Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|R, M, Po, B, Av, Gp, H||ICC, IF, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified mouse monoclonal IgG1 in buffer containing 0.1M Tris-Glycine, 0.15M NaCl, 0.05% Sodium Azide and 30% glycerol.|
|Application||Anti-α-Tubulin Antibody, clone DM1A is an antibody against α-Tubulin for use in IC, IF & WB.|
(Breitling, F., 1986)
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||200 µg|
|Anti-#945;-Tubulin, clone DM1A - 2144401||2144401|
|Anti-#945;-Tubulin, clone DM1A - 2016030||2016030|
|Anti--Tubulin, clone DM1A - 2056018||2056018|
|Anti--Tubulin, clone DM1A - 2106959||2106959|
|Anti--Tubulin, clone DM1A - 2193150||2193150|
|Anti--Tubulin, clone DM1A - 2225234||2225234|
|Anti--Tubulin, clone DM1A - 2281661||2281661|
|Anti--Tubulin, clone DM1A - DAM1687519||DAM1687519|
|Anti--Tubulin, clone DM1A - DAM1724029||DAM1724029|
|Anti--Tubulin, clone DM1A - DAM1764404||DAM1764404|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Inhibition of Translation Initiation by Protein 169: A Vaccinia Virus Strategy to Suppress Innate and Adaptive Immunity and Alter Virus Virulence.|
Strnadova, P; Ren, H; Valentine, R; Mazzon, M; Sweeney, TR; Brierley, I; Smith, GL
PLoS pathogens 11 e1005151 2015
Vaccinia virus (VACV) is the prototypic orthopoxvirus and the vaccine used to eradicate smallpox. Here we show that VACV strain Western Reserve protein 169 is a cytoplasmic polypeptide expressed early during infection that is excluded from virus factories and inhibits the initiation of cap-dependent and cap-independent translation. Ectopic expression of protein 169 causes the accumulation of 80S ribosomes, a reduction of polysomes, and inhibition of protein expression deriving from activation of multiple innate immune signaling pathways. A virus lacking 169 (vΔ169) replicates and spreads normally in cell culture but is more virulent than parental and revertant control viruses in intranasal and intradermal murine models of infection. Intranasal infection by vΔ169 caused increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, infiltration of pulmonary leukocytes, and lung weight. These alterations in innate immunity resulted in a stronger CD8+ T-cell memory response and better protection against virus challenge. This work illustrates how inhibition of host protein synthesis can be a strategy for virus suppression of innate and adaptive immunity.
|Tumor-derived microvesicles mediate human breast cancer invasion through differentially glycosylated EMMPRIN.|
Menck, K; Scharf, C; Bleckmann, A; Dyck, L; Rost, U; Wenzel, D; Dhople, VM; Siam, L; Pukrop, T; Binder, C; Klemm, F
Journal of molecular cell biology 7 143-53 2015
Tumor cells secrete not only a variety of soluble factors, but also extracellular vesicles that are known to support the establishment of a favorable tumor niche by influencing the surrounding stroma cells. Here we show that tumor-derived microvesicles (T-MV) also directly influence the tumor cells by enhancing their invasion in a both autologous and heterologous manner. Neither the respective vesicle-free supernatant nor MV from benign mammary cells mediate invasion. Uptake of T-MV is essential for the proinvasive effect. We further identify the highly glycosylated form of the extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) as a marker for proinvasive MV. EMMPRIN is also present at high levels on MV from metastatic breast cancer patients in vivo. Anti-EMMPRIN strategies, such as MV deglycosylation, gene knockdown, and specific blocking peptides, inhibit MV-induced invasion. Interestingly, the effect of EMMPRIN-bearing MV is not mediated by matrix metalloproteinases but by activation of the p38/MAPK signaling pathway in the tumor cells. In conclusion, T-MV stimulate cancer cell invasion via a direct feedback mechanism dependent on highly glycosylated EMMPRIN.
