Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M||ChIP, IF, IP, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified mouse IgG1 in 0.1 M Tris-glycine, pH 7.4, 0.15 M NaCl, 0.05% sodium azide before the addition of glycerol to 30%. Liquid at -20ºC|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Store for 2 years at -20ºC from date of shipment. For maximum recovery of product, centrifuge the vial prior to removing the cap.|
|Material Size||200 µg|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|A tumorigenic MLL-homeobox network in human glioblastoma stem cells.|
Gallo, M; Ho, J; Coutinho, FJ; Vanner, R; Lee, L; Head, R; Ling, EK; Clarke, ID; Dirks, PB
Cancer research 73 417-27 2013
Glioblastoma growth is driven by cancer cells that have stem cell properties, but molecular determinants of their tumorigenic behavior are poorly defined. In cancer, altered activity of the epigenetic modifiers Polycomb and Trithorax complexes may contribute to the neoplastic phenotype. Here, we provide the first mechanistic insights into the role of the Trithorax protein mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) in maintaining cancer stem cell characteristics in human glioblastoma. We found that MLL directly activates the Homeobox gene HOXA10. In turn, HOXA10 activates a downstream Homeobox network and other genes previously characterized for their role in tumorigenesis. The MLL-Homeobox axis we identified significantly contributes to the tumorigenic potential of glioblastoma stem cells. Our studies suggest a role for MLL in contributing to the epigenetic heterogeneity between tumor-initiating and non-tumor-initiating cells in glioblastoma.
|Epigenetic Roles of MLL Oncoproteins Are Dependent on NF-κB.|
Kuo, Hsu-Ping, et al.
Cancer Cell, (2013) 2013
MLL fusion proteins in leukemia induce aberrant transcriptional elongation and associated chromatin perturbations; however, the upstream signaling pathways and activators that recruit or retain MLL oncoproteins at initiated promoters are unknown. Through functional and comparative genomic studies, we identified an essential role for NF-κB signaling in MLL leukemia. Suppression of NF-κB led to robust antileukemia effects that phenocopied loss of functional MLL oncoprotein or associated epigenetic cofactors. The NF-κB subunit RELA occupies promoter regions of crucial MLL target genes and sustains the MLL-dependent leukemia stem cell program. IKK/NF-κB signaling is required for wild-type and fusion MLL protein retention and maintenance of associated histone modifications, providing a molecular rationale for enhanced efficacy in therapeutic targeting of this pathway in MLL leukemias.
|Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP)||24054986|
|Combined modulation of polycomb and trithorax genes rejuvenates β cell replication.|
Zhou, JX; Dhawan, S; Fu, H; Snyder, E; Bottino, R; Kundu, S; Kim, SK; Bhushan, A
The Journal of clinical investigation 123 4849-58 2013
Inadequate functional β cell mass underlies both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. β Cell growth and regeneration also decrease with age through mechanisms that are not fully understood. Age-dependent loss of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) prevents adult β cell replication through derepression of the gene encoding cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2a (INK4a). We investigated whether replenishing EZH2 could reverse the age-dependent increase of Ink4a transcription. We generated an inducible pancreatic β cell-specific Ezh2 transgenic mouse model and showed that transgene expression of Ezh2 was sufficient to increase β cell replication and regeneration in young adult mice. In mice older than 8 months, induction of Ezh2 was unable to repress Ink4a. Older mice had an enrichment of a trithorax group (TrxG) protein complex at the Ink4a locus. Knockdown of TrxG complex components, in conjunction with expression of Ezh2, resulted in Ink4a repression and increased replication of β cells in aged mice. These results indicate that combined modulation of polycomb group proteins, such as EZH2, along with TrxG proteins to repress Ink4a can rejuvenate the replication capacity of aged β cells. This study provides potential therapeutic targets for expansion of adult β cell mass.
