|Adipocyte derived paracrine mediators of mammary ductal morphogenesis controlled by retinoic acid receptors.|
Marzan, CV; Kupumbati, TS; Bertran, SP; Samuels, T; Leibovitch, B; Mira-y-Lopez, R; Ossowski, L; Farias, EF
We generated a transgenic (Tg)-mouse model expressing a dominant negative-(DN)-RARα, (RARαG303E) under adipocytes-specific promoter to explore the paracrine role of adipocyte retinoic acid receptors (RARs) in mammary morphogenesis. Transgenic adipocytes had reduced level of RARα, β and γ, which coincided with a severely underdeveloped pubertal and mature ductal tree with profoundly decreased epithelial cell proliferation. Transplantation experiments of mammary epithelium and of whole mammary glands implicated a fat-pad dependent paracrine mechanism in the stunted phenotype of the epithelial ductal tree. Co-cultures of primary adipocytes, or in vitro differentiated adipocyte cell line, with mammary epithelium showed that when activated, adipocyte-RARs contribute to generation of secreted proliferative and pro-migratory factors. Gene expression microarrays revealed a large number of genes regulated by adipocyte-RARs. Among them, pleiotrophin (PTN) was identified as the paracrine effectors of epithelial cell migration. Its expression was found to be strongly inhibited by DN-RARα, an inhibition relieved by pharmacological doses of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) in culture and in vivo. Moreover, adipocyte-PTHR, another atRA responsive gene, was found to be an up-stream regulator of PTN. Overall, these results support the existence of a novel paracrine loop controlled by adipocyte-RAR that regulates the mammary ductal tree morphogenesis.
|Control of bone formation by the serpentine receptor Frizzled-9.|
Albers, J; Schulze, J; Beil, FT; Gebauer, M; Baranowsky, A; Keller, J; Marshall, RP; Wintges, K; Friedrich, FW; Priemel, M; Schilling, AF; Rueger, JM; Cornils, K; Fehse, B; Streichert, T; Sauter, G; Jakob, F; Insogna, KL; Pober, B; Knobeloch, KP; Francke, U; Amling, M; Schinke, T
The Journal of cell biology
Although Wnt signaling in osteoblasts is of critical importance for the regulation of bone remodeling, it is not yet known which specific Wnt receptors of the Frizzled family are functionally relevant in this process. In this paper, we show that Fzd9 is induced upon osteoblast differentiation and that Fzd9(-/-) mice display low bone mass caused by impaired bone formation. Our analysis of Fzd9(-/-) primary osteoblasts demonstrated defects in matrix mineralization in spite of normal expression of established differentiation markers. In contrast, we observed a reduced expression of chemokines and interferon-regulated genes in Fzd9(-/-) osteoblasts. We also identified the ubiquitin-like modifier Isg15 as one potential downstream mediator of Fzd9 in these cells. Importantly, our molecular analysis further revealed that canonical Wnt signaling is not impaired in the absence of Fzd9, thus explaining the absence of a bone resorption phenotype. Collectively, our results reveal a previously unknown function of Fzd9 in osteoblasts, a finding that may have therapeutic implications for bone loss disorders.
|Cell-specific effects of nitric oxide deficiency on parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) responsiveness and PTH1 receptor expression in cardiovascular cells.|
Rolf Schreckenberg, Sibylle Wenzel, Rui Manuel da Costa Rebelo, Anja Röthig, Rainer Meyer, Klaus-Dieter Schlüter, R Schreckenberg, S Wenzel, RM da Costa Rebelo, A Rothig, R Meyer, KD Schluter
The missing influence of estrogen on endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase often forms the basis for a worsening of the cardiac risk profile for women in postmenopause. Various studies have shown that decreasing estrogen levels also directly effect the expression of PTHrP and TGFbeta1. PTHrP is involved in the endothelium-dependent regulation of coronary resistance and cardiac function. The current study investigates to what extent chronic NO deficit affects the cardiac effects of PTHrP. NO deficit was achieved in female adult rats by feeding them the NO synthase inhibitor N-omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester over a period of 4 wk. Isolated hearts of the conditioned animals were investigated in Langendorff technique and perfused for 3 min with 100 nM PTHrP. The contraction behavior of isolated cardiomyocytes was registered in a cell-edge detection system. Hearts from untreated animals displayed a significant drop in left ventricular developed pressure and a pronounced increase in heart rate in consequence of short term PTHrP stimulation. In hearts from NO-deficient rats PTHrP no longer affected the inotropy and chronotropy. The vasodilating effect of PTHrP on coronary vessels was, however, independent of the NO level. These changes were accompanied by a differing expression of the PTH1 receptor. TGFbeta1 was identified as an important mediator for the regulation of the PTH1 receptor in myocytic but not endothelial cells. These results indicate that chronic NO deficit down-regulates the PTH1 receptor in a TGFbeta1-dependent way. These findings are important with respect to the relatively new therapy of postmenopausal osteoporosis with PTHrP analogs.,
|Altered ovarian function affects skeletal homeostasis independent of the action of follicle-stimulating hormone.|
Gao, J; Tiwari-Pandey, R; Samadfam, R; Yang, Y; Miao, D; Karaplis, AC; Sairam, MR; Goltzman, D
Osteoporosis is a leading public health problem. Although a major cause in women is thought to be a decline in estrogen, it has recently been proposed that FSH or follitropin is required for osteoporotic bone loss. We examined the FSH receptor null mouse (FORKO mouse) to determine whether altered ovarian function could induce bone loss independent of FSH action. By 3 months of age, FORKO mice developed age-dependent declines in bone mineral density and trabecular bone volume of the lumbar spine and femur, which could be partly reversed by ovarian transplantation. Bilateral ovariectomy reduced elevated circulating testosterone levels in FORKO mice and decreased bone mass to levels indistinguishable from those in ovariectomized wild-type controls. Androgen receptor blockade and especially aromatase inhibition each produced bone volume reductions in the FORKO mouse. The results indicate that ovarian secretory products, notably estrogen, and peripheral conversion of ovarian androgen to estrogen can alter bone homeostasis independent of any bone resorptive action of FSH.