Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R, Chp||IP, WB||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified rabbit polyclonal serum in buffer containing 0.1 M Tris-glycine, pH 7.4, 150 mM NaCl and 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Application||Anti-α-Insulin Receptor Antibody, β subunit is an antibody against a-Insulin Receptor for use in IP & WB.|
|Application Notes||Immunoprecipitation Analysis:|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for for 1 year from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µL|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Role of protein farnesylation in burn-induced metabolic derangements and insulin resistance in mouse skeletal muscle.|
Nakazawa, H; Yamada, M; Tanaka, T; Kramer, J; Yu, YM; Fischman, AJ; Martyn, JA; Tompkins, RG; Kaneki, M
PloS one 10 e0116633 2015
Metabolic derangements, including insulin resistance and hyperlactatemia, are a major complication of major trauma (e.g., burn injury) and affect the prognosis of burn patients. Protein farnesylation, a posttranslational lipid modification of cysteine residues, has been emerging as a potential component of inflammatory response in sepsis. However, farnesylation has not yet been studied in major trauma. To study a role of farnesylation in burn-induced metabolic aberration, we examined the effects of farnesyltransferase (FTase) inhibitor, FTI-277, on burn-induced insulin resistance and metabolic alterations in mouse skeletal muscle.A full thickness burn (30% total body surface area) was produced under anesthesia in male C57BL/6 mice at 8 weeks of age. After the mice were treated with FTI-277 (5 mg/kg/day, IP) or vehicle for 3 days, muscle insulin signaling, metabolic alterations and inflammatory gene expression were evaluated.Burn increased FTase expression and farnesylated proteins in mouse muscle compared with sham-burn at 3 days after burn. Simultaneously, insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1, Akt and GSK-3β was decreased. Protein expression of PTP-1B (a negative regulator of IR-IRS-1 signaling), PTEN (a negative regulator of Akt-mediated signaling), protein degradation and lactate release by muscle, and plasma lactate levels were increased by burn. Burn-induced impaired insulin signaling and metabolic dysfunction were associated with increased inflammatory gene expression. These burn-induced alterations were reversed or ameliorated by FTI-277.Our data demonstrate that burn increased FTase expression and protein farnesylation along with insulin resistance, metabolic alterations and inflammatory response in mouse skeletal muscle, all of which were prevented by FTI-277 treatment. These results indicate that increased protein farnesylation plays a pivotal role in burn-induced metabolic dysfunction and inflammatory response. Our study identifies FTase as a novel potential molecular target to reverse or ameliorate metabolic derangements in burn patients.
|Reversing the reduced level of endometrial GLUT4 expression in polycystic ovary syndrome: a mechanistic study of metformin action.|
Li, X; Cui, P; Jiang, HY; Guo, YR; Pishdari, B; Hu, M; Feng, Y; Billig, H; Shao, R
American journal of translational research 7 574-86 2015
Conflicting results have been reported regarding whether or not insulin-regulated glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) is expressed in human and rodent endometria. There is an inverse relationship between androgen levels and insulin-dependent glucose metabolism in women. Hyperandrogenemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance are believed to contribute to endometrial abnormalities in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, it has been unclear in previous studies if endometrial GLUT4 expression is regulated by androgen-dependent androgen receptors (ARs) and/or the insulin receptor/Akt/mTOR signaling network. In this study, we demonstrate that GLUT4 is expressed in normal endometrial cells (mainly in the epithelial cells) and is down-regulated under conditions of hyperandrogenemia in tissues from PCOS patients and in a 5α-dihydrotestosterone-induced PCOS-like rat model. Western blot analysis revealed reduced endometrial GLUT4 expression and increased AR expression in PCOS patients. However, the reduced GLUT4 level was not always associated with an increase in AR in PCOS patients when comparing non-hyperplasia with hyperplasia. Using a human tissue culture system, we investigated the molecular basis by which GLUT4 regulation in endometrial hyperplasia tissues is affected by metformin in PCOS patients. We show that specific endogenous organic cation transporter isoforms are regulated by metformin, and this suggests a direct effect of metformin on endometrial hyperplasia. Moreover, we demonstrate that metformin induces GLUT4 expression and inhibits AR expression and blocks insulin receptor/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling in the same hyperplasia human tissues. These findings indicate that changes in endometrial GLUT4 expression in PCOS patients involve the androgen-dependent alteration of AR expression and changes in the insulin receptor/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling network.