|Chromatin loading of E2F-MLL complex by cancer-associated coregulator ANCCA via reading a specific histone mark.|
Revenko, AS; Kalashnikova, EV; Gemo, AT; Zou, JX; Chen, HW
Molecular and cellular biology 30 5260-72 2010
Histone modifications are regarded as the carrier of epigenetic memory through cell divisions. How the marks facilitate cell cycle-dependent gene expression is poorly understood. The evolutionarily conserved AAA ATPase ANCCA (AAA nuclear coregulator cancer-associated protein)/ATAD2 was identified as a direct target of oncogene AIB1/ACTR/SRC-3 and a transcriptional coregulator for estrogen and androgen receptors and is strongly implicated in tumorigenesis. We report here that ANCCA directly interacts with E2F1 to E2F3 and that its N terminus interacts with both the N and C termini of E2F1. ANCCA preferentially associates via its bromodomain with H3 acetylated at lysine 14 (H3K14ac) and is required for key cell cycle gene expression and cancer cell proliferation. ANCCA associates with chromosomes at late mitosis, and its occupancy at E2F targets peaks at the G(1)-to-S transition. Strikingly, ANCCA is required for recruitment of specific E2Fs to their targets and chromatin assembly of the host cell factor 1 (HCF-1)-MLL histone methyltransferase complex. ANCCA depletion results in a marked decrease of the gene activation-linked H3K4me3 mark. Bromodomain mutations disable ANCCA function as an E2F coactivator and its ability to promote cancer cell proliferation, while ANCCA overexpression in tumors correlates with tumor growth. Together, these results suggest that ANCCA acts as a pioneer factor in E2F-dependent gene activation and that a novel mechanism involving ANCCA bromodomain may contribute to cancer cell proliferation.Full Text Article
|Polycomb mediated epigenetic silencing and replication timing at the INK4a/ARF locus during senescence.|
Agherbi, H; Gaussmann-Wenger, A; Verthuy, C; Chasson, L; Serrano, M; Djabali, M
PloS one 4 e5622 2009
The INK4/ARF locus encodes three tumor suppressor genes (p15(Ink4b), Arf and p16(Ink4a)) and is frequently inactivated in a large number of human cancers. Mechanisms regulating INK4/ARF expression are not fully characterized.Here we show that in young proliferating embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) member EZH2 together with PRC1 members BMI1 and M33 are strongly expressed and localized at the INK4/ARF regulatory domain (RD) identified as a DNA replication origin. When cells enter senescence the binding to RD of both PRC1 and PRC2 complexes is lost leading to a decreased level of histone H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27me3). This loss is accompanied with an increased expression of the histone demethylase Jmjd3 and with the recruitment of the MLL1 protein, and correlates with the expression of the Ink4a/Arf genes. Moreover, we show that the Polycomb protein BMI1 interacts with CDC6, an essential regulator of DNA replication in eukaryotic cells. Finally, we demonstrate that Polycomb proteins and associated epigenetic marks are crucial for the control of the replication timing of the INK4a/ARF locus during senescence.We identified the replication licencing factor CDC6 as a new partner of the Polycomb group member BMI1. Our results suggest that in young cells Polycomb proteins are recruited to the INK4/ARF locus through CDC6 and the resulting silent locus is replicated during late S-phase. Upon senescence, Jmjd3 is overexpressed and the MLL1 protein is recruited to the locus provoking the dissociation of Polycomb from the INK4/ARF locus, its transcriptional activation and its replication during early S-phase. Together, these results provide a unified model that integrates replication, transcription and epigenetics at the INK4/ARF locus.Full Text Article
|MLL protects CpG clusters from methylation within the Hoxa9 gene, maintaining transcript expression.|
Erfurth, FE; Popovic, R; Grembecka, J; Cierpicki, T; Theisler, C; Xia, ZB; Stuart, T; Diaz, MO; Bushweller, JH; Zeleznik-Le, NJ
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105 7517-22 2008
Homeobox (HOX) genes play a definitive role in determination of cell fate during embryogenesis and hematopoiesis. MLL-related leukemia is coincident with increased expression of a subset of HOX genes, including HOXA9. MLL functions to maintain, rather than initiate, expression of its target genes. However, the mechanism of MLL maintenance of target gene expression is not understood. Here, we demonstrate that Mll binds to specific clusters of CpG residues within the Hoxa9 locus and regulates expression of multiple transcripts. The presence of Mll at these clusters provides protection from DNA methylation. shRNA knock-down of Mll reverses the methylation protection status at the previously protected CpG clusters; methylation at these CpG residues is similar to that observed in Mll null cells. Furthermore, reconstituting MLL expression in Mll null cells can reverse DNA methylation of the same CpG residues, demonstrating a dominant effect of MLL in protecting this specific region from DNA methylation. Intriguingly, an oncogenic MLL-AF4 fusion can also reverse DNA methylation, but only for a subset of these CpGs. This method of transcriptional regulation suggests a mechanism that explains the role of Mll in transcriptional maintenance, but it may extend to other CpG DNA binding proteins. Protection from methylation may be an important mechanism of epigenetic inheritance by regulating the function of both de novo and maintenance DNA methyltransferases.
