Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, R, M||ICC, IP, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified mouse monoclonal IgG in buffer containing 0.1M Tris-glycine, pH 7.4, 0.15M NaCl, 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at 2° to 8ºC from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||200 µg|
|Anti-NR1, CT (mouse monoclonal IgG) - DAM1413902||DAM1413902|
|Anti-NR1, CT - 2383521||2383521|
|Anti-NR1, CT - 2455626||2455626|
|Anti-NR1, CT - 17443||17443|
|Anti-NR1, CT - 1988741||1988741|
|Anti-NR1, CT - 2041025||2041025|
|Anti-NR1, CT - 21353||21353|
|Anti-NR1, CT - 2167783||2167783|
|Anti-NR1, CT - 21961||21961|
|Anti-NR1, CT - 2278508||2278508|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|STIM2 regulates PKA-dependent phosphorylation and trafficking of AMPARs.|
Garcia-Alvarez, G; Lu, B; Yap, KA; Wong, LC; Thevathasan, JV; Lim, L; Ji, F; Tan, KW; Mancuso, JJ; Tang, W; Poon, SY; Augustine, GJ; Fivaz, M
Molecular biology of the cell 26 1141-59 2015
STIMs (STIM1 and STIM2 in mammals) are transmembrane proteins that reside in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and regulate store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE). The function of STIMs in the brain is only beginning to be explored, and the relevance of SOCE in nerve cells is being debated. Here we identify STIM2 as a central organizer of excitatory synapses. STIM2, but not its paralogue STIM1, influences the formation of dendritic spines and shapes basal synaptic transmission in excitatory neurons. We further demonstrate that STIM2 is essential for cAMP/PKA-dependent phosphorylation of the AMPA receptor (AMPAR) subunit GluA1. cAMP triggers rapid migration of STIM2 to ER-plasma membrane (PM) contact sites, enhances recruitment of GluA1 to these ER-PM junctions, and promotes localization of STIM2 in dendritic spines. Both biochemical and imaging data suggest that STIM2 regulates GluA1 phosphorylation by coupling PKA to the AMPAR in a SOCE-independent manner. Consistent with a central role of STIM2 in regulating AMPAR phosphorylation, STIM2 promotes cAMP-dependent surface delivery of GluA1 through combined effects on exocytosis and endocytosis. Collectively our results point to a unique mechanism of synaptic plasticity driven by dynamic assembly of a STIM2 signaling complex at ER-PM contact sites.
|A naturally occurring null variant of the NMDA type glutamate receptor NR3B subunit is a risk factor of schizophrenia.|
Matsuno, H; Ohi, K; Hashimoto, R; Yamamori, H; Yasuda, Y; Fujimoto, M; Yano-Umeda, S; Saneyoshi, T; Takeda, M; Hayashi, Y
PloS one 10 e0116319 2015
Hypofunction of the N-methyl-D-aspartate type glutamate receptor (NMDAR) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Here, we investigated the significance of a common human genetic variation of the NMDAR NR3B subunit that inserts 4 bases within the coding region (insCGTT) in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The cDNA carrying this polymorphism generates a truncated protein, which is electrophysiologically non-functional in heterologous expression systems. Among 586 schizophrenia patients and 754 healthy controls, insCGTT was significantly overrepresented in patients compared to controls (odds ratio = 1.37, p = 0.035). Among 121 schizophrenia patients and 372 healthy controls, genetic analyses of normal individuals revealed that those carrying insCGTT have a predisposition to schizotypal personality traits (F1,356 = 4.69, p = 0.031). Furthermore, pre-pulse inhibition, a neurobiological trait disturbed in patients with schizophrenia, was significantly impaired in patients carrying insCGTT compared with those with the major allele (F1,116 = 5.72, p = 0.018, F1,238 = 4.46, p = 0.036, respectively). These results indicate that a naturally occurring null variant in NR3B could be a risk factor of schizophrenia.
