Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M||WB, IH(P), IF||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified rabbit polyclonal IgG in storage buffer containing PBS with 0.07% sodium azide in 30% glycerol.|
|Application||Detect Rac1b using this Anti-Rac1b Antibody validated for use in WB, IH(P) & IF.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µL|
|Anti-Rac1b - 2111394||2111394|
|Anti-Rac1b - 2187396||2187396|
|Anti-Rac1b - 2298431||2298431|
|Anti-Rac1b - DAM1503829||DAM1503829|
|Anti-Rac1b - DAM1588289||DAM1588289|
|Anti-Rac1b - NG1638566||NG1638566|
|Anti-Rac1b - NG1658346||NG1658346|
|Anti-Rac1b - NG1743550||NG1743550|
|Anti-Rac1b - NG17524496||NG17524496|
|Anti-Rac1b - NG1806839||NG1806839|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Epithelial splicing regulatory proteins 1 (ESRP1) and 2 (ESRP2) suppress cancer cell motility via different mechanisms.|
Ishii, H; Saitoh, M; Sakamoto, K; Kondo, T; Katoh, R; Tanaka, S; Motizuki, M; Masuyama, K; Miyazawa, K
The Journal of biological chemistry 289 27386-99 2014
ESRP1 (epithelial splicing regulatory protein 1) and ESRP2 regulate alternative splicing events associated with epithelial phenotypes of cells, and both are down-regulated during the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. However, little is known about their expression and functions during carcinogenesis. In this study, we found that expression of both ESRP1 and ESRP2 is plastic: during oral squamous cell carcinogenesis, these proteins are up-regulated relative to their levels in normal epithelium but down-regulated in invasive fronts. Importantly, ESRP1 and ESRP2 are re-expressed in the lymph nodes, where carcinoma cells metastasize and colonize. In head and neck carcinoma cell lines, ESRP1 and ESRP2 suppress cancer cell motility through distinct mechanisms: knockdown of ESRP1 affects the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton through induction of Rac1b, whereas knockdown of ESRP2 attenuates cell-cell adhesion through increased expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition-associated transcription factors. Down-regulation of ESRP1 and ESRP2 is thus closely associated with a motile phenotype of cancer cells.
|Rac1b negatively regulates TGF-β1-induced cell motility in pancreatic ductal epithelial cells by suppressing Smad signalling.|
Ungefroren, H; Sebens, S; Giehl, K; Helm, O; Groth, S; Fändrich, F; Röcken, C; Sipos, B; Lehnert, H; Gieseler, F
Oncotarget 5 277-90 2014
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 promotes progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) by enhancing epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cell migration/invasion, and metastasis, in part by cooperating with the small GTPase Rac1. Prompted by the observation of higher expression of Rac1b, an alternatively spliced Rac1 isoform, in pancreatic ductal epithelial cells and in patients with chronic pancreatitis vs. PDAC, as well as in long-time vs. short-time survivors among PDAC patients, we asked whether Rac1b might negatively affect TGF-β1 prometastatic function. Interestingly, the non-malignant pancreatic ductal epithelial cell line H6c7 exhibited a higher ratio of active Rac1b to total Rac1b than the TGF-β1-responsive PDAC cell lines Panc-1 and Colo357. Notably, siRNA-mediated silencing of Rac1b increased TGF-β1/Smad-dependent migratory activities in H6c7, Colo357, and Panc-1 cells, while ectopic overexpression of Rac1b in Panc-1 cells attenuated TGF-β1-induced cell motility. Depletion of Rac1b in Panc-1 cells enhanced TGF-β1/Smad-dependent expression of promoter-reporter genes and of the endogenous Slug gene. Moreover, Rac1b depletion resulted in a higher and more sustained C-terminal phosphorylation of Smad3 and Smad2, suggesting that Rac1b is involved in Smad2/3 dephosphorylation/inactivation. Since pharmacologic or siRNA-mediated inhibition of Smad3 but not Smad2 was able to alleviate the Rac1b siRNA effect on TGF-β1-induced cell migration, our results suggests that Rac1b inhibits TGF-β1-induced cell motility in pancreatic ductal epithelial cells by blocking the function of Smad3. Moreover, Rac1b may act as an endogenous inhibitor of Rac1 in TGF-β1-mediated migration and possibly metastasis. Hence, it could be exploited for diagnostic/prognostic purposes or even therapeutically in late-stage PDAC as an antimetastatic agent.
|Ibuprofen inhibits colitis-induced overexpression of tumor-related Rac1b.|
Matos, P; Kotelevets, L; Goncalves, V; Henriques, AF; Henriques, A; Zerbib, P; Moyer, MP; Chastre, E; Jordan, P
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 15 102-11 2013
The serrated pathway to colorectal tumor formation involves oncogenic mutations in the BRAF gene, which are sufficient for initiation of hyperplastic growth but not for tumor progression. A previous analysis of colorectal tumors revealed that overexpression of splice variant Rac1b occurs in around 80% of tumors with mutant BRAF and both events proved to cooperate in tumor cell survival. Here, we provide evidence for increased expression of Rac1b in patients with inflamed human colonic mucosa as well as following experimentally induced colitis in mice. The increase of Rac1b in the mouse model was specifically prevented by the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen, which also inhibited Rac1b expression in cultured HT29 colorectal tumor cells through a cyclooxygenase inhibition.independent mechanism. Accordingly, the presence of ibuprofen led to a reduction of HT29 cell survival in vitro and inhibited Rac1b-dependent tumor growth of HT29 xenografts. Together, our results suggest that stromal cues, namely, inflammation, can trigger changes in Rac1b expression in the colon and identify ibuprofen as a highly specific and efficient inhibitor of Rac1b overexpression in colorectal tumors. Our data suggest that the use of ibuprofen may be beneficial in the treatment of patients with serrated colorectal tumors or with inflammatory colon syndromes.
