Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Description||Anti-p21/WAF1/Cip1 Antibody, clone CP74|
|Presentation||0.1M Tris-glycine, pH 7.4, 0.15M NaCl, 0.05% sodium azide before the addition of glycerol to 30%|
|Application||Anti-p21/WAF1/Cip1 Antibody, clone CP74 is a high quality Mouse Monoclonal Antibody for the detection of p21/WAF1/Cip1 & has been validated in WB.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||2 years at -20°C|
|Material Size||200 µg|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Phytometabolite Dehydroleucodine Induces Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis, and DNA Damage in Human Astrocytoma Cells through p73/p53 Regulation.|
Bailon-Moscoso, N; González-Arévalo, G; Velásquez-Rojas, G; Malagon, O; Vidari, G; Zentella-Dehesa, A; Ratovitski, EA; Ostrosky-Wegman, P
PloS one 10 e0136527 2015
Accumulating evidence supports the idea that secondary metabolites obtained from medicinal plants (phytometabolites) may be important contributors in the development of new chemotherapeutic agents to reduce the occurrence or recurrence of cancer. Our study focused on Dehydroleucodine (DhL), a sesquiterpene found in the provinces of Loja and Zamora-Chinchipe. In this study, we showed that DhL displayed cytostatic and cytotoxic activities on the human cerebral astrocytoma D384 cell line. With lactone isolated from Gynoxys verrucosa Wedd, a medicinal plant from Ecuador, we found that DhL induced cell death in D384 cells by triggering cell cycle arrest and inducing apoptosis and DNA damage. We further found that the cell death resulted in the increased expression of CDKN1A and BAX proteins. A marked induction of the levels of total TP73 and phosphorylated TP53, TP73, and γ-H2AX proteins was observed in D384 cells exposed to DhL, but no increase in total TP53 levels was detected. Overall these studies demonstrated the marked effect of DhL on the diminished survival of human astrocytoma cells through the induced expression of TP73 and phosphorylation of TP73 and TP53, suggesting their key roles in the tumor cell response to DhL treatment.
|The telomere deprotection response is functionally distinct from the genomic DNA damage response.|
Cesare, AJ; Hayashi, MT; Crabbe, L; Karlseder, J
Molecular cell 51 141-55 2013
Loss of chromosome end protection through telomere erosion is a hallmark of aging and senescence. Here we developed an experimental system that mimics physiological telomere deprotection in human cells and discovered that the telomere deprotection response is functionally distinct from the genomic DNA damage response. We found that, unlike genomic breaks, deprotected telomeres that are recognized as DNA damage but remain in the fusion-resistant intermediate state activate differential ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) signaling where CHK2 is not phosphorylated. Also unlike genomic breaks, we found that deprotected telomeres do not contribute to the G2/M checkpoint and are instead passed through cell division to induce p53-dependent G1 arrest in the daughter cells. Telomere deprotection is therefore an epigenetic signal passed between cell generations to ensure that replication-associated telomere-dependent growth arrest occurs in stable diploid G1 phase cells before genome instability can occur.
|A chemical genomics screen to discover genes that modulate neural stem cell differentiation.|
Kim, KJ; Wang, J; Xu, X; Wu, S; Zhang, W; Qin, Z; Wu, F; Liu, A; Zhao, Y; Fang, H; Zhu, M; Zhao, J; Zhong, Z
Journal of biomolecular screening 17 129-39 2012
The authors designed a chemical genomics screen with the aim of understanding genes and pathways that modulate neural stem/precursor cell differentiation. Multipotent mouse neural precursor cells isolated from cortices of embryonic day 12 (E12) embryos were subjected to spontaneous differentiation triggered by growth factor withdrawal. A quantitative whole-well immunofluorescence assay was set up to screen tool compound sets to identify small molecules with potent, dose-dependent, and reproducible effects on increasing neural stem cell differentiation toward neuronal lineage. Among the pro-neuronal compounds, kinase inhibitors were shown to exert pro-neuronal effect via a signaling pathway associated with the kinase. The global effect of hit compounds on modulating neuronal differentiation was confirmed by an in vivo mouse study and human neural stem cells culture. This study demonstrates that a phenotypic assay using cell type-specific antibody markers can be used for a large-scale compound screen to discover targets and pathways with impacts on differentiation of lineage-restricted precursor cells toward specific lineages.
