Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R, Ca, Ch||ICC, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at -20ºC from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||50 µg|
|Anti-Lamin A/C, clone 14||2465190|
|Anti-Lamin A/C, clone 14 - 26011||26011|
|Anti-Lamin A/C, clone 14 - 26488||26488|
|Anti-Lamin A/C, clone 14 - 27781||27781|
|Anti-Lamin A/C, clone 14 - 2939627||2939627|
|Anti-Lamin A/C, clone 14 - 30202||30202|
|Anti-Lamin A/C, clone 14 -2782080||2782080|
|Anti-Lamin A/C, clone 14 Monoclonal Antibody||2880704|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|The bromodomain protein Brd4 insulates chromatin from DNA damage signalling.|
Floyd, SR; Pacold, ME; Huang, Q; Clarke, SM; Lam, FC; Cannell, IG; Bryson, BD; Rameseder, J; Lee, MJ; Blake, EJ; Fydrych, A; Ho, R; Greenberger, BA; Chen, GC; Maffa, A; Del Rosario, AM; Root, DE; Carpenter, AE; Hahn, WC; Sabatini, DM; Chen, CC; White, FM; Bradner, JE; Yaffe, MB
Nature 498 246-50 2013
DNA damage activates a signalling network that blocks cell-cycle progression, recruits DNA repair factors and/or triggers senescence or programmed cell death. Alterations in chromatin structure are implicated in the initiation and propagation of the DNA damage response. Here we further investigate the role of chromatin structure in the DNA damage response by monitoring ionizing-radiation-induced signalling and response events with a high-content multiplex RNA-mediated interference screen of chromatin-modifying and -interacting genes. We discover that an isoform of Brd4, a bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) family member, functions as an endogenous inhibitor of DNA damage response signalling by recruiting the condensin II chromatin remodelling complex to acetylated histones through bromodomain interactions. Loss of this isoform results in relaxed chromatin structure, rapid cell-cycle checkpoint recovery and enhanced survival after irradiation, whereas functional gain of this isoform compacted chromatin, attenuated DNA damage response signalling and enhanced radiation-induced lethality. These data implicate Brd4, previously known for its role in transcriptional control, as an insulator of chromatin that can modulate the signalling response to DNA damage.
|Ubiquitin-dependent recruitment of the Bloom syndrome helicase upon replication stress is required to suppress homologous recombination.|
Tikoo, S; Madhavan, V; Hussain, M; Miller, ES; Arora, P; Zlatanou, A; Modi, P; Townsend, K; Stewart, GS; Sengupta, S
The EMBO journal 32 1778-92 2013
Limiting the levels of homologous recombination (HR) that occur at sites of DNA damage is a major role of BLM helicase. However, very little is known about the mechanisms dictating its relocalization to these sites. Here, we demonstrate that the ubiquitin/SUMO-dependent DNA damage response (UbS-DDR), controlled by the E3 ligases RNF8/RNF168, triggers BLM recruitment to sites of replication fork stalling via ubiquitylation in the N-terminal region of BLM and subsequent BLM binding to the ubiquitin-interacting motifs of RAP80. Furthermore, we show that this mechanism of BLM relocalization is essential for BLM's ability to suppress excessive/uncontrolled HR at stalled replication forks. Unexpectedly, we also uncovered a requirement for RNF8-dependent ubiquitylation of BLM and PML for maintaining the integrity of PML-associated nuclear bodies and as a consequence the localization of BLM to these structures. Lastly, we identified a novel role for RAP80 in preventing proteasomal degradation of BLM in unstressed cells. Taken together, these data highlight an important biochemical link between the UbS-DDR and BLM-dependent pathways involved in maintaining genome stability.
|The c-Myc-regulated microRNA-17~92 (miR-17~92) and miR-106a~363 clusters target hCYP19A1 and hGCM1 to inhibit human trophoblast differentiation.|
Kumar, P; Luo, Y; Tudela, C; Alexander, JM; Mendelson, CR
Molecular and cellular biology 33 1782-96 2013
Mononuclear cytotrophoblasts of the human placenta proliferate rapidly, subsequently fuse, and differentiate to form multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast with induction of aromatase (hCYP19A1) and chorionic gonadotropin (hCGβ) expression. Using microarray analysis, we identified members of the miR-17~92 cluster and its paralogs, miR-106a~363 and miR-106b~25, that are significantly downregulated upon syncytiotrophoblast differentiation. Interestingly, miR-19b and miR-106a directly targeted hCYP19A1 expression, while miR-19b also targeted human GCM1 (hGCM1), a transcription factor critical for mouse labyrinthine trophoblast development. Overexpression of these microRNAs (miRNAs) impaired syncytiotrophoblast differentiation. hGCM1 knockdown decreased hCYP19A1 and hCGβ expression, substantiating its important role in human trophoblast differentiation. Expression of the c-Myc proto-oncogene was increased in proliferating cytotrophoblasts compared to that in differentiated syncytiotrophoblast. Moreover, c-Myc overexpression upregulated miR-17~92 and inhibited hCYP19A1 and hCGβ expression. Binding of endogenous c-Myc to genomic regions upstream of the miR-17~92 and miR-106a~363 clusters in cytotrophoblasts dramatically decreased upon syncytiotrophoblast differentiation. Intriguingly, we observed higher levels of miR-106a and -19b and lower aromatase and hGCM1 expression in placentas from preeclamptic women than in placentas from gestation-matched normotensive women. Our findings reveal that c-Myc-regulated members of the miR-17~92 and miR-106a~363 clusters inhibit trophoblast differentiation by repressing hGCM1 and hCYP19A1 and suggest that aberrant regulation of these miRNAs may contribute to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.
|Estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRgamma) mediates oxygen-dependent induction of aromatase (CYP19) gene expression during human trophoblast differentiation.|
Kumar, P; Mendelson, CR
Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 25 1513-26 2011
Differentiation of human cytotrophoblasts to syncytiotrophoblast and the associated induction of aromatase/hCYP19 gene expression are dependent upon a critical O(2) tension; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain undefined. In this study, we provide compelling evidence that expression of the orphan nuclear receptor, estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ), is also O(2) dependent, induced during human syncytiotrophoblast differentiation, and plays an obligatory role in the induction of placenta-specific hCYP19I.1 gene expression. Treatment with the selective ERRγ agonist, DY131, or overexpression of ERRγ, stimulated hCYP19 expression in syncytiotrophoblast. Overexpression of ERRγ prevented effects of hypoxia to repress hCYP19 gene expression in cultured trophoblasts. Conversely, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous ERRγ in primary trophoblasts markedly inhibited hCYP19 expression. Promoter and site-directed mutagenesis studies in transfected placental cells identified a nuclear receptor element within placenta-specific hCYP19 promoter I.1 required for ERRγ-stimulated activity. Recruitment of endogenous ERRγ to the nuclear receptor element region in hCYP19 promoter during trophoblast differentiation, assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation, was prevented by hypoxia. Deferoxamine-induced hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) levels decreased ERRγ expression, whereas knockdown of endogenous HIF-1α prevented ERRγ suppression by hypoxia. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of trophoblasts cultured in hypoxia revealed recruitment of HIF-1α to one of two putative hypoxia response elements in the ERRγ promoter, providing in vivo evidence of a direct HIF-1α involvement in ERRγ expression. Collectively, these novel findings identify ERRγ as an O(2)-dependent transcription factor and HIF-1α target gene that serves a critical role in the induction of hCYP19 expression during human trophoblast differentiation.
|Both t-Darpp and DARPP-32 can cause resistance to trastuzumab in breast cancer cells and are frequently expressed in primary breast cancers.|
Sophie Hamel,Amélie Bouchard,Cristiano Ferrario,Saima Hassan,Adriana Aguilar-Mahecha,Marguerite Buchanan,Louise Quenneville,Wilson Miller,Mark Basik
Breast cancer research and treatment 120 2010
The clinical use of trastuzumab (Herceptin), a humanized antibody against the HER2 growth factor receptor, has improved survival in patients with breast tumors with ERBB2 amplification and/or over-expression. However, most patients with advanced ERBB2 amplified breast cancers whose tumors initially respond to trastuzumab develop resistance to the drug, leading to tumor progression. To identify factors responsible for acquired resistance to trastuzumab, gene expression profiling was performed on subclones of an ERBB2 amplified breast cancer cell line, BT474, which had acquired resistance to trastuzumab. The most overexpressed gene in these subclones was PPP1R1B, encoding the DARPP-32 phosphatase inhibitor. Western analysis revealed that only the truncated isoform of the DARPP-32 protein, t-Darpp, was overexpressed in the trastuzumab resistant cells. Using gene silencing experiments, we confirmed that t-Darpp over-expression was required for trastuzumab resistance in these cells. Furthermore, transfecting t-Darpp in parental BT-474 cells conferred resistance to trastuzumab, suggesting that t-Darpp expression was sufficient for trastuzumab resistance. We also found that t-Darpp over-expression was associated with Akt activation and that the T75 residue in t-Darpp was required for both Akt activation and trastuzumab resistance. Finally, we found that full-length DARPP-32 and t-Darpp are expressed in a majority of primary breast tumors. Over-expression of full-length DARPP-32 can also confer resistance to trastuzumab and, moreover, is associated with a poor prognostic value in breast cancers. Thus, t-Darpp and DARPP-32 expression are novel prognostic and predictive biomarkers in breast cancer.