|Insulin responsiveness in metabolic syndrome after eight weeks of cycle training.|
Stuart, CA; South, MA; Lee, ML; McCurry, MP; Howell, ME; Ramsey, MW; Stone, MH
Medicine and science in sports and exercise 45 2021-9 2013
Insulin resistance in obesity is decreased after successful diet and exercise. Aerobic exercise training alone was evaluated as an intervention in subjects with the metabolic syndrome.Eighteen nondiabetic, sedentary subjects, 11 with the metabolic syndrome, participated in 8 wk of increasing intensity stationary cycle training.Cycle training without weight loss did not change insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome subjects or sedentary control subjects. Maximal oxygen consumption (V·O 2max), activated muscle AMP-dependent kinase, and muscle mitochondrial marker ATP synthase all increased. Strength, lean body mass, and fat mass did not change. The activated mammalian target of rapamycin was not different after training. Training induced a shift in muscle fiber composition in both groups but in opposite directions. The proportion of type 2× fibers decreased with a concomitant increase in type 2a mixed fibers in the control subjects, but in metabolic syndrome, type 2× fiber proportion increased and type 1 fibers decreased. Muscle fiber diameters increased in all three fiber types in metabolic syndrome subjects. Muscle insulin receptor expression increased in both groups, and GLUT4 expression increased in the metabolic syndrome subjects. The excess phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) at Ser337 in metabolic syndrome muscle tended to increase further after training in spite of a decrease in total IRS-1.In the absence of weight loss, the cycle training of metabolic syndrome subjects resulted in enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis and increased the expression of insulin receptors and GLUT4 in muscle but did not decrease the insulin resistance. The failure for the insulin signal to proceed past IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation may be related to excess serine phosphorylation at IRS-1 Ser337, and this is not ameliorated by 8 wk of endurance exercise training.
|Hepatic STAMP2 decreases hepatitis B virus X protein-associated metabolic deregulation.|
Kim, HY; Cho, HK; Yoo, SK; Cheong, JH
Experimental & molecular medicine 44 622-32 2012
Six transmembrane protein of prostate 2 (STAMP2) plays a key role in linking inflammatory and diet-derived signals to systemic metabolism. STAMP2 is induced by nutrients/feeding as well as by cytokines such as TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6. Here, we demonstrated that STAMP2 protein physically interacts with and decreases the stability of hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx), thereby counteracting HBx-induced hepatic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance. STAMP2 suppressed the HBx-mediated transcription of lipogenic and adipogenic genes. Furthermore, STAMP2 prevented HBx-induced degradation of IRS1 protein, which mediates hepatic insulin signaling, as well as restored insulin-mediated inhibition of gluconeogenic enzyme expression, which are gluconeogenic genes. We also demonstrated reciprocal expression of HBx and STAMP2 in HBx transgenic mice. These results suggest that hepatic STAMP2 antagonizes HBx-mediated hepatocyte dysfunction, thereby protecting hepatocytes from HBV gene expression.
|Insulin receptor and IRS-1 co-immunoprecipitation with SOCS-3, and IKKα/β phosphorylation are increased in obese Zucker rat skeletal muscle.|
Zolotnik, IA; Figueroa, TY; Yaspelkis, BB
Life sciences 91 816-22 2012
We evaluated if selected pro-inflammatory cytokines and/or the protein suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS-3) could account for decreased insulin-stimulated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) activity in the skeletal muscle of the obese Zucker rat.Eight lean and eight obese Zucker rats ~4weeks of age were obtained and allowed to feed ad libitum for 4weeks before undergoing hind limb perfusion in the presence of 500μU/ml insulin.Insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle PI3-K activity and 3-O-methylglucose transport rates were reduced (Pless than 0.05) in obese compared to lean animals. IRS-1 concentration remained unchanged although IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation was decreased (Pless than 0.05), and IRS-1 serine phosphorylation (pS) was increased (Pless than 0.05) in obese animals compared to lean animals. IKKα/β pS and JNK theronine/tyrosine phosphorylation was increased (Pless than 0.05) in the obese animals. IκBα concentration was decreased (Pless than 0.05) and IκBα pS was increased (Pless than 0.05) in the obese compared to lean Zucker animals. SOCS-3 concentration and SOCS-3 co-immunoprecipitation with both insulin receptor β-subunit (IR-β) and IRS-1 were elevated (Pless than 0.05) in obese compared to lean animals. IRS-1 co-immunoprecipitation with IR-β was reduced 56% in the obese animals.Increased IKKα/β and JNK serine phosphorylation may contribute to increasing IRS-1 serine phosphorylation, while concurrent co-localization of SOCS-3 with both IR-β and IRS-1 may prevent IRS-1 from interacting with IR-β. These two mechanisms thusly may independently contribute to impairing insulin-stimulated PI3-K activation in the skeletal muscle of the obese Zucker rat.
