Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M||ICC, WB||M||Ascites||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at -20°C from date of receipt. For maximum recovery of product, centrifuge the vial prior to removing the cap.|
|Material Size||200 µL|
|Anti-RhoE/Rnd3, clone 4 - 2430530||2430530|
|Anti-RhoE/Rnd3, clone 4 - 1969118||1969118|
|Anti-RhoE/Rnd3, clone 4 - 2044815||2044815|
|Anti-RhoE/Rnd3, clone 4 - 2250528||2250528|
|Anti-RhoE/Rnd3, clone 4 - 24565||24565|
|Anti-RhoE/Rnd3, clone 4 - 32196||32196|
|Anti-RhoE/Rnd3, clone 4 - DAM1411330||DAM1411330|
|Anti-RhoE/Rnd3, clone 4 - DAM1501798||DAM1501798|
|Anti-RhoE/Rnd3, clone 4 -2586449||2586449|
|Anti-RhoE/Rnd3, clone 4 -2697429||2697429|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Rnd3/RhoE Is down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and controls cellular invasion.|
Grise, Florence, et al.
Hepatology, 55: 1766-75 (2012) 2012
We performed a review of public microarray data that revealed a significant down-regulation of Rnd3 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), as compared to nontumor liver. Rnd3/RhoE is an atypical RhoGTPase family member because it is always under its active GTP-bound conformation and not sensitive to classical regulators. Rnd3 down-regulation was validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in 120 independent tumors. Moreover, Rnd3 down-expression was confirmed using immunohistochemistry on tumor sections and western blotting on human tumor and cell-line extracts. Rnd3 expression was significantly lower in invasive tumors with satellite nodules. Overexpression and silencing of Rnd3 in Hep3B cells led to decreased and increased three-dimensional cell motility, respectively. The short interfering RNA-mediated down-regulation of Rnd3 expression induced a loss of E-cadherin at cell-cell junctions that was linked to epithelial-mesenchymal transition through the up-regulation of the zinc finger E-box binding homeobox protein, ZEB2, and the down-regulation of miR-200b and miR-200c. Rnd3 knockdown mediated tumor hepatocyte invasion in a matrix-metalloproteinase-independent, and Rac1-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: Rnd3 down-regulation provides an invasive advantage to tumor hepatocytes, suggesting that RND3 might represent a metastasis suppressor gene in HCC.
|A switch in RND3-RHOA signaling is critical for melanoma cell invasion following mutant-BRAF inhibition.|
Klein, RM; Higgins, PJ
Molecular cancer 10 114 2011
The initial use of BRAF targeted therapeutics in clinical trials has demonstrated encouraging responses in melanoma patients, although a rise in drug-resistant cells capable of advancing malignant disease has been described. The current study uses BRAFV600E expressing WM793 melanoma cells to derive data aimed at investigating the molecular determinant of cell invasion following treatment with clinical BRAF inhibitors.Small-molecule inhibitors targeting BRAF reduced MEK1/2-ERK1/2 pathway activation and cell survival; yet, viable cell subpopulations persisted. The residual cells exhibited an elongated cell shape, prominent actin stress fibers and retained the ability to invade 3-D dermal-like microenvironments. BRAF inhibitor treatments were associated with reduced expression of RND3, an antagonist of RHOA activation, and elevated RHOA-dependent signaling. Restoration of RND3 expression or RHOA knockdown attenuated the migratory ability of residual cells without affecting overall cell survival. The invasive ability of BRAF inhibitor treated cells embedded in collagen gels was diminished following RND3 re-expression or RHOA depletion. Conversely, melanoma cell movement in the absence of BRAF inhibition was unaffected by RND3 expression or RHOA depletion.These data reveal a novel switch in the requirement for RND3 and RHOA in coordinating the movement of residual WM793 cells that are initially refractive to BRAF inhibitor therapy. These results have important clinical implications because they suggest that combining BRAF inhibitors with therapies that target the invasion of drug-resistant cells could aid in controlling disease relapse.Full Text Article
|B-RAF regulation of Rnd3 participates in actin cytoskeletal and focal adhesion organization.|
Klein, RM; Spofford, LS; Abel, EV; Ortiz, A; Aplin, AE
Molecular biology of the cell 19 498-508 2008
