Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R, Rb||WB, IHC||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-MAP2 Antibody, clone 5F9|
|Presentation||200 µg of protein G purified mouse IgG1 in 200 µL of storage buffer (0.02 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.6, 0.25 M NaCl, and 0.1% sodium azide. Frozen at -20°C.|
|Application||Detect MAP2 using this Anti-MAP2 Antibody, clone 5F9 validated for use in WB, IH.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||2 years at -20°C|
|Material Size||200 µg|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|p53 regulates neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation via BMP-Smad1 signaling and Id1.|
Liu, H; Jia, D; Li, A; Chau, J; He, D; Ruan, X; Liu, F; Li, J; He, L; Li, B
Stem cells and development 22 913-27 2013
Neural stem cells (NSCs) play essential roles in nervous system development and postnatal neuroregeneration and their deregulation underlies the development of neurodegenerative disorders. Yet how NSC proliferation and differentiation are controlled is not fully understood. Here we present evidence that tumor suppressor p53 regulates NSC proliferation and differentiation via the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP)-Smad1 pathway and its target gene inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (Id1). p53 deficiency led to increased neurogenesis in vivo, and biased neuronal differentiation and augmented NSC proliferation of ex vivo NSCs. This is accompanied by elevated Smad1 expression/activation in the brain and NSC, which contributes to accelerated neuronal differentiation of p53(-/-) NSCs. p53 deficiency also leads to upregulation of Id1, whose expression is repressed by p53 in BMP-Smad1-dependent and -independent manners. Elevated Id1 expression contributes to augmented proliferation and, unexpectedly, accelerated neuronal differentiation of p53(-/-) NSCs as well. This study reveals a molecular mechanism by which tumor suppressor p53 controls NSC proliferation and differentiation and establishes a connection between p53 and Id1.
|Activity-dependent regulation of surface glucose transporter-3.|
Ferreira, JM; Burnett, AL; Rameau, GA
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 31 1991-9 2011
Glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) is the main facilitative glucose transporter in neurons. Glucose provides neurons with a critical energy source for neuronal activity. However, the mechanism by which neuronal activity controls glucose influx via GLUT3 is unknown. We investigated the influence of synaptic stimulation on GLUT3 surface expression and glucose import in primary cultured cortical and hippocampal neurons. Synaptic activity increased surface expression of GLUT3 leading to an elevation of intracellular glucose. The effect was blocked by NMDA receptor (NMDAR) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibition. The Akt inhibitor I (Akt-I) blocked NMDAR-induced GLUT3 surface expression while a nNOS-phosphomimetic mutant (S1412D) enhanced GLUT3 expression at cell surface. These results suggest that NMDAR/Akt-dependent nNOS phosphorylation is coupled to GLUT3 trafficking. We demonstrated that activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK) increased the surface expression of GLUT3, which was repressed by Rp-8-pCPT-cGMPS, a potent cell-permeable inhibitor of cGKs. These studies characterize the molecular basis for activity-dependent increases in surface GLUT3 after stimulation of the NMDARs. NMDAR-induced increase in surface GLUT3 represents a novel pathway for control of energy supply during neuronal activity that is critical for maintaining glucose homeostasis during neuronal transmission.Full Text Article
|Loss of activity-induced phosphorylation of MeCP2 enhances synaptogenesis, LTP and spatial memory.|
Li, H; Zhong, X; Chau, KF; Williams, EC; Chang, Q
Nature neuroscience 14 1001-8 2011
DNA methylation-dependent epigenetic mechanisms underlie the development and function of the mammalian brain. MeCP2 is highly expressed in neurons and functions as a molecular linker between DNA methylation, chromatin remodeling and transcription regulation. Previous in vitro studies have shown that neuronal activity-induced phosphorylation (NAIP) of methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) precedes its release from the Bdnf promoter and the ensuing Bdnf transcription. However, the in vivo function of this phosphorylation event remains elusive. We generated knock-in mice that lack NAIP of MeCP2 and found that they performed better in hippocampus-dependent memory tests, presented enhanced long-term potentiation at two synapses in the hippocampus and showed increased excitatory synaptogenesis. At the molecular level, the phospho-mutant MeCP2 protein bound more tightly to several MeCP2 target gene promoters and altered the expression of these genes. Our results suggest that NAIP of MeCP2 is required for modulating dynamic functions of the adult mouse brain.
|Fusion of microglia with pyramidal neurons after retroviral infection.|
Ackman, JB; Siddiqi, F; Walikonis, RS; LoTurco, JJ
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 26 11413-22 2006
The neurogenic potential of the postnatal neocortex has not been tested previously with a combination of both retroviral and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling. Here we report that injections of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) retrovirus into 134 postnatal rats resulted in GFP labeling of 642 pyramidal neurons in neocortex. GFP-labeled neocortical pyramidal neurons, however, unlike GFP-labeled glia, did not incorporate BrdU. Closer inspection of retrovirally labeled neurons revealed microglia fused to the apical dendrites of labeled pyramidal neurons. Retroviral infection of mixed cultures of cortical neurons and glia confirmed the presence of specific neuronal-microglial fusions. Microglia did not fuse to other glial cell types, and cultures not treated with retrovirus lacked microglial-neuronal fusion. Furthermore, activation of microglia by lipopolysaccharide greatly increased the virally induced fusion of microglia to neurons in culture. These results indicate a novel form of specific cell fusion between neuronal dendrites and microglia and further illustrate the need for caution when interpreting evidence for neuronogenesis in the postnatal brain.