|Expression of the IGF axis is decreased in local prostate cancer but enhanced after benign prostate epithelial differentiation and TGF-β treatment.|
Massoner, P; Ladurner Rennau, M; Heidegger, I; Kloss-Brandstätter, A; Summerer, M; Reichhart, E; Schäfer, G; Klocker, H
The American journal of pathology 179 2905-19 2011
The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis is a molecular pathway intensively investigated in cancer research. Clinical trials targeting the IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) in different tumors, including prostate cancer, are under way. Although studies on the IGF axis in prostate cancer have already entered into clinical trials, the expression and functional role of the IGF axis in benign prostate and in prostate cancer needs to be better defined. We determined mRNA expression levels of the IGF axis in microdissected tissue specimens of local prostate cancer using quantitative PCR. All members of the IGF axis, including IGF1, IGF2, IGF binding proteins 1 through 6, and insulin receptor, were measured in both the stromal and epithelial compartments of the prostate. IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R, and insulin receptor were down-regulated in local prostate cancer tissue compared with matched benign tissue, suggesting that the IGF axis is not induced during prostate cancer development. Using a new prostate epithelial differentiation model, we demonstrate that the expression of the IGF axis is enhanced during normal prostate epithelial differentiation and regulated by tumor growth factor (TGF)-β. Our data reveal a functional role of the IGF axis in prostate differentiation, underscoring the importance of the IGF axis in normal development and emphasizing the importance of accurate target validation before moving to advanced clinical trials.
|Aerobic training reverses high-fat diet-induced pro-inflammatory signalling in rat skeletal muscle.|
Ben B Yaspelkis,Ilya A Kvasha,Sarah J Lessard,Donato A Rivas,John A Hawley
European journal of applied physiology 110 2010
High-fat feeding activates components of the pro-inflammatory pathway and increases co-immunoprecipitation of suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS)-3 with both the insulin receptor (IR)-? subunit and IRS-1, which together contribute to keeping PI-3 kinase from being fully activated. However, whether aerobic training reverses these impairments is unknown. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a chow (CON, n = 8) or saturated high-fat (n = 16) diets for 4 weeks. High-fat-fed rats were then allocated (n = 8/group) to either sedentary (HF) or aerobic exercise training (HFX) for an additional 4 weeks after which all animals underwent hind limb perfusions. Insulin-stimulated red quadriceps 3-O-methylglucose transport rates and PI-3 kinase activity were greater (p < 0.05) in CON and HFX compared to HF. IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation was increased (p < 0.05) and IRS-1 serine 307 phosphorylation was decreased (p < 0.05) in HFX compared to HF. IR-? subunit co-immunoprecipitation with IRS-1 was increased in HFX compared to HF. SOCS-3 co-immunoprecipitation with both the IR-? subunit and IRS-1 was decreased (p < 0.05) in HFX compared to HF. IKK?/? serine phosphorylation, and I?B? serine phosphorylation were decreased (p < 0.05) while I?B? protein concentration was increased in HFX compared to HF. By decreasing the association of SOCS-3 with both the IR-? subunit and IRS-1 the interaction between IRS-1 and the IR-? subunit was normalized in the HFX, and may have contributed to skeletal muscle PI-3 kinase being fully activated by insulin. Additionally, the reduction in IKK?/? serine phosphorylation in HFX may have contributed to decreasing IRS-1 serine phosphorylation, and in turn, promoted the normalization of insulin-stimulated activation of PI-3 kinase.
