Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R||WB||Rb||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||0.1M Tris-glycine, pH 7.4, 0.15M NaCl, 0.05% sodium azide before the addition of glycerol to 30%|
|Application||Anti-mGluR4a Antibody is an antibody against mGluR4a for use in WB.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||2 years at -20°C|
|Material Size||200 µg|
|Anti-mGluR4a (rabbit polyclonal IgG) - 06-765||06-765|
|Anti-mGluR4a - 16969||16969|
|Anti-mGluR4a - 22930||22930|
|Anti-mGluR4a - 32829||32829|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Selective actions of novel allosteric modulators reveal functional heteromers of metabotropic glutamate receptors in the CNS.|
Yin, S; Noetzel, MJ; Johnson, KA; Zamorano, R; Jalan-Sakrikar, N; Gregory, KJ; Conn, PJ; Niswender, CM
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 79-94 2014
Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors play important roles in regulating CNS function and are known to function as obligatory dimers. Although recent studies have suggested heterodimeric assembly of mGlu receptors in vitro, the demonstration that distinct mGlu receptor proteins can form heterodimers or hetero-complexes with other mGlu subunits in native tissues, such as neurons, has not been shown. Using biochemical and pharmacological approaches, we demonstrate here that mGlu2 and mGlu4 form a hetero-complex in native rat and mouse tissues which exhibits a distinct pharmacological profile. These data greatly extend our current understanding of mGlu receptor interaction and function and provide compelling evidence that mGlu receptors can function as heteromers in intact brain circuits.
|Changes in midbrain pain receptor expression, gait and behavioral sensitivity in a rat model of radiculopathy.|
Hwang, PY; Allen, KD; Shamji, MF; Jing, L; Mata, BA; Gabr, MA; Huebner, JL; Kraus, VB; Richardson, WJ; Setton, LA
The open orthopaedics journal 6 383-91 2012
Intervertebral disc herniation may contribute to inflammatory processes that associate with radicular pain and motor deficits. Molecular changes at the affected dorsal root ganglion (DRG), spinal cord, and even midbrain, have been documented in rat models of radiculopathy or nerve injury. The objective of this study was to evaluate gait and the expression of key pain receptors in the midbrain in a rodent model of radiculopathy. Radiculopathy was induced by harvesting tail nucleus pulposus (NP) and placing upon the right L5 DRG in rats (NP-treated, n=12). Tail NP was discarded in sham-operated animals (n=12). Mechanical allodynia, weight-bearing, and gait were evaluated in all animals over time. At 1 and 4 weeks after surgery, astrocyte and microglial activation was tested in DRG sections. Midbrain sections were similarly evaluated for immunoreactivity to serotonin (5HT(2B)), mu-opioid (µ-OR), and metabotropic glutamate (mGluR4 and 5) receptor antibodies. NP-treated animals placed less weight on the affected limb 1 week after surgery and experienced mechanical hypersensitivity over the duration of the study. Astroctye activation was observed at DRGs only at 4 weeks after surgery. Findings for pain receptors in the midbrain of NP-treated rats included an increased expression of 5HT(2B) at 1, but not 4 weeks; increased expression of µ-OR and mGluR5 at 1 and 4 weeks (periaqueductal gray region only); and no changes in expression of mGluR4 at any point in this study. These observations provide support for the hypothesis that the midbrain responds to DRG injury with a transient change in receptors regulating pain responses.
|Molecular determinants of high affinity binding to group III metabotropic glutamate receptors|
Rosemond, E., et al
J Biol Chem, 277:7333-40 (2002) 2002
|Mapping of calmodulin and Gbetagamma binding domains within the C-terminal region of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 7A.|
El Far, O, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 276: 30662-9 (2001) 2001
Ca(2+)/calmodulin (Ca(2+)/CaM) and the betagamma subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins (Gbetagamma) have recently been shown to interact in a mutually exclusive fashion with the intracellular C terminus of the presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 (mGluR 7). Here, we further characterized the core CaM and Gbetagamma binding sequences. In contrast to a previous report, we find that the CaM binding motif localized in the N-terminal region of the cytoplasmic tail domain of mGluR 7 is conserved in the related group III mGluRs 4A and 8 and allows these receptors to also bind Ca(2+)/CaM. Mutational analysis of the Ca(2+)/CaM binding motif is consistent with group III receptors containing a conventional CaM binding site formed by an amphipathic alpha-helix. Substitutions adjacent to the core CaM target sequence selectively prevent Gbetagamma binding, suggesting that the CaM-dependent regulation of signal transduction involves determinants that overlap with but are different from those mediating Gbetagamma recruitment. In addition, we present evidence that Gbetagamma uses distinct nonoverlapping interfaces for interaction with the mGluR 7 C-terminal tail and the effector enzyme adenylyl cyclase II, respectively. Although Gbetagamma-mediated signaling is abolished in receptors lacking the core CaM binding sequence, alpha subunit activation, as assayed by agonist-dependent GTPgammaS binding, was not affected. This suggests that Ca(2+)/CaM may alter the mode of group III mGluR signaling from mono- (alpha) to bidirectional (alpha and betagamma) activation of downstream effector cascades.
|Group III human metabotropic glutamate receptors 4, 7 and 8: molecular cloning, functional expression, and comparison of pharmacological properties in RGT cells.|
Wu, S, et al.
Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res., 53: 88-97 (1998) 1998
Cloning and expression in a stable mammalian cell line co-transfected with a glutamate transporter (RGT cells) were used as tools for studying the functions and pharmacological properties of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Complementary DNAs (cDNAs) encoding the human mGluR4, human mGluR7, and human mGluR8 were isolated from human cerebellum, fetal brain or retinal cDNA libraries. The human mGluR4, mGluR7 and mGluR8 receptors were 912, 915 and 908 amino acid residues long and share 67-70% amino acid similarity with each other and 42-45% similarity with the members of mGluR subgroups I and II. The human mGluR4 and mGluR7 had amino acid identity of 96% and 99.5% with rat mGluR4 and 7, respectively, whereas the human mGluR8 has 98.8% amino acid identity with the mouse mGluR8. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences in the coding region of human mGluR4 and mGluR7 were found to be identical to the previously published sequences by Flor et al. and Makoff et al. Following stable expression in RGT cells, highly significant inhibitions of forskolin stimulation of cAMP production by group III agonists were found for each receptor. The relative potencies of the group III agonist L-AP4 varied greatly between the group III clones, being mGluR8>mGluR4 >> mGluR7. The reported group II mGluR agonist L-CCG-I was a highly potent mGluR8 agonist (EC50=0.35 microM), with significant agonist activities at both mGluR4 (EC50=3.7 microM) and mGluR7 (EC50=47 microM). The antagonist potency of the purported group III mGluR antagonist MPPG also varied among the receptors being human mGluR8 >> mGluR4 = mGluR7. The expression and second messenger coupling of human group III mGluRs expressed in the RGT cell line are useful to clearly define the subtype selectivities of mGluR ligands.
|Localization of mGluR4 protein in the rat cerebral cortex and hippocampus.|
Phillips, T, et al.
Neuroreport, 8: 3349-54 (1997) 1997
The cellular distribution of the rat metabotropic glutamate receptor type 4 (mGluR4) was examined in the adult rat cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Antibodies were raised against amino acid residues located in the extracellular amino terminal domain that is common to both the mGluR4a and mGluR4b splice variants, and used for an immunohistochemical investigation. The affinity-purified antibodies on immunoblot analysis specifically detected mGluR4 protein in transfected mammalian cells, showing no cross-reactivity with other members of the mGluR family. At the light microscope level intense mGluR4-like immunoreactivity was detected in the CA2 region of Ammon's horn in the hippocampus. In the cerebral cortex numerous non-pyramidal cells were strongly immunolabelled.
|Neuroprotective effects of group III mGluR in traumatic neuronal injury.|
Faden, A I, et al.
J. Neurotrauma, 14: 885-95 (1997) 1997
We have used an in vitro trauma model to examine the effects of modulation of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) on post-traumatic neuronal cell death. Rat cortical neuronal/glial cultures were subjected to standardized mechanical injury using a punch that delivers 28 parallel cuts to 96-well culture plates, resulting in approximately 50% neuronal cell loss in untreated cultures. RT-PCR demonstrated expression of mRNA for mGluR4, mGluR6, mGluR7, and mGluR8 in uninjured cultures as well as in adult rat brain. Treatment with the group III agonists L-(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (L-AP4) or L-serine-O-phosphate (L-SOP) resulted in dose-dependent neuroprotection. In contrast, treatment with the group III antagonists alpha-methyl-AP4 (MAP4) or (RS)-alpha-methylserine-O-phosphate (MSOP) caused dose-dependent exacerbation of injury, which was significantly attenuated by L-AP4 or L-SOP. The neuroprotective actions of L-AP4 or L-SOP were markedly reduced by the cyclic AMP analog 8-CPT-cAMP (500 microm), which by itself had no effects at this concentration. Moreover, treatment with L-AP4 or L-SOP reduced basal cyclic AMP levels. Treatment with the NMDA antagonist MK 801 decreased post-traumatic cell death by 45% at optimal concentrations; combined treatment with MK 801 and group III agonists showed a significant enhancement of neuroprotection as compared to treatment with the NMDA antagonist alone. Our findings indicate a clear neuroprotective action for group III agonists in this model and suggest that group III mGluR are endogenously activated in response to trauma. The neuroprotective effects of group III agonists appear to result in part from modulation of adenylyl cyclase activity and are additive to those of an NMDA receptor antagonist.
|Cloning and characterization of a metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGluR4b.|
Thomsen, C, et al.
Neuropharmacology, 36: 21-30 (1997) 1997
An alternative spliced variant of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype mGluR4a, termed mGluR4b was isolated from a rat cDNA library. Subtype mGluR4b was identical to the previously described mGluR4a, except for the last 64 amino acids in the C-terminal region in which were replaced by 135 new amino acids in mGluR4b. Recombinant baculoviruses coding for mGluR4a and mGluR4b were expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf-9, insect cells and characterized pharmacologically by measuring [3H]-L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate ([3H]-L-AP4) binding and second messenger formation. [3H]-L-AP4 binding to membranes prepared from Sf-9 cells expressing mGluR4a and mGluR4b revealed respective affinities (Kd) of 480 and 360 nM and maximal binding densities (Bmax) of 4.2 and 0.8 pmol/mg protein. The ligand selectivity of mGluR4a and mGluR4b was similar: L-AP4 > L-serine-O-phosphate > L-glutamate > L-2-amino 2-methyl-4-phosphonobutyrate > (1S,3R)-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylate > or = quisqualate. A decrease in the affinity of [3H]-L-AP4 was observed in the presence of 0.1 mM guanosine 5'-O-(3-thio)trisphosphate-gamma-S, indicating that mGluR4a and mGluR4b were functionally coupled to G-proteins in Sf-9 cells. Agonists of mGluR4 caused a minor decrease in forskolin-induced cAMP formation in Sf-9 cells expressing either mGluR4a or mGluR4b, suggesting that both receptors are coupled to adenylate cyclase in an inhibitory manner. Thus, mGluR4a and mGluR4b share a common signal transduction pathway and pharmacology when expressed in Sf-9 insect cells.