The actin cytoskeleton controls multiple cellular functions, including cell morphology, movement, and growth. Accumulating evidence indicates that oncogenic activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (MEK/ERK1/2) pathway is accompanied by actin cytoskeletal reorganization. However, the signaling events contributing to actin cytoskeleton remodeling mediated by aberrant ERK1/2 activation are largely unknown. Mutant B-RAF is found in a variety of cancers, including melanoma, and it enhances activation of the MEK/ERK1/2 pathway. We show that targeted knockdown of B-RAF with small interfering RNA or pharmacological inhibition of MEK increased actin stress fiber formation and stabilized focal adhesion dynamics in human melanoma cells. These effects were due to stimulation of the Rho/Rho kinase (ROCK)/LIM kinase-2 signaling pathway, cumulating in the inactivation of the actin depolymerizing/severing protein cofilin. The expression of Rnd3, a Rho antagonist, was attenuated after B-RAF knockdown or MEK inhibition, but it was enhanced in melanocytes expressing active B-RAF. Constitutive expression of Rnd3 suppressed the actin cytoskeletal and focal adhesion effects mediated by B-RAF knockdown. Depletion of Rnd3 elevated cofilin phosphorylation and stress fiber formation and reduced cell invasion. Together, our results identify Rnd3 as a regulator of cross talk between the RAF/MEK/ERK and Rho/ROCK signaling pathways, and a key contributor to oncogene-mediated reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesions.Full Text Article
|Expression of RND proteins in human myometrium.|
Lartey, J; Gampel, A; Pawade, J; Mellor, H; Bernal, AL
Biology of reproduction 75 452-61 2006
RHO GTPases are key regulators of the actin cytoskeleton and stress fiber formation. In the human uterus, activated RHOA forms a complex with RHO-associated protein kinase (ROCK) which inhibits myosin light chain phosphatase (PPP1R12A), causing a calcium-independent increase in myosin light chain phosphorylation and tension (Ca2+ sensitization). Recently discovered small GTP binding RND proteins can inhibit RHOA and ROCK interaction to reduce calcium sensitization. Very little is known about the expression of RND proteins in the human uterus. We tested the hypothesis that the uterine quiescence observed during gestation is mediated by an increase in RND protein expression inhibiting RHOA-ROCK-mediated PPP1R12A phosphorylation. Immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting were used to determine RHOA and RND protein expression and localization in nonpregnant, pregnant nonlaboring, and laboring patients at term and patients in spontaneous preterm labor. Changes in protein expression estimated by densitometry between different patient groups were measured. A significant increase of RND2 and RND3 protein expression was observed in pregnant relative to nonpregnant myometrium associated with a loss of PPP1R12A phosphorylation. RND transfected myometrial cells demonstrated a dramatic loss of stress fiber formation and a "rounding" phenotype. RND upregulation in pregnancy may inhibit RHOA-ROCK-mediated increase in calcium sensitization to facilitate the uterine quiescence observed during gestation.
|RhoE binds to ROCK I and inhibits downstream signaling.|
Riento, Kirsi, et al.
Mol. Cell. Biol., 23: 4219-29 (2003) 2003
RhoE belongs to the Rho GTPase family, the members of which control actin cytoskeletal dynamics. RhoE induces stress fiber disassembly in a variety of cell types, whereas RhoA stimulates stress fiber assembly. The similarity of RhoE and RhoA sequences suggested that RhoE might compete with RhoA for interaction with its targets. Here, we show that RhoE binds ROCK I but none of the other RhoA targets tested. The interaction of RhoE with ROCK I was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation of the endogenous proteins, and the two proteins colocalized on the trans-Golgi network in COS-7 cells. Although RhoE and RhoA were not able to bind ROCK I simultaneously, RhoE bound to the amino-terminal region of ROCK I encompassing the kinase domain, at a site distant from the carboxy-terminal RhoA-binding site. Overexpression of RhoE inhibited ROCK I-induced stress fiber formation and phosphorylation of the ROCK I target myosin light chain phosphatase. These data suggest that RhoE induces stress fiber disassembly by directly binding ROCK I and inhibiting it from phosphorylating downstream targets.