|DYRK1A-mediated phosphorylation of GluN2A at Ser(1048) regulates the surface expression and channel activity of GluN1/GluN2A receptors.|
Grau, C; Arató, K; Fernández-Fernández, JM; Valderrama, A; Sindreu, C; Fillat, C; Ferrer, I; de la Luna, S; Altafaj, X
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience 8 331 2014
N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors (NMDARs) play a pivotal role in neural development and synaptic plasticity, as well as in neurological disease. Since NMDARs exert their function at the cell surface, their density in the plasma membrane is finely tuned by a plethora of molecules that regulate their production, trafficking, docking and internalization in response to external stimuli. In addition to transcriptional regulation, the density of NMDARs is also influenced by post-translational mechanisms like phosphorylation, a modification that also affects their biophysical properties. We previously described the increased surface expression of GluN1/GluN2A receptors in transgenic mice overexpressing the Dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A), suggesting that DYRK1A regulates NMDARs. Here we have further investigated whether the density and activity of NMDARs were modulated by DYRK1A phosphorylation. Accordingly, we show that endogenous DYRK1A is recruited to GluN2A-containing NMDARs in the adult mouse brain, and we identify a DYRK1A phosphorylation site at Ser(1048) of GluN2A, within its intracellular C-terminal domain. Mechanistically, the DYRK1A-dependent phosphorylation of GluN2A at Ser(1048) hinders the internalization of GluN1/GluN2A, causing an increase of surface GluN1/GluN2A in heterologous systems, as well as in primary cortical neurons. Furthermore, GluN2A phosphorylation at Ser(1048) increases the current density and potentiates the gating of GluN1/GluN2A receptors. We conclude that DYRK1A is a direct regulator of NMDA receptors and we propose a novel mechanism for the control of NMDAR activity in neurons.
|Simvastatin treatment enhances NMDAR-mediated synaptic transmission by upregulating the surface distribution of the GluN2B subunit.|
Parent, MA; Hottman, DA; Cheng, S; Zhang, W; McMahon, LL; Yuan, LL; Li, L
Cellular and molecular neurobiology 34 693-705 2014
The ramifications of statins on plasma cholesterol and coronary heart disease have been well documented. However, there is increasing evidence that inhibition of the mevalonate pathway may provide independent neuroprotective and procognitive pleiotropic effects, most likely via inhibition of isoprenoids, mainly farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP). FPP and GGPP are the major donors of prenyl groups for protein prenylation. Modulation of isoprenoid availability impacts a slew of cellular processes including synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Our previous work has demonstrated that simvastatin (SV) administration improves hippocampus-dependent spatial memory, rescuing memory deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Treatment of hippocampal slices with SV enhances long-term potentiation (LTP), and this effect is dependent on the activation of Akt (protein kinase B). Further studies showed that SV-induced enhancement of hippocampal LTP is driven by depletion of FPP and inhibition of farnesylation. In the present study, we report the functional consequences of exposure to SV at cellular/synaptic and molecular levels. While application of SV has no effect on intrinsic membrane properties of CA1 pyramidal neurons, including hyperpolarization-activated cyclic-nucleotide channel-mediated sag potentials, the afterhyperpolarization (AHP), and excitability, SV application potentiates the N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated contribution to synaptic transmission. In mouse hippocampal slices and human neuronal cells, SV treatment increases the surface distribution of the GluN2B subunit of the NMDAR without affecting cellular cholesterol content. We conclude that SV-induced enhancement of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus is likely mediated by augmentation of synaptic NMDAR components that are largely responsible for driving synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region.
