Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|M, B, Sh, Gp||IHC, IP, WB||Rb||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||200 µg|
|Anti-iNOS/NOS II (rabbit polyclonal IgG) - DAM1408770||DAM1408770|
|Anti-iNOS/NOS II, NT - 2135181||2135181|
|Anti-iNOS/NOS II, NT - 15441||15441|
|Anti-iNOS/NOS II, NT - 2019588||2019588|
|Anti-iNOS/NOS II, NT - 2055512||2055512|
|Anti-iNOS/NOS II, NT - 21421||21421|
|Anti-iNOS/NOS II, NT - 2199772||2199772|
|Anti-iNOS/NOS II, NT - 24123||24123|
|Anti-iNOS/NOS II, NT - 27365||27365|
|Anti-iNOS/NOS II, NT - DAM1604964||DAM1604964|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Inflammatory stimuli induce inhibitory S-nitrosylation of the deacetylase SIRT1 to increase acetylation and activation of p53 and p65.|
Shinozaki, S; Chang, K; Sakai, M; Shimizu, N; Yamada, M; Tanaka, T; Nakazawa, H; Ichinose, F; Yamada, Y; Ishigami, A; Ito, H; Ouchi, Y; Starr, ME; Saito, H; Shimokado, K; Stamler, JS; Kaneki, M
Science signaling 7 ra106 2014
Inflammation increases the abundance of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), leading to enhanced production of nitric oxide (NO), which can modify proteins by S-nitrosylation. Enhanced NO production increases the activities of the transcription factors p53 and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in several models of disease-associated inflammation. S-nitrosylation inhibits the activity of the protein deacetylase SIRT1. SIRT1 limits apoptosis and inflammation by deacetylating p53 and p65 (also known as RelA), a subunit of NF-κB. We showed in multiple cultured mammalian cell lines that NO donors or inflammatory stimuli induced S-nitrosylation of SIRT1 within CXXC motifs, which inhibited SIRT1 by disrupting its ability to bind zinc. Inhibition of SIRT1 reduced deacetylation and promoted activation of p53 and p65, leading to apoptosis and increased expression of proinflammatory genes. In rodent models of systemic inflammation, Parkinson's disease, or aging-related muscular atrophy, S-nitrosylation of SIRT1 correlated with increased acetylation of p53 and p65 and activation of p53 and NF-κB target genes, suggesting that S-nitrosylation of SIRT1 may represent a proinflammatory switch common to many diseases and aging.
|Prolactin promotes cartilage survival and attenuates inflammation in inflammatory arthritis.|
Adán, N; Guzmán-Morales, J; Ledesma-Colunga, MG; Perales-Canales, SI; Quintanar-Stéphano, A; López-Barrera, F; Méndez, I; Moreno-Carranza, B; Triebel, J; Binart, N; Martínez de la Escalera, G; Thebault, S; Clapp, C
The Journal of clinical investigation 123 3902-13 2013
Chondrocytes are the only cells in cartilage, and their death by apoptosis contributes to cartilage loss in inflammatory joint diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A putative therapeutic intervention for RA is the inhibition of apoptosis-mediated cartilage degradation. The hormone prolactin (PRL) frequently increases in the circulation of patients with RA, but the role of hyperprolactinemia in disease activity is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that PRL inhibits the apoptosis of cultured chondrocytes in response to a mixture of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ) by preventing the induction of p53 and decreasing the BAX/BCL-2 ratio through a NO-independent, JAK2/STAT3-dependent pathway. Local treatment with PRL or increasing PRL circulating levels also prevented chondrocyte apoptosis evoked by injecting cytokines into the knee joints of rats, whereas the proapoptotic effect of cytokines was enhanced in PRL receptor-null (Prlr(-/-)) mice. Moreover, eliciting hyperprolactinemia in rats before or after inducing the adjuvant model of inflammatory arthritis reduced chondrocyte apoptosis, proinflammatory cytokine expression, pannus formation, bone erosion, joint swelling, and pain. These results reveal the protective effect of PRL against inflammation-induced chondrocyte apoptosis and the therapeutic potential of hyperprolactinemia to reduce permanent joint damage and inflammation in RA.