|PTIP associates with MLL3- and MLL4-containing histone H3 lysine 4 methyltransferase complex.|
Cho, YW; Hong, T; Hong, S; Guo, H; Yu, H; Kim, D; Guszczynski, T; Dressler, GR; Copeland, TD; Kalkum, M; Ge, K
The Journal of biological chemistry 282 20395-406 2007
PTIP, a protein with tandem BRCT domains, has been implicated in DNA damage response. However, its normal cellular functions remain unclear. Here we show that while ectopically expressed PTIP is capable of interacting with DNA damage response proteins including 53BP1, endogenous PTIP, and a novel protein PA1 are both components of a Set1-like histone methyltransferase (HMT) complex that also contains ASH2L, RBBP5, WDR5, hDPY-30, NCOA6, SET domain-containing HMTs MLL3 and MLL4, and substoichiometric amount of JmjC domain-containing putative histone demethylase UTX. PTIP complex carries robust HMT activity and specifically methylates lysine 4 (K4) on histone H3. Furthermore, PA1 binds PTIP directly and requires PTIP for interaction with the rest of the complex. Moreover, we show that hDPY-30 binds ASH2L directly. The evolutionarily conserved hDPY-30, ASH2L, RBBP5, and WDR5 likely constitute a subcomplex that is shared by all human Set1-like HMT complexes. In contrast, PTIP, PA1, and UTX specifically associate with the PTIP complex. Thus, in cells without DNA damage agent treatment, the endogenous PTIP associates with a Set1-like HMT complex of unique subunit composition. As histone H3 K4 methylation associates with active genes, our study suggests a potential role of PTIP in the regulation of gene expression.Full Text Article
|Leukemia proto-oncoprotein MLL is proteolytically processed into 2 fragments with opposite transcriptional properties.|
Yokoyama, Akihiko, et al.
Blood, 100: 3710-8 (2002) 2002
MLL (mixed lineage leukemia; also ALL-1 or HRX) is a proto-oncogene that is mutated in a variety of acute leukemias. Its product is normally required for the maintenance of Hox gene expression during embryogenesis and hematopoiesis through molecular mechanisms that remain poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that MLL (mixed lineage leukemia) is proteolytically processed into 2 fragments (MLL(N) and MLL(C)) that display opposite transcriptional properties and form an intramolecular MLL complex in vivo. Proteolytic cleavage occurs at 2 amino acids (D2666 and D2718) within a consensus processing sequence (QXD/GZDD, where X is a hydrophobic amino acid and Z is an alanine or a valine) that is conserved in TRX, the Drosophila homolog of MLL, and in the MLL-related protein MLL2, suggesting that processing is important for MLL function. Processed MLL(N) and MLL(C) associate with each other via N-terminal (1253-2254 amino acids) and C-terminal (3602-3742 amino acids) intramolecular interaction domains. MLL processing occurs rapidly within a few hours after translation and is followed by the phosphorylation of MLL(C). MLL(N) displays transcriptional repression activity, whereas MLL(C) has strong transcriptional activation properties. Leukemia-associated MLL fusion proteins lack the MLL processing sites, do not undergo cleavage, and are unable to interact with MLL(C). These observations suggest that posttranslational modifications of MLL may participate in regulating its activity as a transcription factor and that this aspect of its function is perturbed by leukemogenic fusions.
|White Paper - The Message in the Marks: Deciphering Cancer Epigenetics|