate cancer risk.