|Effect of D-cycloserine in conjunction with fear extinction training on extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala in rat.|
Gupta, SC; Hillman, BG; Prakash, A; Ugale, RR; Stairs, DJ; Dravid, SM
The European journal of neuroscience 37 1811-22 2013
D-cycloserine (DCS) is currently under clinical trials for a number of neuropsychiatric conditions and has been found to augment fear extinction in rodents and exposure therapy in humans. However, the molecular mechanism of DCS action in these multiple modalities remains unclear. Here, we describe the effect of DCS administration, alone or in conjunction with extinction training, on neuronal activity (c-fos) and neuronal plasticity [phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK)] markers using immunohistochemistry. We found that intraperitoneal administration of DCS in untrained young rats (24-28 days old) increased c-fos- and pERK-stained neurons in both the prelimbic and infralimbic division of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and reduced pERK levels in the lateral nucleus of the central amygdala. Moreover, DCS administration significantly increased GluA1, GluN1, GluN2A, and GluN2B expression in the mPFC. In a separate set of animals, we found that DCS facilitated fear extinction and increased pERK levels in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex, prelimbic prefrontal cortex intercalated cells and lateral nucleus of the central amygdala, compared with saline control. In the synaptoneurosomal preparation, we found that extinction training increased iGluR protein expression in the mPFC, compared with context animals. No significant difference in protein expression was observed between extinction-saline and extinction-DCS groups in the mPFC. In contrast, in the amygdala DCS, the conjunction with extinction training led to an increase in iGluR subunit expression, compared with the extinction-saline group. Our data suggest that the efficacy of DCS in neuropsychiatric disorders may be partly due to its ability to affect neuronal activity and signaling in the mPFC and amygdala subnuclei.
|RNF38 encodes a nuclear ubiquitin protein ligase that modifies p53.|
Sheren, JE; Kassenbrock, CK
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 440 473-8 2013
The RNF38 gene encodes a RING finger protein of unknown function. Here we demonstrate that RNF38 is a functional ubiquitin protein ligase (E3). We show that RNF38 isoform 1 is localized to the nucleus by a bipartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS). We confirm that RNF38 is a binding partner of p53 and demonstrate that RNF38 can ubiquitinate p53 in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we show that overexpression of RNF38 in HEK293T cells results in relocalization of p53 to discrete foci associated with PML nuclear bodies. These results suggest RNF38 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that may play a role in regulating p53.
|Synaptic alterations in the rTg4510 mouse model of tauopathy.|
Kopeikina, KJ; Polydoro, M; Tai, HC; Yaeger, E; Carlson, GA; Pitstick, R; Hyman, BT; Spires-Jones, TL
The Journal of comparative neurology 521 1334-53 2013
Synapse loss, rather than the hallmark amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques or tau-filled neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), is considered the most predictive pathological feature associated with cognitive status in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. The role of Aβ in synapse loss is well established, but despite data linking tau to synaptic function, the role of tau in synapse loss remains largely undetermined. Here we test the hypothesis that human mutant P301L tau overexpression in a mouse model (rTg4510) will lead to age-dependent synaptic loss and dysfunction. Using array tomography and two methods of quantification (automated, threshold-based counting and a manual stereology-based technique) we demonstrate that overall synapse density is maintained in the neuropil, implicating synapse loss commensurate with the cortical atrophy known to occur in this model. Multiphoton in vivo imaging reveals close to 30% loss of apical dendritic spines of individual pyramidal neurons, suggesting these cells may be particularly vulnerable to tau-induced degeneration. Postmortem, we confirm the presence of tau in dendritic spines of rTg4510-YFP mouse brain by array tomography. These data implicate tau-induced loss of a subset of synapses that may be accompanied by compensatory increases in other synaptic subtypes, thereby preserving overall synapse density. Biochemical fractionation of synaptosomes from rTg4510 brain demonstrates a significant decrease in expression of several synaptic proteins, suggesting a functional deficit of remaining synapses in the rTg4510 brain. Together, these data show morphological and biochemical synaptic consequences in response to tau overexpression in the rTg4510 mouse model.