|Involvement of hnRNP A1 in the matrix metalloprotease-3-dependent regulation of Rac1 pre-mRNA splicing.|
Pelisch, F; Khauv, D; Risso, G; Stallings-Mann, M; Blaustein, M; Quadrana, L; Radisky, DC; Srebrow, A
Journal of cellular biochemistry 113 2319-29 2012
Rac1b is an alternatively spliced isoform of the small GTPase Rac1 that includes the 57-nucleotide exon 3b. Rac1b was originally identified through its over-expression in breast and colorectal cancer cells, and has subsequently been implicated as a key player in a number of different oncogenic signaling pathways, including tumorigenic transformation of mammary epithelial cells exposed to matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3). Although many of the cellular consequences of Rac1b activity have been recently described, the molecular mechanism by which MMP-3 treatment leads to Rac1b induction has not been defined. Here we use proteomic methods to identify heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A1 as a factor involved in Rac1 splicing regulation. We find that hnRNP A1 binds to Rac1 exon 3b in mouse mammary epithelial cells, repressing its inclusion into mature mRNA. We also find that exposure of cells to MMP-3 leads to release of hnRNP A1 from exon 3b and the consequent generation of Rac1b. Finally, we analyze normal breast tissue and breast cancer biopsies, and identify an inverse correlation between expression of hnRNP A1 and Rac1b, suggesting the existence of this regulatory axis in vivo. These results provide new insights on how extracellular signals regulate alternative splicing, contributing to cellular transformation and development of breast cancer.
|Rac1b regulates NT3-stimulated Mek-Erk signaling, directing marrow-isolated adult multilineage inducible (MIAMI) cells toward an early neuronal phenotype.|
Kevin M Curtis,Lourdes A Gomez,Paul C Schiller
Molecular and cellular neurosciences 49 2012
Due to the limitations of neural stem cells to repair neuronal damage in the human brain, alternative approaches of repair using autologous adult stem cells have been examined for direct cell-replacement, or paracrine mediated neuroprotective effects. Human bone marrow-derived stromal cells (hMSCs) are a heterogeneous adult stem cell population with diverse immunomodulatory properties and the potential to differentiate into cells characteristic of all three germ layers. hMSCs are a renewable source of progenitor cells suitable for cell-based tissue repair. The marrow isolated adult multilineage inducible (MIAMI) cells developed by our laboratory are a developmentally immature homogeneous subpopulation of hMSCs that maintain self-renewal potential during ex vivo expansion, efficient differentiation capacity into neuron-like cells in vitro, as well as direct in vivo neuroprotection and functional recovery in animal models of neurological diseases. We now address the early signaling mechanisms regulating the neuron-like differentiation of MIAMI cells in vitro, in response to activation of the neurotrophic tyrosine-kinase receptor, type 3 (NTRK3) via neurotrophin 3 (NT3). We molecularly characterize a novel role for Rac1b mediating the neurogenic potential of MIAMI cells. Rac1b had an overall negative modulatory effect on the NT3-stimulated Mek1/2-Erk1/2 signaling pathway, proneuronal gene expression and neurite-like extensions. Rac1b was required for NT3-stimulated cell proliferation of MIAMI cells, yet was found to repress CCND1 and CCNB1 mRNA expression independent of NT3 stimulation, suggesting a dual neurotrophin dependent/independent function. Differential levels of Rac1b activity in hMSCs may explain the apparent contradictory reports regarding their neurogenic potential. These findings demonstrate the in vitro neurogenic potential of hMSCs as governed by Rac1b during NT3 stimulation.
|Matrix metalloproteinase induction of Rac1b, a key effector of lung cancer progression.|
Stallings-Mann, ML; Waldmann, J; Zhang, Y; Miller, E; Gauthier, ML; Visscher, DW; Downey, GP; Radisky, ES; Fields, AP; Radisky, DC
Science translational medicine 4 142ra95 2012
Lung cancer is more deadly than colon, breast, and prostate cancers combined, and treatment improvements have failed to improve prognosis significantly. Here, we identify a critical mediator of lung cancer progression, Rac1b, a tumor-associated protein with cell-transforming properties that are linked to the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung epithelial cells. We show that expression of mouse Rac1b in lung epithelial cells of transgenic mice stimulated EMT and spontaneous tumor development and that activation of EMT by MMP-induced expression of Rac1b gave rise to lung adenocarcinoma in the transgenic mice through bypassing oncogene-induced senescence. Rac1b is expressed abundantly in stages 1 and 2 of human lung adenocarcinomas and, hence, is an attractive molecular target for the development of new therapies that prevent progression to later-stage lung cancers.