|MicroRNA-7 regulates the mTOR pathway and proliferation in adult pancreatic β-cells.|
Wang, Y; Liu, J; Liu, C; Naji, A; Stoffers, DA
Elucidating the mechanism underlying the poor proliferative capacity of adult pancreatic β-cells is critical to regenerative therapeutic approaches for diabetes. Here, we show that the microRNA (miR)-7/7ab family member miR-7a is enriched in mouse adult pancreatic islets compared with miR-7b. Remarkably, miR-7a targets five components of the mTOR signaling pathway. Further, inhibition of miR-7a activates mTOR signaling and promotes adult β-cell replication in mouse primary islets, which can be reversed by the treatment with a well-known mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin. These data suggest that miR-7 acts as a brake on adult β-cell proliferation. Most importantly, this miR-7-mTOR proliferation axis is conserved in primary human β-cells, implicating miR-7 as a therapeutic target for diabetes.
|PPIP5K1 modulates ligand competition between diphosphoinositol polyphosphates and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 for polyphosphoinositide-binding domains.|
Gokhale, NA; Zaremba, A; Janoshazi, AK; Weaver, JD; Shears, SB
The Biochemical journal
We describe new signalling consequences for PPIP5K1 (diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate kinase type 1)-mediated phosphorylation of InsP6 and 5-InsP7 to 1-InsP7 and InsP8. In NIH 3T3 cells, either hyperosmotic stress or receptor activation by PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor) promoted translocation of PPIP5K1 from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane. The PBD1 (polyphosphoinositide-binding domain) in PPIP5K1 recapitulated that translocation. Mutagenesis of PBD1 to reduce affinity for PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 prevented translocation. Using surface plasmon resonance, we found that PBD1 association with vesicular PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 was inhibited by InsP6 and diphosphoinositol polyphosphates. However, the inhibition by PPIP5K1 substrates (IC50: 5-InsP7=5 μM and InsP6=7 μM) was substantially more potent than that of the PPIP5K1 products (IC50: InsP8=32 μM and 1-InsP7=43 μM). This rank order of ligand competition with PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 was also exhibited by the PH (pleckstrin homology) domains of Akt (also known as protein kinase B), GRP1 (general receptor for phosphoinositides 1) and SIN1 (stress-activated protein kinase-interaction protein 1). We propose that, in vivo, PH domain binding of InsP6 and 5-InsP7 suppresses inappropriate signalling ('noise') from stochastic increases in PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. That restraint may be relieved by localized depletion of InsP6 and 5-InsP7 at the plasma membrane following PPIP5K1 recruitment. We tested this hypothesis in insulin-stimulated L6 myoblasts, using mTOR (mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin)-mediated phosphorylation of Akt on Ser473 as a readout for SIN1-mediated translocation of mTORC (mTOR complex) 2 to the plasma membrane [Zoncu, Efeyan and Sabatini (2011) Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 12, 21-35]. Knockdown of PPIP5K1 expression was associated with a 40% reduction in Ser473 phosphorylation. A common feature of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3-based signalling cascades may be their regulation by PPIP5K1.
|Isolation of the mTOR complexes by affinity purification.|
Dos D Sarbassov,Olga Bulgakova,Rakhmet I Bersimbaev,Tattym Shaiken
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
The mammalian Target Of Rapamycin (mTOR) protein is a central component of the essential and highly conserved signaling pathway that emerged as a critical effector in regulation of cell physiology. Biochemical studies defined mTOR as the protein kinase that exists at least in two distinct complexes. The first complex has been characterized as the nutrient-sensitive mTOR complex 1 that controls cell growth and cell size by regulating protein synthesis and autophagy. The second complex of mTOR has been defined as the component of growth factor signaling that functions as a major regulatory kinase of Akt/PKB. Here, we provide the detailed methods how to purify the functional complexes of mTOR by affinity purification. In the first part, we describe the purification of the distinct mTOR complexes by immunoprecipitation. Purification of the soluble mTOR complexes is explained in the second part of this chapter.