|Extrathymically generated regulatory T cells control mucosal TH2 inflammation.|
Josefowicz, SZ; Niec, RE; Kim, HY; Treuting, P; Chinen, T; Zheng, Y; Umetsu, DT; Rudensky, AY
Nature 482 395-9 2012
A balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory mechanisms at mucosal interfaces, which are sites of constitutive exposure to microbes and non-microbial foreign substances, allows for efficient protection against pathogens yet prevents adverse inflammatory responses associated with allergy, asthma and intestinal inflammation. Regulatory T (T(reg)) cells prevent systemic and tissue-specific autoimmunity and inflammatory lesions at mucosal interfaces. These cells are generated in the thymus (tT(reg) cells) and in the periphery (induced (i)T(reg) cells), and their dual origin implies a division of labour between tT(reg) and iT(reg) cells in immune homeostasis. Here we show that a highly selective blockage in differentiation of iT(reg) cells in mice did not lead to unprovoked multi-organ autoimmunity, exacerbation of induced tissue-specific autoimmune pathology, or increased pro-inflammatory responses of T helper 1 (T(H)1) and T(H)17 cells. However, mice deficient in iT(reg) cells spontaneously developed pronounced T(H)2-type pathologies at mucosal sites--in the gastrointestinal tract and lungs--with hallmarks of allergic inflammation and asthma. Furthermore, iT(reg)-cell deficiency altered gut microbial communities. These results suggest that whereas T(reg) cells generated in the thymus appear sufficient for control of systemic and tissue-specific autoimmunity, extrathymic differentiation of T(reg) cells affects commensal microbiota composition and serves a distinct, essential function in restraint of allergic-type inflammation at mucosal interfaces.
|Arginase II Promotes Macrophage Inflammatory Responses Through Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species, Contributing to Insulin Resistance and Atherogenesis.|
Ming, XF; Rajapakse, AG; Yepuri, G; Xiong, Y; Carvas, JM; Ruffieux, J; Scerri, I; Wu, Z; Popp, K; Li, J; Sartori, C; Scherrer, U; Kwak, BR; Montani, JP; Yang, Z
Journal of the American Heart Association 1 e000992 2012
Macrophage-mediated chronic inflammation is mechanistically linked to insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Although arginase I is considered antiinflammatory, the role of arginase II (Arg-II) in macrophage function remains elusive. This study characterizes the role of Arg-II in macrophage inflammatory responses and its impact on obesity-linked type II diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis.In human monocytes, silencing Arg-II decreases the monocytes' adhesion to endothelial cells and their production of proinflammatory mediators stimulated by oxidized low-density lipoprotein or lipopolysaccharides, as evaluated by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Macrophages differentiated from bone marrow cells of Arg-II-deficient (Arg-II(-/-)) mice express lower levels of lipopolysaccharide-induced proinflammatory mediators than do macrophages of wild-type mice. Importantly, reintroducing Arg-II cDNA into Arg-II(-/-) macrophages restores the inflammatory responses, with concomitant enhancement of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Scavenging of reactive oxygen species by N-acetylcysteine prevents the Arg-II-mediated inflammatory responses. Moreover, high-fat diet-induced infiltration of macrophages in various organs and expression of proinflammatory cytokines in adipose tissue are blunted in Arg-II(-/-) mice. Accordingly, Arg-II(-/-) mice reveal lower fasting blood glucose and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-deficient mice with Arg-II deficiency (ApoE(-/-)Arg-II(-/-)) display reduced lesion size with characteristics of stable plaques, such as decreased macrophage inflammation and necrotic core. In vivo adoptive transfer experiments reveal that fewer donor ApoE(-/-)Arg-II(-/-) than ApoE(-/-)Arg-II(+/+) monocytes infiltrate into the plaque of ApoE(-/-)Arg-II(+/+) mice. Conversely, recipient ApoE(-/-)Arg-II(-/-) mice accumulate fewer donor monocytes than do recipient ApoE(-/-)Arg-II(+/+) animals.Arg-II promotes macrophage proinflammatory responses through mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, contributing to insulin resistance and atherogenesis. Targeting Arg-II represents a potential therapeutic strategy in type II diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. (J Am Heart Assoc. 2012;1:e000992 doi: 10.1161/JAHA.112.000992.).
|Expression and cellular localization of inducible nitric oxide synthase in lipopolysaccharide-treated rat kidneys.|
Choi, JY; Nam, SA; Jin, DC; Kim, J; Cha, JH
The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society 60 301-15 2012
Although inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is known to play significant roles in the kidney, its renal localization has long been controversial. To resolve this issue, the authors identified iNOS-positive cell types in rat kidneys using double immunohistochemistry and confirmed iNOS positivity using enzyme histochemistry with NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) and in situ RT-PCR. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline as a control and sacrificed at various time intervals after injection. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction showed that iNOS was not expressed in control kidneys but was induced in LPS-treated kidneys. iNOS immunostaining was strongest 6 to 18 hr after injection and decreased gradually to control levels by day 7. Double immunohistochemistry and NADPH-d revealed that iNOS expression was induced in the interstitial cells, glomerular parietal epithelial cells, the proximal part of the short-looped descending thin limb, the upper and middle papillary parts of the long-looped descending thin limb, some inner medullary collecting duct cells, and almost all calyceal and papillary epithelial cells. The present study determines the precise localization of iNOS in LPS-treated rat kidneys and provides an important morphological basis for examining the roles of iNOS in sepsis-induced acute kidney injury.
