|Biochemical mechanism of caffeic acid phenylethyl ester (CAPE) selective toxicity towards melanoma cell lines.|
Shashi K Kudugunti,Nikhil M Vad,Amanda J Whiteside,Bhakti U Naik,Mohd A Yusuf,Kalkunte S Srivenugopal,Majid Y Moridani
In the current work, we investigated the in vitro biochemical mechanism of Caffeic Acid Phenylethyl Ester (CAPE) toxicity and eight hydroxycinnamic/caffeic acid derivatives in vitro, using tyrosinase enzyme as a molecular target in human SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells. Enzymatic reaction models using tyrosinase/O(2) and HRP/H(2)O(2) were used to delineate the role of one- and two-electron oxidation. Ascorbic acid (AA), NADH and GSH depletion were used as markers of quinone formation and oxidative stress in CAPE induced toxicity in melanoma cells. Ethylenediamine, an o-quinone trap, prevented the formation of o-quinone and oxidations of AA and NADH mediated by tyrosinase bioactivation of CAPE. The IC(50) of CAPE towards SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells was 15muM. Dicoumarol, a diaphorase inhibitor, and 1-bromoheptane, a GSH depleting agent, increased CAPE's toxicity towards SK-MEL-28 cells indicating quinone formation played an important role in CAPE induced cell toxicity. Cyclosporin-A and trifluoperazine, inhibitors of the mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore (PTP), prevented CAPE toxicity towards melanoma cells. We further investigated the role of tyrosinase in CAPE toxicity in the presence of a shRNA plasmid, targeting tyrosinase mRNA. Results from tyrosinase shRNA experiments showed that CAPE led to negligible anti-proliferative effect, apoptotic cell death and ROS formation in shRNA plasmid treated cells. Furthermore, it was also found that CAPE selectively caused escalation in the ROS formation and intracellular GSH (ICG) depletion in melanocytic human SK-MEL-28 cells which express functional tyrosinase. In contrast, CAPE did not lead to ROS formation and ICG depletion in amelanotic C32 melanoma cells, which do not express functional tyrosinase. These findings suggest that tyrosinase plays a major role in CAPE's selective toxicity towards melanocytic melanoma cell lines. Our findings suggest that the mechanisms of CAPE toxicity in SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells mediated by tyrosinase bioactivation of CAPE included quinone formation, ROS formation, intracellular GSH depletion and induced mitochondrial toxicity.Full Text Article
|Structure-toxicity relationship of phenolic analogs as anti-melanoma agents: an enzyme directed prodrug approach.|
Vad NM, Kandala PK, Srivastava SK, Moridani MY
The aim of this study was to identify a phenolic prodrug compound that is minimally metabolized by rat liver microsomes, but yet could form quinone reactive intermediates in melanoma cells as a result of its bioactivation by tyrosinase. In current work, we investigated 24 phenolic compounds for their metabolism by tyrosinase, rat liver microsomes and their toxicity towards murine B16-F0 and human SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells. A linear correlation was found between toxicities of phenolic analogs towards SK-MEL-28 and B16-F0 melanoma cells, suggesting similar mechanisms of toxicity in both cell lines. 4-HEB was identified as the lead compound. 4-HEB (IC(50) 48h, 75muM) showed selective toxicity towards five melanocytic melanoma cell lines SK-MEL-28, SK-MEL-5, MeWo, B16-F0 and B16-F10, which express functional tyrosinase, compared to four non-melanoma cells lines SW-620, Saos-2, PC3 and BJ cells and two amelanotic SK-MEL-24, C32 cells, which do not express functional tyrosinase. 4-HEB caused significant intracellular GSH depletion, ROS formation, and showed significantly less toxicity to tyrosinase specific shRNA transfected SK-MEL-28 cells. Our findings suggest that presence of a phenolic group in 4-HEB is critical for its selective toxicity towards melanoma cells.Full Text Article
|Efficacy of acetaminophen in skin B16-F0 melanoma tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mice.|
Nikhil M Vad,Shashi K Kudugunti,Daniel Graber,Nathan Bailey,Kalkunte Srivenugopal,Majid Y Moridani
International journal of oncology
Previously, we reported that acetaminophen (APAP) showed selective toxicity towards melanoma cell lines. In the current study, we investigated further the role of tyrosinase in APAP toxicity in SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells in the presence of a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) plasmid, silencing tyrosinase gene. Results from tyrosinase shRNA experiments showed that APAP led to negligible toxicity in shRNA plasmid-treated cells. It was also found that APAP selectively caused escalation in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and intracellular GSH (ICG) depletion in melanocytic human SK-MEL-28 and murine B16-F0 melanoma cells that express functional tyrosinase whereas it lacked significant effects on ROS formation and ICG in amelanotic C32 melanoma cells that do not express functional tyrosinase. These findings suggest that tyrosinase plays a major role in APAP selective induced toxicity in melanocytic melanoma cell lines. Furthermore, the in vivo efficacy and toxicity of APAP in the skin melanoma tumor model in mice was investigated. Mice receiving APAP at 60, 80, 100 and 300 mg/kg/day, day 7 through 13 post melanoma cell inoculation demonstrated tumor size growth inhibition by 7+/-14, 30+/-17, 45+/-11 and 57+/-3%, respectively. Mice receiving APAP day 1 through 13 post melanoma cell inoculation showed tumor size growth inhibition by 11+/-7, 33+/-9, 36+/-20 and 44+/-28%, respectively.
|T311--an anti-tyrosinase monoclonal antibody for the detection of melanocytic lesions in paraffin embedded tissues.|
Jungbluth, A A, et al.
Pathol. Res. Pract., 196: 235-42 (2000)
Tyrosinase is a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis and represents a marker of melanocytic differentiation. We previously generated T311, a murine monoclonal antibody to the tyrosinase recombinant protein. This study was performed to evaluate T311 as a diagnostic immunohistochemical reagent for use on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded pathological material. We analyzed the specificity of the antibody on a panel of normal and neoplastic tissues, and we assessed its sensitivity in a large number of metastatic and primary malignant melanomas, nevi, three angiomyolipomas, and two vitiligo specimens. T311 revealed intense reactivity on paraffin-embedded material. Immunoreactivity was limited to cells of melanocytic differentiation and no immunostaining was present in unrelated normal tissues and tumors. Eighty-four percent of metastatic malignant melanomas were immunoreactive with T311 and showed predominantly a homogeneous expression pattern. However, in primary melanomas of the desmoplastic/spindle cell type, T311 revealed a poor immunoreactivity. Nevi showed intense staining at the junctional zone, while the dermal component revealed decreasing reactivity towards deeper areas. Only one angiomyolipoma was focally immunoreactive with T311. Vitiligo specimens were immunonegative. We conclude that T311 is a specific and sensitive marker for the detection of melanocytic lesions in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues and a useful serological reagent for diagnostic pathology.