Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, Ch||DB, ICC, PIA, WB||Rb||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified rabbit IgG in buffer containing 0.1 M Tris-glycine, pH 7.4, 0.105 M NaCl, 0.035% sodium azide and 30% glycerol.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µg|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 occurs during translation.|
Rivera, C; Saavedra, F; Alvarez, F; Díaz-Celis, C; Ugalde, V; Li, J; Forné, I; Gurard-Levin, ZA; Almouzni, G; Imhof, A; Loyola, A
Nucleic acids research 43 9097-106 2015
Histone post-translational modifications are key contributors to chromatin structure and function, and participate in the maintenance of genome stability. Understanding the establishment and maintenance of these marks, along with their misregulation in pathologies is thus a major focus in the field. While we have learned a great deal about the enzymes regulating histone modifications on nucleosomal histones, much less is known about the mechanisms establishing modifications on soluble newly synthesized histones. This includes methylation of lysine 9 on histone H3 (H3K9), a mark that primes the formation of heterochromatin, a critical chromatin landmark for genome stability. Here, we report that H3K9 mono- and dimethylation is imposed during translation by the methyltransferase SetDB1. We discuss the importance of these results in the context of heterochromatin establishment and maintenance and new therapeutic opportunities in pathologies where heterochromatin is perturbed.
|Non-CG methylation patterns shape the epigenetic landscape in Arabidopsis.|
Stroud, H; Do, T; Du, J; Zhong, X; Feng, S; Johnson, L; Patel, DJ; Jacobsen, SE
Nature structural & molecular biology 21 64-72 2014
DNA methylation occurs in CG and non-CG sequence contexts. Non-CG methylation is abundant in plants and is mediated by CHROMOMETHYLASE (CMT) and DOMAINS REARRANGED METHYLTRANSFERASE (DRM) proteins; however, its roles remain poorly understood. Here we characterize the roles of non-CG methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana. We show that a poorly characterized methyltransferase, CMT2, is a functional methyltransferase in vitro and in vivo. CMT2 preferentially binds histone H3 Lys9 (H3K9) dimethylation and methylates non-CG cytosines that are regulated by H3K9 methylation. We revealed the contributions and redundancies between each non-CG methyltransferase in DNA methylation patterning and in regulating transcription. We also demonstrate extensive dependencies of small-RNA accumulation and H3K9 methylation patterning on non-CG methylation, suggesting self-reinforcing mechanisms between these epigenetic factors. The results suggest that non-CG methylation patterns are critical in shaping the landscapes of histone modification and small noncoding RNA.
|Nascent chromatin capture proteomics determines chromatin dynamics during DNA replication and identifies unknown fork components.|
Alabert, C; Bukowski-Wills, JC; Lee, SB; Kustatscher, G; Nakamura, K; de Lima Alves, F; Menard, P; Mejlvang, J; Rappsilber, J; Groth, A
Nature cell biology 16 281-93 2014
To maintain genome function and stability, DNA sequence and its organization into chromatin must be duplicated during cell division. Understanding how entire chromosomes are copied remains a major challenge. Here, we use nascent chromatin capture (NCC) to profile chromatin proteome dynamics during replication in human cells. NCC relies on biotin-dUTP labelling of replicating DNA, affinity purification and quantitative proteomics. Comparing nascent chromatin with mature post-replicative chromatin, we provide association dynamics for 3,995 proteins. The replication machinery and 485 chromatin factors such as CAF-1, DNMT1 and SUV39h1 are enriched in nascent chromatin, whereas 170 factors including histone H1, DNMT3, MBD1-3 and PRC1 show delayed association. This correlates with H4K5K12diAc removal and H3K9me1 accumulation, whereas H3K27me3 and H3K9me3 remain unchanged. Finally, we combine NCC enrichment with experimentally derived chromatin probabilities to predict a function in nascent chromatin for 93 uncharacterized proteins, and identify FAM111A as a replication factor required for PCNA loading. Together, this provides an extensive resource to understand genome and epigenome maintenance.
|Radiation-induced alterations of histone post-translational modification levels in lymphoblastoid cell lines.|
Maroschik, B; Gürtler, A; Krämer, A; Rößler, U; Gomolka, M; Hornhardt, S; Mörtl, S; Friedl, AA
Radiation oncology (London, England) 9 15 2014
Radiation-induced alterations in posttranslational histone modifications (PTMs) may affect the cellular response to radiation damage in the DNA. If not reverted appropriately, altered PTM patterns may cause long-term alterations in gene expression regulation and thus lead to cancer. It is therefore important to characterize radiation-induced alterations in PTM patterns and the factors affecting them.A lymphoblastoid cell line established from a normal donor was used to screen for alterations in methylation levels at H3K4, H3K9, H3K27, and H4K20, as well as acetylation at H3K9, H3K56, H4K5, and H4K16, by quantitative Western Blot analysis at 15 min, 1 h and 24 h after irradiation with 2 Gy and 10 Gy. The variability of alterations in acetylation marks was in addition investigated in a panel of lymphoblastoid cell lines with differing radiosensitivity established from lung cancer patients.The screening procedure demonstrated consistent hypomethylation at H3K4me3 and hypoacetylation at all acetylation marks tested. In the panel of lymphoblastoid cell lines, however, a high degree of inter-individual variability became apparent. Radiosensitive cell lines showed more pronounced and longer lasting H4K16 hypoacetylation than radioresistant lines, which correlates with higher levels of residual γ-H2AX foci after 24 h.So far, the factors affecting extent and duration of radiation-induced histone alterations are poorly defined. The present work hints at a high degree of inter-individual variability and a potential correlation of DNA damage repair capacity and alterations in PTM levels.