|Golgi anti-apoptotic proteins are highly conserved ion channels that affect apoptosis and cell migration.|
Carrara, G; Saraiva, N; Parsons, M; Byrne, B; Prole, DL; Taylor, CW; Smith, GL
The Journal of biological chemistry 290 11785-801 2015
Golgi anti-apoptotic proteins (GAAPs) are multitransmembrane proteins that are expressed in the Golgi apparatus and are able to homo-oligomerize. They are highly conserved throughout eukaryotes and are present in some prokaryotes and orthopoxviruses. Within eukaryotes, GAAPs regulate the Ca(2+) content of intracellular stores, inhibit apoptosis, and promote cell adhesion and migration. Data presented here demonstrate that purified viral GAAPs (vGAAPs) and human Bax inhibitor 1 form ion channels and that vGAAP from camelpox virus is selective for cations. Mutagenesis of vGAAP, including some residues conserved in the recently solved structure of a related bacterial protein, BsYetJ, altered the conductance (E207Q and D219N) and ion selectivity (E207Q) of the channel. Mutation of residue Glu-207 or -178 reduced the effects of GAAP on cell migration and adhesion without affecting protection from apoptosis. In contrast, mutation of Asp-219 abrogated the anti-apoptotic activity of GAAP but not its effects on cell migration and adhesion. These results demonstrate that GAAPs are ion channels and define residues that contribute to the ion-conducting pore and affect apoptosis, cell adhesion, and migration independently.
|Programmed cell death 5 mediates HDAC3 decay to promote genotoxic stress response.|
Choi, HK; Choi, Y; Park, ES; Park, SY; Lee, SH; Seo, J; Jeong, MH; Jeong, JW; Jeong, JH; Lee, PC; Choi, KC; Yoon, HG
Nature communications 6 7390 2015
The inhibition of p53 activity by histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) has been reported, but the precise molecular mechanism is unknown. Here we show that programmed cell death 5 (PDCD5) selectively mediates HDAC3 dissociation from p53, which induces HDAC3 cleavage and ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation. Casein kinase 2 alpha phosphorylates PDCD5 at Ser-119 to enhance its stability and importin 13-mediated nuclear translocation of PDCD5. Genetic deletion of PDCD5 abrogates etoposide (ET)-induced p53 stabilization and HDAC3 cleavage, indicating an essential role of PDCD5 in p53 activation. Restoration of PDCD5(WT) in PDCD5(-/-) MEFs restores ET-induced HDAC3 cleavage. Reduction of both PDCD5 and p53, but not reduction of either protein alone, significantly enhances in vivo tumorigenicity of AGS gastric cancer cells and correlates with poor prognosis in gastric cancer patients. Our results define a mechanism for p53 activation via PDCD5-dependent HDAC3 decay under genotoxic stress conditions.
|Prostaglandin E2 promotes MYCN non-amplified neuroblastoma cell survival via β-catenin stabilization.|
Jansen, SR; Holman, R; Hedemann, I; Frankes, E; Elzinga, CR; Timens, W; Gosens, R; de Bont, ES; Schmidt, M
Journal of cellular and molecular medicine 19 210-26 2015
Amplification of MYCN is the most well-known prognostic marker of neuroblastoma risk classification, but still is only observed in 25% of cases. Recent evidence points to the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) elevating ligand prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) and β-catenin as two novel players in neuroblastoma. Here, we aimed to define the potential role of PGE2 and cAMP and its potential interplay with β-catenin, both of which may converge on neuroblastoma cell behaviour. Gain and loss of β-catenin function, PGE2 , the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin and pharmacological inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were studied in two human neuroblastoma cell lines without MYCN amplification. Our findings show that PGE2 enhanced cell viability through the EP4 receptor and cAMP elevation, whereas COX-2 inhibitors attenuated cell viability. Interestingly, PGE2 and forskolin promoted glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibition, β-catenin phosphorylation at the protein kinase A target residue ser675, β-catenin nuclear translocation and TCF-dependent gene transcription. Ectopic expression of a degradation-resistant β-catenin mutant enhances neuroblastoma cell viability and inhibition of β-catenin with XAV939 prevented PGE2 -induced cell viability. Finally, we show increased β-catenin expression in human high-risk neuroblastoma tissue without MYCN amplification. Our data indicate that PGE2 enhances neuroblastoma cell viability, a process which may involve cAMP-mediated β-catenin stabilization, and suggest that this pathway is of relevance to high-risk neuroblastoma without MYCN amplification.