|Dab1 is required for synaptic plasticity and associative learning.|
Trotter, J; Lee, GH; Kazdoba, TM; Crowell, B; Domogauer, J; Mahoney, HM; Franco, SJ; Müller, U; Weeber, EJ; D'Arcangelo, G
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 15652-68 2013
Disabled-1 (Dab1) is an adaptor protein that is an obligate effector of the Reelin signaling pathway, and is critical for neuronal migration and dendrite outgrowth during development. Components of the Reelin pathway are highly expressed during development, but also continue to be expressed in the adult brain. Here we investigated in detail the expression pattern of Dab1 in the postnatal and adult forebrain, and determined that it is expressed in excitatory as well as inhibitory neurons. Dab1 was found to be localized in different cellular compartments, including the soma, dendrites, presynaptic and postsynaptic structures. Mice that are deficient in Dab1, Reelin, or the Reelin receptors ApoER2 and VLDLR exhibit severely perturbed brain cytoarchitecture, limiting the utility of these mice for investigating the role of this signaling pathway in the adult brain. In this study, we developed an adult forebrain-specific and excitatory neuron-specific conditional knock-out mouse line, and demonstrated that Dab1 is a critical regulator of synaptic function and hippocampal-dependent associative and spatial learning. These dramatic abnormalities were accompanied by a reduction in dendritic spine size, and defects in basal and plasticity-induced Akt and ERK1/2 signaling. Deletion of Dab1 led to no obvious changes in neuronal positioning, dendrite morphology, spine density, or synaptic composition. Collectively, these data conclusively demonstrate an important role for Reelin-Dab1 signaling in the adult forebrain, and underscore the importance of this pathway in learning and memory.
|Enhanced expression of NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors in the inherited glaucomatous DBA/2J mouse retina.|
Dong, LD; Chen, J; Li, F; Gao, F; Wu, J; Miao, Y; Wang, Z
Neural plasticity 2013 670254 2013
DBA/2J mouse has been used as a model for spontaneous secondary glaucoma. Here, we investigated changes in expression of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) subunits and Cdk5/p35/NMDAR signaling in retinas of DBA/2J mice using Western blot technique. The protein levels of NR1 and NR2A subunits in retinas of DBA/2J mice at all ages (6-12 months) were not different from those in age-matched C57BL/6 mice. In contrast, the protein levels of NR2B subunits, in addition to age-dependent change, significantly increased with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in DBA/2J mice at 6 and 9 months as compared with age-matched controls. Moreover, expression of Cdk5, p35 and ratio of p-NR2A(S1232)/NR2A progressively increased with time in both strains, suggestive of activated Cdk5/p35 signaling pathway. However, the changes in these proteins were in the same levels in both strain mice, except a significant increase of p35 proteins at 6 months in DBA/2J mice. Meanwhile, the protein levels of Brn-3a, a retinal ganglion cell (RGC) maker, remarkably decreased at 9-12 months in DBA/2J mice, which was in parallel with the changes of NR2B expression. Our results suggest that elevated IOP-induced increase in expression of NR2B subunits of NMDARs may be involved in RGC degeneration of DBA/2J mice.
|Glutamate binding to the GluN2B subunit controls surface trafficking of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors.|
She, K; Ferreira, JS; Carvalho, AL; Craig, AM
The Journal of biological chemistry 287 27432-45 2012
Trafficking of NMDA receptors to the surface of neurons and to synapses is critical for proper brain function and activity-dependent plasticity. Recent evidence suggests that surface trafficking of other ionotropic glutamate receptors requires ligand binding for exit from the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, we show that glutamate binding to GluN2 is required for trafficking of NMDA receptors to the cell surface. We expressed a panel of GluN2B ligand binding mutants in heterologous cells with GluN1 or in rat cultured neurons and found that surface expression correlates with glutamate efficacy. Such a correlation was found even in the presence of dominant negative dynamin to inhibit endocytosis and surface expression correlated with Golgi localization, indicating differences in forward trafficking. Co-expression of wild type GluN2B did not enhance surface expression of the mutants, suggesting that glutamate must bind to both GluN2 subunits in a tetramer and that surface expression is limited by the least avid of the two glutamate binding sites. Surface trafficking of a constitutively closed cleft GluN2B was indistinguishable from that of wild type, suggesting that glutamate concentrations are typically not limiting for forward trafficking. YFP-GluN2B expressed in hippocampal neurons from GluN2B(-/-) mice rescued synaptic accumulation at similar levels to wild type. Under these conditions, surface synaptic accumulation of YFP-GluN2B mutants also correlated with apparent glutamate affinity. Altogether, these results indicate that glutamate controls forward trafficking of NMDA receptors to the cell surface and to synapses and raise the intriguing idea that NMDA receptors may be functional at intracellular sites.
|Pathways and Biomarkers of Glutamatergic Synapse Flyer|