|Stage-dependent and locus-specific role of histone demethylase Jumonji D3 (JMJD3) in the embryonic stages of lung development.|
Li, Q; Wang, HY; Chepelev, I; Zhu, Q; Wei, G; Zhao, K; Wang, RF
PLoS genetics 10 e1004524 2014
Histone demethylases have emerged as important players in developmental processes. Jumonji domain containing-3 (Jmjd3) has been identified as a key histone demethylase that plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression; however, the in vivo function of Jmjd3 in embryonic development remains largely unknown. To this end, we generated Jmjd3 global and conditional knockout mice. Global deletion of Jmjd3 induces perinatal lethality associated with defective lung development. Tissue and stage-specific deletion revealed that Jmjd3 is dispensable in the later stage of embryonic lung development. Jmjd3 ablation downregulates the expression of genes critical for lung development and function, including AQP-5 and SP-B. Jmjd3-mediated alterations in gene expression are associated with locus-specific changes in the methylation status of H3K27 and H3K4. Furthermore, Jmjd3 is recruited to the SP-B promoter through interactions with the transcription factor Nkx2.1 and the epigenetic protein Brg1. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that Jmjd3 plays a stage-dependent and locus-specific role in the mouse lung development. Our study provides molecular insights into the mechanisms by which Jmjd3 regulates target gene expression in the embryonic stages of lung development.
|Critical role of histone demethylase Jmjd3 in the regulation of CD4+ T-cell differentiation.|
Li, Q; Zou, J; Wang, M; Ding, X; Chepelev, I; Zhou, X; Zhao, W; Wei, G; Cui, J; Zhao, K; Wang, HY; Wang, RF
Nature communications 5 5780 2014
Epigenetic factors have been implicated in the regulation of CD4(+) T-cell differentiation. Jmjd3 plays a role in many biological processes, but its in vivo function in T-cell differentiation remains unknown. Here we report that Jmjd3 ablation promotes CD4(+) T-cell differentiation into Th2 and Th17 cells in the small intestine and colon, and inhibits T-cell differentiation into Th1 cells under different cytokine-polarizing conditions and in a Th1-dependent colitis model. Jmjd3 deficiency also restrains the plasticity of the conversion of Th2, Th17 or Treg cells to Th1 cells. The skewing of T-cell differentiation is concomitant with changes in the expression of key transcription factors and cytokines. H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 levels in Jmjd3-deficient cells are correlated with altered gene expression through interactions with specific transcription factors. Our results identify Jmjd3 as an epigenetic factor in T-cell differentiation via changes in histone methylation and target gene expression.
|Epigenetic control of type 2 and 3 deiodinases in myogenesis: role of Lysine-specific Demethylase enzyme and FoxO3.|
Ambrosio, R; Damiano, V; Sibilio, A; De Stefano, MA; Avvedimento, VE; Salvatore, D; Dentice, M
Nucleic acids research 41 3551-62 2013
The proliferation and differentiation of muscle precursor cells require myogenic regulatory factors and chromatin modifiers whose concerted action dynamically regulates access to DNA and allows reprogramming of cells towards terminal differentiation. Type 2 deiodinase (D2), the thyroid hormone (TH)-activating enzyme, is sharply upregulated during myoblast differentiation, whereas type 3 deiodinase (D3), the TH-inactivating enzyme, is downregulated. The molecular determinants controlling synchronized D2 and D3 expression in muscle differentiation are completely unknown. Here, we report that the histone H3 demethylating enzyme (LSD-1) is essential for transcriptional induction of D2 and repression of D3. LSD-1 relieves the repressive marks (H3-K9me2-3) on the Dio2 promoter and the activation marks (H3-K4me2-3) on the Dio3 promoter. LSD-1 silencing impairs the D2 surge in skeletal muscle differentiation while inducing D3 expression thereby leading to a global decrease in intracellular TH production. Furthermore, endogenous LSD-1 interacts with FoxO3a, and abrogation of FoxO3-DNA binding compromises the ability of LSD-1 to induce D2. Our data reveal a novel epigenetic control of reciprocal deiodinases expression and provide a molecular mechanism by which LSD-1, through the opposite regulation of D2 and D3 expression, acts as a molecular switch that dynamically finely tunes the cellular needs of active TH during myogenesis.