|Hepatitis B virus X protein impairs hepatic insulin signaling through degradation of IRS1 and induction of SOCS3.|
Kim, K; Kim, KH; Cheong, J
PloS one 5 e8649 2010
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of chronic liver diseases, and frequently results in hepatitis, cirrhosis, and ultimately hepatocellular carcinoma. The role of HCV in associations with insulin signaling has been elucidated. However, the pathogenesis of HBV-associated insulin signaling remains to be clearly characterized. Therefore, we have attempted to determine the mechanisms underlying the HBV-associated impairment of insulin signaling.The expressions of insulin signaling components were investigated in HBx-transgenic mice, HBx-constitutive expressing cells, and transiently HBx-transfected cells. Protein and gene expression was examined by Western blot, immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, and promoter assay. Protein-protein interaction was detected by coimmunoprecipitation.HBx induced a reduction in the expression of IRS1, and a potent proteasomal inhibitor blocked the downregulation of IRS1. Additionally, HBx enhanced the expression of SOCS3 and induced IRS1 ubiquitination. Also, C/EBPalpha and STAT3 were involved in the HBx-induced expression of SOCS3. HBx interfered with insulin signaling activation and recovered the insulin-mediated downregulation of gluconeogenic genes.These results provide direct experimental evidences for the contribution of HBx in the impairment of insulin signaling.
|Oxidative stress contributes to aging by enhancing pancreatic angiogenesis and insulin signaling.|
Gaëlle Laurent,Florence Solari,Bogdan Mateescu,Melis Karaca,Julien Castel,Brigitte Bourachot,Christophe Magnan,Marc Billaud,Fatima Mechta-Grigoriou
Cell metabolism 7 2008
JunD, a transcription factor of the AP-1 family, protects cells against oxidative stress. Here, we show that junD(-/-) mice exhibit features of premature aging and shortened life span. They also display persistent hypoglycemia due to enhanced insulin secretion. Consequently, the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathways are constitutively stimulated, leading to inactivation of FoxO1, a positive regulator of longevity. Hyperinsulinemia most likely results from enhanced pancreatic islet vascularization owing to chronic oxidative stress. Indeed, accumulation of free radicals in beta cells enhances VEGF-A transcription, which in turn increases pancreatic angiogenesis and insulin secretion. Accordingly, long-term treatment with an antioxidant rescues the phenotype of junD(-/-) mice. Indeed, dietary antioxidant supplementation was protective against pancreatic angiogenesis, hyperinsulinemia, and subsequent activation of insulin signaling cascades in peripheral tissues. Taken together, these data establish a pivotal role for oxidative stress in systemic regulation of insulin and define a key role for the JunD protein in longevity.
|Phosphoinositide 3-kinase p110beta activity: key role in metabolism and mammary gland cancer but not development.|
Ciraolo, E; Iezzi, M; Marone, R; Marengo, S; Curcio, C; Costa, C; Azzolino, O; Gonella, C; Rubinetto, C; Wu, H; Dastrù, W; Martin, EL; Silengo, L; Altruda, F; Turco, E; Lanzetti, L; Musiani, P; Rückle, T; Rommel, C; Backer, JM; Forni, G; Wymann, MP; Hirsch, E
Science signaling 1 ra3 2008
The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway crucially controls metabolism and cell growth. Although different PI3K catalytic subunits are known to play distinct roles, the specific in vivo function of p110beta (the product of the PIK3CB gene) is not clear. Here, we show that mouse mutants expressing a catalytically inactive PIK3CB(K805R) mutant survived to adulthood but showed growth retardation and developed mild insulin resistance with age. Pharmacological and genetic analyses of p110beta function revealed that p110beta catalytic activity is required for PI3K signaling downstream of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors as well as to sustain long-term insulin signaling. In addition, PIK3CB(K805R) mice were protected in a model of ERBB2-driven tumor development. These findings indicate an unexpected role for p110beta catalytic activity in diabetes and cancer, opening potential avenues for therapeutic intervention.