|DNA methyltransferase 1-associated protein (DMAP1) is a co-repressor that stimulates DNA methylation globally and locally at sites of double strand break repair.|
Lee, GE; Kim, JH; Taylor, M; Muller, MT
The Journal of biological chemistry 285 37630-40 2010
Correction of double strand DNA breaks proceeds in an error-free pathway of homologous recombination (HR), which can result in gene silencing of half of the DNA molecules caused by action by DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) (Cuozzo, C., Porcellini, A., Angrisano, T., Morano, A., Lee, B., Di Pardo, A., Messina, S., Iuliano, R., Fusco, A., Santillo, M. R., Muller, M. T., Chiariotti, L., Gottesman, M. E., and Avvedimento, E. V. (2007) PLoS Genet. 3, e110). To explore the mechanism that leads to HR-induced silencing, a genetic screen was carried out based on the silencing of a GFP reporter to identify potential partners. DMAP1, a DNMT1 interacting protein, was identified as a mediator of this process. DMAP1 is a potent activator of DNMT1 methylation in vitro, suggesting that DMAP1 is a co-repressor that supports the maintenance and de novo action of DNMT1. To examine critical roles for DMAP1 in vivo, lentiviral shRNA was used to conditionally reduce cellular DMAP1 levels. The shRNA transduced cells grew poorly and eventually ceased their growth. Analysis of the tumor suppressor gene p16 methylation status revealed a clear reduction in methylated CpGs in the shRNA cells, suggesting that reactivation of a tumor suppressor gene pathway caused the slow growth phenotype. Analysis of HR, using a fluorescence-based reporter, revealed that knocking down DMAP1 also caused hypomethylation of the DNA repair products following gene conversion. DMAP1 was selectively enriched in recombinant GFP chromatin based on chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. The picture that emerges is that DMAP1 activates DNMT1 preferentially at sites of HR repair. Because DMAP1 depleted cells display enhanced HR, we conclude that it has additional roles in genomic stability.
|A novel reverse transduction adenoviral array for the functional analysis of shRNA libraries.|
Oehmig, A; Klotzbücher, A; Thomas, M; Weise, F; Hagner, U; Brundiers, R; Waldherr, D; Lingnau, A; Knappik, A; Kubbutat, MH; Joos, TO; Volkmer, H
BMC genomics 9 441 2008
The identification of novel drug targets by assessing gene functions is most conveniently achieved by high-throughput loss-of-function RNA interference screening. There is a growing need to employ primary cells in such screenings, since they reflect the physiological situation more closely than transformed cell lines do. Highly miniaturized and parallelized approaches as exemplified by reverse transfection or transduction arrays meet these requirements, hence we verified the applicability of an adenoviral microarray for the elucidation of gene functions in primary cells.Here, we present microarrays of infectious adenoviruses encoding short hairpin RNA (shRNA) as a new tool for gene function analysis. As an example to demonstrate its application, we chose shRNAs directed against seven selected human protein kinases, and we have performed quantitative analysis of phenotypical responses in primary human umbilical vein cells (HUVEC). These microarrays enabled us to infect the target cells in a parallelized and miniaturized procedure without significant cross-contamination: Viruses were reversibly immobilized in spots in such a way that the seeded cells were confined to the area of the viral spots, thus simplifying the subsequent addressing of genetically modified cells for analysis. Computer-assisted image analysis of fluorescence images was applied to analyze the cellular response after shRNA expression. Both the expression level of knock-down target proteins as well as the functional output as measured by caspase 3 activity and DNA fractionation (TUNEL) were quantified.We have developed an adenoviral microarray technique suitable for miniaturized and parallelized analysis of gene function. The practicability of this technique was demonstrated by the analysis of several kinases involved in the activation of programmed cell death, both in tumor cells and in primary cells.
|p300 modulates nuclear morphology in prostate cancer|
Debes, Jose D, et al
Cancer Res, 65:708-712 (2005) 2005
|Distinct pools of epithelial sodium channels are expressed at the plasma membrane|
Hughey, Rebecca P, et al
J Biol Chem, 279:48491-4 (2004) 2004
|LMNA, encoding lamin A/C, is mutated in partial lipodystrophy.|
Shackleton, S, et al.
Nat. Genet., 24: 153-6 (2000) 2000
The lipodystrophies are a group of disorders characterized by the absence or reduction of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Partial lipodystrophy (PLD; MIM 151660) is an inherited condition in which a regional (trunk and limbs) loss of fat occurs during the peri-pubertal phase. Additionally, variable degrees of resistance to insulin action, together with a hyperlipidaemic state, may occur and simulate the metabolic features commonly associated with predisposition to atherosclerotic disease. The PLD locus has been mapped to chromosome 1q with no evidence of genetic heterogeneity. We, and others, have refined the location to a 5.3-cM interval between markers D1S305 and D1S1600 (refs 5, 6). Through a positional cloning approach we have identified five different missense mutations in LMNA among ten kindreds and three individuals with PLD. The protein product of LMNA is lamin A/C, which is a component of the nuclear envelope. Heterozygous mutations in LMNA have recently been identified in kindreds with the variant form of muscular dystrophy (MD) known as autosomal dominant Emery-Dreifuss MD (EDMD-AD; ref. 7) and dilated cardiomyopathy and conduction-system disease (CMD1A). As LMNA is ubiquitously expressed, the finding of site-specific amino acid substitutions in PLD, EDMD-AD and CMD1A reveals distinct functional domains of the lamin A/C protein required for the maintenance and integrity of different cell types.