|Zebularine regulates early stages of mESC differentiation: effect on cardiac commitment.|
Horrillo, A; Pezzolla, D; Fraga, MF; Aguilera, Y; Salguero-Aranda, C; Tejedo, JR; Martin, F; Bedoya, FJ; Soria, B; Hmadcha, A
Cell death & disease 4 e570 2013
Lineage commitment during embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation is controlled not only by a gamut of transcription factors but also by epigenetic events, mainly histone deacetylation and promoter DNA methylation. The DNA demethylation agent 5'-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AzadC) has been widely described as an effective promoter of cardiomyogenic differentiation in various stem cell types. However, its toxicity and instability complicate its use. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of zebularine (1-(β-D-ribofuranosyl)-1,2-dihydropyrimidin-2-1), a stable and non-toxic DNA cytosine methylation inhibitor, on mouse ESC (mESC) differentiation. Herein, we report that treating embryoid bodies, generated from mESCs, with 30 μM zebularine for 7 days led to greater cell differentiation and induced the expression of several cardiac-specific markers that were detected using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), real-time PCR, immunostaining and flow cytometry. Zebularine enhanced the expression of cardiac markers and the appearance of beating cells that responded to cardiac drugs, including ion channel blockers (diltiazem) and β-adrenergic stimulators (isoproterenol). Gene promoter methylation status was assessed using methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and validated by bisulfite sequencing analysis. Global gene expression profiling using microarrays showed that zebularine-differentiated cells are distinct from control ESCs. Pathway analysis revealed an enhancement of cellular processes such as embryonic development, cardiovascular system development and function. In addition, the whole-cell proteins exhibited different profiles as analyzed by two-dimensional differential-in-gel-electrophoresis. Our results indicate that zebularine regulates mesodermal differentiation of mESCs, controls promoter methylation of crucial cardiac genes and may help to improve cardiomyogenic differentiation.
|A replication-dependent passive mechanism modulates DNA demethylation in mouse primordial germ cells.|
Ohno, R; Nakayama, M; Naruse, C; Okashita, N; Takano, O; Tachibana, M; Asano, M; Saitou, M; Seki, Y
Development (Cambridge, England) 140 2892-903 2013
Germline cells reprogramme extensive epigenetic modifications to ensure the cellular totipotency of subsequent generations and to prevent the accumulation of epimutations. Notably, primordial germ cells (PGCs) erase genome-wide DNA methylation and H3K9 dimethylation marks in a stepwise manner during migration and gonadal periods. In this study, we profiled DNA and histone methylation on transposable elements during PGC development, and examined the role of DNA replication in DNA demethylation in gonadal PGCs. CpGs in short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) B1 and B2 were substantially demethylated in migrating PGCs, whereas CpGs in long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs), such as LINE-1, were resistant to early demethylation. By contrast, CpGs in both LINE-1 and SINEs were rapidly demethylated in gonadal PGCs. Four major modifiers of DNA and histone methylation, Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b, Glp and Uhrf1, were actively repressed at distinct stages of PGC development. DNMT1 was localised at replication foci in nascent PGCs, whereas the efficiency of recruitment of DNMT1 into replication foci was severely impaired in gonadal PGCs. Hairpin bisulphite sequencing analysis showed that strand-specific hemi-methylated CpGs on LINE-1 were predominant in gonadal PGCs. Furthermore, DNA demethylation in SINEs and LINE-1 was impaired in Cbx3-deficient PGCs, indicating abnormalities in G1 to S phase progression. We propose that PGCs employ active and passive mechanisms for efficient and widespread erasure of genomic DNA methylation.
|Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1A) contributes to colorectal tumorigenesis via activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by down-regulating Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) [corrected].|
Huang, Z; Li, S; Song, W; Li, X; Li, Q; Zhang, Z; Han, Y; Zhang, X; Miao, S; Du, R; Wang, L
PloS one 8 e70077 2013
We collected paired samples of tumor and adjacent normal colorectal tissues from 22 patients with colorectal carcinoma to compare the differences in the expression of lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) in these two tissues. The results showed that in 19 paired samples (86.4%), LSD1 is more highly expressed in tumor tissue than in normal tissue. To explore the role of LSD1 in colorectal tumorigenesis, we used somatic cell gene targeting to generate an LSD1 knockout (KO) HCT 116 human colorectal cancer cell line as a research model. The analysis of phenotypic changes showed that LSD1 KO colorectal cancer cells are less tumorigenic, both in vivo and in vitro. The differential expression analysis of the cells by mRNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) yielded 2,663 differentially expressed genes, and 28 of these genes had highly significant differences (Q less than 0.01). We then selected the 4 colorectal cancer-related genes ADM, DKK1, HAS3 and SMURF2 for quantitative real-time PCR verification. The results showed that the differences in the expression of ADM, DKK1 and HAS3 were consistent with those measured using the RNA-Seq data. As DKK1 was the gene with the most significant differential expression, we analyzed the key proteins of the DKK1-related Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and found that, after knocking out LSD1, the amount of free β-catenin translocated to the nucleus was significantly reduced and that the transcription of the signaling pathway target gene c-Myc was down-regulated. Our studies show that LSD1 activates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by down-regulating the pathway antagonist DKK1, which may be one of the mechanisms leading to colorectal tumorigenesis.
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