|Deficits in spatial learning and memory is associated with hippocampal volume loss in aged apolipoprotein E4 mice.|
Jun-xiang Yin,Gregory H Turner,Hao-jie Lin,Stephen W Coons,Jiong Shi
Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD 27 2011
Apolipoprotein E ε4 (ApoE4) has been implicated as a potential genetic risk factor for dementia. In this study, we investigate the effect of ApoE4 on learning and memory, changes in brain volume and neuroinflammatory responses in brain of ApoE4 transgenic mice. Four groups of male mice with ApoE4 and age-matched wild type (WT) (6-, 12-, 18- and 24-month) were studied. Spatial learning and retaining of mice was examined in the Morris Water Maze (MWM). Changes in brain volume (including the whole brain, hippocampus, cortex, total ventricles, and caudate putamen) were assessed by using 7T small animal MRI. Neuroinflammatory responses were analyzed by measuring the levels of microglia (Iba-1), iNOS, TNFα, and IL-6 quantitatively. In the MWM, ApoE4 mice showed longer escape latency (p < 0.05) and swim distance (p < 0.05) at age 12 month and older, comparing with the WT mice. They also demonstrated poor memory retention in the probe test (p < 0.05). Brain atrophy was significant in ApoE4 mice than age-matched WT mice (18 months: 0.079 ± 0.004 versus 0.086 ± 0.003, p = 0.018; and 24 months: 0.074 ± 0.005 versus 0.084 ± 0.006, p = 0.008). The expression of Iba-1, iNOS, and TNFα in hippocampus and cortex were significantly higher in ApoE4 mice than in WT mice at 12 months and older. These data suggest that ApoE4 plays an important role in learning and memory impairment. These deficits are associated with neuroinflammatory responses that may in turn lead to atrophy in hippocampus and cortex.
|The EBV BZLF1 protein inhibits TNFR1 expression through effects on cellular C/EBP proteins.|
Bristol JA, Robinson AR, Barlow EA, Kenney SC
J Virol 2010
The Epstein Barr virus immediate-early protein, BZLF1 (Z), initiates the switch between latent and lytic infection and plays an essential role in mediating viral replication. Z also inhibits expression of the major receptor for Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF), TNFR1, thus repressing TNF cytokine signaling, but the mechanism for this effect is unknown. Here we demonstrate that Z prevents both C/EBPα- and C/EBPβ-mediated activation of the TNFR1 promoter (TNFR1p) by interacting directly with both C/EBP family members. We show that Z interacts directly with C/EBPα and C/EBPβ in vivo, and that a Z mutant altered at alanine residue 204 in the bZIP domain is impaired for the ability to interact with both C/EBP proteins. Furthermore, we find that the Z(A204D) mutant is attenuated in the ability to inhibit the TNFR1p, but mediates lytic viral reactivation and replication in vitro in 293 cells as well as wild-type Z. Although Z does not bind directly to the TNFR1p in EMSA studies, chromatin immunoprecipitation studies indicate that Z is complexed with this promoter in vivo. The Z(A204D) mutant has reduced interaction with the TNFR1p in vivo but is similar to wild-type Z in its ability to complex with the IL8 promoter. Finally, we show that the effect of Z on C/EBPα- and C/EBPβ-mediated activation is promoter dependent. These results indicate that Z modulates the effects of C/EBPα and C/EBPβ in a promoter-specific manner, and that in some cases (including the TNFR1p) Z inhibits C/EBPα- and C/EBPβ-mediated activation.
