|Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) blocks signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation in breast and prostate cancer.|
Yousuf, S; Duan, M; Moen, EL; Cross-Knorr, S; Brilliant, K; Bonavida, B; LaValle, T; Yeung, KC; Al-Mulla, F; Chin, E; Chatterjee, D
Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) is a member of the phosphatidylethanolamine-binding-protein (PEBP) family that modulates the action of many kinases involved in cellular growth, apoptosis, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, motility, invasion and metastasis. Previously, we described an inverse association between RKIP and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) expression in gastric adenocarcinoma patients. In this study, we elucidated the mechanism by which RKIP regulates STAT3 activity in breast and prostate cancer cell lines. RKIP over expression inhibited c-Src auto-phosphorylation and activation, as well as IL-6-, JAK1 and 2-, and activated Raf-mediated STAT3 tyrosine and serine phosphorylation and subsequent activation. In MDA-231 breast cancer cells that stably over express RKIP, IL-6 treatment blocked STAT3 phosphorylation and transcriptional activation. Conversely, in RKIP knockdown MDA-231 cells: STAT3 phosphorylation and activation increased in comparison to parental MDA-231 cells. RKIP over expression resulted in constitutive physical interaction with STAT3 and blocked c-Src and STAT3 association. The treatment of DU145 prostate, but not PC3 prostate or MDA-231 breast, cancer cell lines with ENMD-1198 or MKC-1 dramatically increased expression of RKIP. Overexpression of RKIP sensitized PC3 and MDA-231 cells to MTI-induced apoptosis. Moreover, MTI treatment resulted in a decrease in Src-mediated STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation and activation, an effect that was significantly enhanced by RKIP over expression. In stable RKIP over expressing MDA-231 cells, tumor xenograft growth induced by activated STAT3 is inhibited. RKIP synergizes with MTIs to induce apoptosis and inhibit STAT3 activation of breast and prostate cancer cells. RKIP plays a critical role in opposing the effects of pro-oncogenic STAT3 activation.
|Monoclonal antibodies against the nonmucin domain of MUC1/episialin.|
Hilkens, J and Boer, M
Tumour Biol., 19 Suppl 1: 67-70 (1998)
We have tested the reactivity of the monoclonal antibodies submitted to the ISOBM TD-4 Workshop for reactivity with a hybrid molecule consisting of the bacterial beta-galactosidase and most of the extracellular nonrepeat domain of MUC1/episialin. Two monoclonal antibodies submitted to the Workshop, 232A1 and M29, were directed against the protein moiety of this domain as shown by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation.
|A mechanism for inhibition of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion by the membrane-associated mucin episialin/MUC1.|
Wesseling, J, et al.
Mol. Biol. Cell, 7: 565-77 (1996)
Episialin (MUC1, PEM, EMA, CA15-3 antigen) is a sialylated, membrane-associated glycoprotein with an extended mucin-like ectodomain. This domain mainly consists of 30-90 homologous 20-amino acid repeats that are rich in O-glycosylation sites (serines and threonines). It is likely that this part forms a polyproline beta-turn helix. As a result, the ectodomain can protrude more than 200 nm above the cell surface, whereas most cell surface molecules do not exceed a length of 35 nm. Normally, episialin is present at the apical side of glandular epithelial cells. On carcinoma cells, however, it can be strongly overexpressed and it is often present over the entire cell surface. We have previously shown that episialin, if it is interspersed between adhesion molecules, nonspecifically reduces cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions in vitro and in vivo, presumably by steric hindrance caused by the extreme length and high density of the episialin molecules at the cell surface. To analyze the molecular mechanism for this anti-adhesion effect in more detail, we have now deleted an increasing number of repeats in the episialin cDNA and transfected the resulting mutants into murine L929 cells expressing the homophilic adhesion molecule E-cadherin. Here we show that the length of episialin is the dominant factor that determines the inhibition of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell interactions. For the anti-adhesive effect mediated by the full length episialin, charge repulsion by negatively charged sialylated O-linked glycans is far less important.