|IκBβ-mediated NF-κB activation confers protection against hyperoxic lung injury.|
Michaelis, KA; Agboke, F; Liu, T; Han, K; Muthu, M; Galambos, C; Yang, G; Dennery, PA; Wright, CJ
American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology 50 429-38 2014
Supplemental oxygen is frequently used in an attempt to improve oxygen delivery; however, prolonged exposure results in damage to the pulmonary endothelium and epithelium. Although NF-κB has been identified as a redox-responsive transcription factor, whether NF-κB activation exacerbates or attenuates hyperoxic lung injury is unclear. We determined that sustained NF-κB activity mediated by IκBβ attenuates lung injury and prevents mortality in adult mice exposed to greater than 95% O2. Adult wild-type mice demonstrated evidence of alveolar protein leak and 100% mortality by 6 days of hyperoxic exposure, and showed NF-κB nuclear translocation that terminated after 48 hours. Furthermore, these mice showed increased expression of NF-κB-regulated proinflammatory and proapoptotic cytokines. In contrast, mice overexpressing the NF-κB inhibitory protein, IκBβ (AKBI), demonstrated significant resistance to hyperoxic lung injury, with 50% surviving through 8 days of exposure. This was associated with NF-κB nuclear translocation that persisted through 96 hours of exposure. Although induction of NF-κB-regulated proinflammatory cytokines was not different between wild-type and AKBI mice, significant up-regulation of antiapoptotic proteins (BCL-2, BCL-XL) was found exclusively in AKBI mice. We conclude that sustained NF-κB activity mediated by IκBβ protects against hyperoxic lung injury through increased expression of antiapoptotic genes.
|Mitochondrial topoisomerase I (top1mt) is a novel limiting factor of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity.|
Khiati, S; Dalla Rosa, I; Sourbier, C; Ma, X; Rao, VA; Neckers, LM; Zhang, H; Pommier, Y
Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 20 4873-81 2014
Doxorubicin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents. However, up to 30% of the patients treated with doxorubicin suffer from congestive heart failure. The mechanism of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity is likely multifactorial and most importantly, the genetic factors predisposing to doxorubicin cardiotoxicity are unknown. On the basis of the fact that mtDNA lesions and mitochondrial dysfunctions have been found in human hearts exposed to doxorubicin and that mitochondrial topoisomerase 1 (Top1mt) specifically controls mtDNA homeostasis, we hypothesized that Top1mt knockout (KO) mice might exhibit hypersensitivity to doxorubicin.Wild-type (WT) and KO Top1mt mice were treated once a week with 4 mg/kg doxorubicin for 8 weeks. Heart tissues were analyzed one week after the last treatment.Genetic inactivation of Top1mt in mice accentuates mtDNA copy number loss and mtDNA damage in heart tissue following doxorubicin treatment. Top1mt KO mice also fail to maintain respiratory chain protein production and mitochondrial cristae ultrastructure organization. These mitochondrial defects result in decreased O2 consumption, increased reactive oxygen species production, and enhanced heart muscle damage in animals treated with doxorubicin. Accordingly, Top1mt KO mice die within 45 days after the last doxorubicin injection, whereas the WT mice survive.Our results provide evidence that Top1mt, which is conserved across vertebrates, is critical for cardiac tolerance to doxorubicin and adaptive response to doxorubicin cardiotoxicity. They also suggest the potential of Top1mt single-nucleotide polymorphisms testing to investigate patient susceptibility to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity.
|MicroRNA-7 inhibits multiple oncogenic pathways to suppress HER2Δ16 mediated breast tumorigenesis and reverse trastuzumab resistance.|
Huynh, FC; Jones, FE
PloS one 9 e114419 2014
The oncogenic isoform of HER2, HER2Δ16, is expressed with HER2 in nearly 50% of HER2 positive breast tumors where HER2Δ16 drives metastasis and resistance to multiple therapeutic interventions including tamoxifen and trastuzumab. In recent years microRNAs have been shown to influence multiple aspects of tumorigenesis and tumor cell response to therapy. Accordingly, the HER2Δ16 oncogene alters microRNA expression to promote endocrine resistance. With the goal of identifying microRNA suppressors of HER2Δ16 oncogenic activity we investigated the contribution of altered microRNA expression to HER2Δ16 mediated tumorigenesis and trastuzumab resistance. Using a gene array strategy comparing microRNA expression profiles of MCF-7 to MCF-7/HER2Δ16 cells, we found that expression of HER2Δ16 significantly altered expression of 16 microRNAs by 2-fold or more including a 4.8 fold suppression of the miR-7 tumor suppressor. Reestablished expression of miR-7 in the MCF-7/HER2Δ16 cell line caused a G1 cell cycle arrest and reduced both colony formation and cell migration activity to levels of parental MCF-7 cells. Suppression of miR-7 in the MCF-7 cell line resulted in enhanced colony formation activity but not cell migration, indicating that miR-7 suppression is sufficient to drive tumor cell proliferation but not migration. MiR-7 inhibited MCF-7/HER2Δ16 cell migration through a mechanism involving suppression of the miR-7 target gene EGFR. In contrast, miR-7 inhibition of MCF-7/HER2Δ16 cell proliferation involved a pathway where miR-7 expression resulted in the inactivation of Src kinase independent of suppressed EGFR expression. Also independent of EGFR suppression, reestablished miR-7 expression sensitized refractory MCF-7/HER2Δ16 cells to trastuzumab. Our results demonstrate that reestablished miR-7 expression abolishes HER2Δ16 induced cell proliferation and migration while sensitizing HER2Δ16 expressing cells to trastuzumab therapy. We propose that miR-7 regulated pathways, including EGFR and Src kinase, represent targets for the therapeutic intervention of refractory and metastatic HER2Δ16 driven breast cancer.