|Inducible nitric oxide synthase is present in motor neuron mitochondria and Schwann cells and contributes to disease mechanisms in ALS mice.|
Kevin Chen,Frances J Northington,Lee J Martin
Brain structure & function 214 2010
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease of motor neurons (MNs). The molecular pathogenesis of ALS is not understood, thus effective therapies for this disease are lacking. Some forms of ALS are inherited by mutations in the superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) gene. Transgenic mice expressing human Gly93 --> Ala (G93A) mutant SOD1 (mSOD1) develop severe MN disease, oxidative and nitrative damage, and mitochondrial pathology that appears to involve nitric oxide-mediated mechanisms. We used G93A-mSOD1 mice to test the hypothesis that the degeneration of MNs is associated with an aberrant up-regulation of the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS or NOS2) activity within MNs. Western blotting and immunoprecipitation showed that iNOS protein levels in mitochondrial-enriched membrane fractions of spinal cord are increased significantly in mSOD1 mice at pre-symptomatic stages of disease. The catalytic activity of iNOS was also increased significantly in mitochondrial-enriched membrane fractions of mSOD1 mouse spinal cord at pre-symptomatic stages of disease. Reverse transcription-PCR showed that iNOS mRNA was present in the spinal cord and brainstem MN regions in mice and was increased in pre-symptomatic and early symptomatic mice. Immunohistochemistry showed that iNOS immunoreactivty was up-regulated first in spinal cord and brainstem MNs in pre-symptomatic and early symptomatic mice and then later in the course of disease in numerous microglia and few astrocytes. iNOS accumulated in the mitochondria in mSOD1 mouse MNs. iNOS immunoreactivity was also up-regulated in Schwann cells of peripheral nerves and was enriched particularly at the paranodal regions of the nodes of Ranvier. Drug inhibitors of iNOS delayed disease onset and significantly extended the lifespan of G93A-mSOD1 mice. This work identifies two new potential early mechanisms for MN degeneration in mouse ALS involving iNOS at MN mitochondria and Schwann cells and suggests that therapies targeting iNOS might be beneficial in treating human ALS.Full Text Article
|A critical role for CHIP in the aggresome pathway.|
Sha, Y; Pandit, L; Zeng, S; Eissa, NT
Molecular and cellular biology 29 116-28 2009
Recent evidence suggests that aggresome formation is a physiologic stress response not limited to misfolded proteins. That stress response, termed "physiologic aggresome," is exemplified by aggresome formation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), an important host defense protein. CHIP (carboxy terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein) is a highly conserved protein that has been shown to mediate substrate ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome. In this study, we show that CHIP has a previously unexpected critical role in the aggresome pathway. CHIP interacts with iNOS and promotes its ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome as well as its sequestration to the aggresome. CHIP-mediated iNOS targeting to the proteasome sequentially precedes CHIP-mediated iNOS sequestration to the aggresome. CHIP is required for iNOS preaggresome structures to form a mature aggresome. Furthermore, CHIP is required for targeting the mutant form of cystic fibrosis transconductance regulator (CFTRDeltaF508) to the aggresome. Importantly, the ubiquitin ligase function of CHIP is required in targeting preaggresomal structures to the aggresome by promoting an iNOS interaction with histone deacetylase 6, which serves as an adaptor between ubiquitinated proteins and the dynein motor. This study reveals a critical role for CHIP in the aggresome pathway.
|Complications in the assignment of 14 and 28 Da mass shift detected by mass spectrometry as in vivo methylation from endogenous proteins.|
Sung Yun Jung,Yehua Li,Yi Wang,Yue Chen,Yingming Zhao,Jun Qin
Analytical chemistry 80 2008
Identification of protein methylation sites typically starts with database searching of MS/MS spectra of proteolytic digest of the target protein by allowing addition of 14 and 28 Da in the selected amino acid residues that can be methylated. Despite the progress in our understanding of lysine and arginine methylation, substrates and functions of protein methylation at other amino acid residues remain unknown. Here we report the analysis of protein methylation for p53, SMC3, iNOS, and MeCP2. We found that a large number of peptides can be modified on the lysine, arginine, histidine, and glutamic acid residues with a mass increase of 14 or 28 Da, consistent with methylation. Surprisingly, a majority of which did not demonstrate a corresponding mass shift when cells were cultured with isotope-labeled methionine, a precursor for the synthesis of S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM), which is the most commonly used methyl donor for protein methylation. These results suggest the possibility of either exogenous protein methylation during sample handling and processing for mass spectrometry or the existence of SAM-independent pathways for protein methylation. Our study found a high occurrence of protein methylation from SDS-PAGE isolated endogenous proteins and identified complications for assigning such modifications as in vivo methylation. This study provides a cautionary note for solely relying on mass shift for mass spectrometric identification of protein methylation and highlights the importance of in vivo isotope labeling as a necessary validation method.Full Text Article
|Pathways and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress|
|White Paper- Modern Methods in Oxidative Stress Research|