|Bidirectional regulation of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase phosphorylation at serine 847 by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor|
Rameau, G. A., et al
J Biol Chem, 279:14307-14 (2004) 2004
|Delta/notch-like epidermal growth factor (EGF)-related receptor, a novel EGF-like repeat-containing protein targeted to dendrites of developing and adult central nervous system neurons|
Eiraku, M., et al
J Biol Chem, 277:25400-7 (2002) 2002
|Cyclin-dependent kinases as a therapeutic target for stroke.|
Osuga, H; Osuga, S; Wang, F; Fetni, R; Hogan, MJ; Slack, RS; Hakim, AM; Ikeda, JE; Park, DS
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 97 10254-9 2000
Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are commonly known to regulate cell proliferation. However, previous reports suggest that in cultured postmitotic neurons, activation of CDKs is a signal for death rather than cell division. We determined whether CDK activation occurs in mature adult neurons during focal stroke in vivo and whether this signal was required for neuronal death after reperfusion injury. Cdk4/cyclin D1 levels and phosphorylation of its substrate retinoblastoma protein (pRb) increase after stroke. Deregulated levels of E2F1, a transcription factor regulated by pRb, are also observed. Administration of a CDK inhibitor blocks pRb phosphorylation and the increase in E2F1 levels and dramatically reduces neuronal death by 80%. These results indicate that CDKs are an important therapeutic target for the treatment of reperfusion injury after ischemia.Full Text Article
|Partial sequence of MAP2 in the region of a shared epitope with Alzheimer neurofibrillary tangles.|
Kosik, K S, et al.
J. Neurochem., 51: 587-98 (1988) 1988
A 3.3-kilobase DNA complementary to human microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) was sequenced by the dideoxy method. The 3' end terminates at an internal EcoRI site before the polyA tail. Due to the arrangement of the cDNA insert in the lambda gt11 vector, the MAP2 fragment is not fused to beta-galactosidase when expressed. The Chou Fasman algorithm for the initial 58 amino acids from the first in-frame methionine predicts an alpha helix. Beyond this point, a series of turns is predicted until amino acid 160. The frequent presence of basic residues in proximity to serines or threonines is consistent with multiple phosphorylation sites. The minimum specificity determinant for Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase is repeated 13 times. The sequence of a region containing a MAP2 epitope that is shared with the Alzheimer neurofibrillary tangle was determined by DNase treatment of the cDNA and antibody selecting the small resultant clones in a lambda gt11 sublibrary. Likewise, a MAP2 epitope that is not shared with the neurofibrillary tangle also has been located. Both epitopes are in the projection portion of the molecule. A bovine MAP2 cyanogen bromide fragment, which contains the epitope shared with the neurofibrillary tangle, is partially insoluble under aqueous conditions, probably due to the aggregation of oppositely charged residues. Thus, rapid cleavage of MAP2 to small peptides is probably necessary in vivo to prevent the aggregation of larger cleavage fragments.
|Microtubule-associated protein 2: monoclonal antibodies demonstrate the selective incorporation of certain epitopes into Alzheimer neurofibrillary tangles.|
Kosik, K S, et al.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 81: 7941-5 (1984) 1984
Neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) are the principal structural alteration of neuronal cell bodies in Alzheimer disease as well as in normal aging of the human brain. While the ultrastructure of these intraneuronal lesions has been extensively studied, the biochemical composition of the fibers comprising the NFT is unknown. We report the production of three monoclonal antibodies against the microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2), one of which intensely labels Alzheimer NFT. All three antibodies specifically recognize MAP-2 on immunoblots and stain brain tissue in a characteristic dendritic pattern. The three antibodies are directed against at least two different antigenic sites on the MAP-2 molecule, and one appears to recognize a phosphorylation site on MAP-2. That only one of the three antibodies immunolabels NFT suggests that the formation of the tangle involves some modification of the MAP-2 molecule. Our findings suggest that one aspect of Alzheimer-type neurofibrillary pathology is an aggregation of MAP-2 or MAP-2 fragments with altered neurofilamentous elements present in NFT. Normal interactive function, which putatively occurs between neurofilaments and MAP-2, may thus be disrupted in Alzheimer disease.
|Microtubule assembly in the absence of added nucleotides.|
Shelanski, M L, et al.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 70: 765-8 (1973) 1973
Microtubule assembly is enhanced by the addition of 1 M sucrose or 4 M glycerol to the reassembly mixture. Tubulin can be purified from guinea pig brain readily and in good yield by two cycles of assembly in glycerol-containing solutions. The tubules assembled in glycerol and sucrose are more stable than tubules formed in the absence of these compounds. Assembly occurs in glycerol or sucrose in the absence of ATP or GTP, but is greatly accelarated by their presence.