|HER4 selectively coregulates estrogen stimulated genes associated with breast tumor cell proliferation.|
Han, W; Jones, FE
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 443 458-63 2014
The EGFR-family member HER4 undergoes regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) to generate an intracellular domain (4ICD) that functions as a transcriptional coactivator. Accordingly, 4ICD coactivates the estrogen receptor (ER) and associates with ER at target gene promoters in breast tumor cells. However, the extent of 4ICD coactivation of ER and the functional significance of the 4ICD/ER transcriptional complex is unclear. To identify 4ICD coactivated genes we performed a microarray gene expression analysis of β-estradiol treated cells comparing control MCF-7 breast cancer cells to MCF-7 cells where HER4 expression was stably suppressed using a shRNA. In the MCF-7 cell line, β-estradiol significantly stimulated or repressed by 2-fold or more 726 or 53 genes, respectively. Significantly, HER4/4ICD was an obligate coactivator for 277 or 38% of the β-estradiol stimulated genes. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis of β-estradiol regulated genes identified significant associations with multiple cellular functions regulating cellular growth and proliferation, cell cycle progression, cancer metastasis, decreased hypoplasia, tumor cell migration, apoptotic resistance of tumor cells, and increased transcription. Genes coactivated by 4ICD displayed functional specificity by only significantly contributing to cellular growth and proliferation, cell cycle progression, and decreased hypoplasia. In direct concordance with these in situ results we show that HER4 knockdown in MCF-7 cells results in a loss of estrogen stimulated tumor cell proliferation and cell cycle progression, whereas, estrogen stimulated tumor cell migration was unaffected by loss of HER4 expression. In summary, we demonstrate for the first time that a cell surface receptor functions as an obligate ER coactivator with functional specificity associated with breast tumor cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. Nearly 90% of ER positive tumors coexpress HER4, therefore we predict that the majority of breast cancer patients would benefit from a strategy to therapeutic disengage ER/4ICD coregulated tumor cell proliferation.
|In vivo transcriptional governance of hair follicle stem cells by canonical Wnt regulators.|
Lien, WH; Polak, L; Lin, M; Lay, K; Zheng, D; Fuchs, E
Nature cell biology 16 179-90 2014
Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) regenerate hair in response to Wnt signalling. Here, we unfold genome-wide transcriptional and chromatin landscapes of β-catenin-TCF3/4-TLE circuitry, and genetically dissect their biological roles within the native HFSC niche. We show that during HFSC quiescence, TCF3, TCF4 and TLE (Groucho) bind coordinately and transcriptionally repress Wnt target genes. We also show that β-catenin is dispensable for HFSC viability, and if TCF3/4 levels are sufficiently reduced, it is dispensable for proliferation. However, β-catenin is essential to activate genes that launch hair follicle fate and suppress sebocyte fate determination. TCF3/4 deficiency mimics Wnt-β-catenin-dependent activation of these hair follicle fate targets; TCF3 overexpression parallels their TLE4-dependent suppression. Our studies unveil TCF3/4-TLE histone deacetylases as a repressive rheostat, whose action can be relieved by Wnt-β-catenin signalling. When TCF3/4 and TLE levels are high, HFSCs can maintain stemness, but remain quiescent. When these levels drop or when Wnt-β-catenin levels rise, this balance is shifted and hair regeneration initiates.
|AXIS: Axon Investigation System|