|Oncogenic functions of hMDMX in in vitro transformation of primary human fibroblasts and embryonic retinoblasts.|
Lenos, K; de Lange, J; Teunisse, AF; Lodder, K; Verlaan-de Vries, M; Wiercinska, E; van der Burg, MJ; Szuhai, K; Jochemsen, AG
Molecular cancer 10 111 2011
In around 50% of all human cancers the tumor suppressor p53 is mutated. It is generally assumed that in the remaining tumors the wild-type p53 protein is functionally impaired. The two main inhibitors of p53, hMDM2 (MDM2) and hMDMX (MDMX/MDM4) are frequently overexpressed in wild-type p53 tumors. Whereas the main activity of hMDM2 is to degrade p53 protein, its close homolog hMDMX does not degrade p53, but it represses its transcriptional activity. Here we study the role of hMDMX in the neoplastic transformation of human fibroblasts and embryonic retinoblasts, since a high number of retinoblastomas contain elevated hMDMX levels.We made use of an in vitro transformation model using a retroviral system of RNA interference and gene overexpression in primary human fibroblasts and embryonic retinoblasts. Consecutive knockdown of RB and p53, overexpression of SV40-small t, oncogenic HRasV12 and HA-hMDMX resulted in a number of stable cell lines representing different stages of the transformation process, enabling a comparison between loss of p53 and hMDMX overexpression. The cell lines were tested in various assays to assess their oncogenic potential.Both p53-knockdown and hMDMX overexpression accelerated proliferation and prevented growth suppression induced by introduction of oncogenic Ras, which was required for anchorage-independent growth and the ability to form tumors in vivo. Furthermore, we found that hMDMX overexpression represses basal p53 activity to some extent. Transformed fibroblasts with very high levels of hMDMX became largely resistant to the p53 reactivating drug Nutlin-3. The Nutlin-3 response of hMDMX transformed retinoblasts was intact and resembled that of retinoblastoma cell lines.Our studies show that hMDMX has the essential properties of an oncogene. Its constitutive expression contributes to the oncogenic phenotype of transformed human cells. Its main function appears to be p53 inactivation. Therefore, developing new drugs targeting hMDMX is a valid approach to obtain new treatments for a subset of human tumors expressing wild-type p53.
|N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) triggers MSH2 and Cdt2 protein-dependent degradation of the cell cycle and mismatch repair (MMR) inhibitor protein p21Waf1/Cip1.|
Jascur, T; Fotedar, R; Greene, S; Hotchkiss, E; Boland, CR
The Journal of biological chemistry 286 29531-9 2011
p21(Waf1/Cip1) protein levels respond to DNA damage; p21 is induced after ionizing radiation, but degraded after UV. p21 degradation after UV is necessary for optimal DNA repair, presumably because p21 inhibits nucleotide excision repair by blocking proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Because p21 also inhibits DNA mismatch repair (MMR), we investigated how p21 levels respond to DNA alkylation by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), which triggers the MMR system. We show that MNNG caused rapid degradation of p21, and this involved the ubiquitin ligase Cdt2 and the proteasome. p21 degradation further required MSH2 but not MLH1. p21 mutants that cannot bind PCNA or cannot be ubiquitinated were resistant to MNNG. MNNG induced the formation of PCNA complexes with MSH6 and Cdt2. Finally, when p21 degradation was blocked, MNNG treatment resulted in reduced recruitment of MMR proteins to chromatin. This study describes a novel pathway that removes p21 to allow cells to efficiently activate the MMR system.
|Histone lysine methyltransferase Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome candidate 1 is involved in human carcinogenesis through regulation of the Wnt pathway.|
Toyokawa, G; Cho, HS; Masuda, K; Yamane, Y; Yoshimatsu, M; Hayami, S; Takawa, M; Iwai, Y; Daigo, Y; Tsuchiya, E; Tsunoda, T; Field, HI; Kelly, JD; Neal, DE; Maehara, Y; Ponder, BA; Nakamura, Y; Hamamoto, R
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 13 887-98 2011
A number of histone methyltransferases have been identified and biochemically characterized, but the pathologic roles of their dysfunction in human diseases like cancer are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome candidate 1 (WHSC1) plays important roles in human carcinogenesis. Transcriptional levels of this gene are significantly elevated in various types of cancer including bladder and lung cancers. Immunohistochemical analysis using a number of clinical tissues confirmed significant up-regulation of WHSC1 expression in bladder and lung cancer cells at the protein level. Treatment of cancer cell lines with small interfering RNA targeting WHSC1 significantly knocked down its expression and resulted in the suppression of proliferation. Cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry indicated that knockdown of WHSC1 decreased the cell population of cancer cells at the S phase while increasing that at the G(2)/M phase. WHSC1 interacts with some proteins related to the WNT pathway including β-catenin and transcriptionally regulates CCND1, the target gene of the β-catenin/Tcf-4 complex, through histone H3 at lysine 36 trimethylation. This is a novel mechanism for WNT pathway dysregulation in human carcinogenesis, mediated by the epigenetic regulation of histone H3. Because expression levels of WHSC1 are significantly low in most normal tissue types, it should be feasible to develop specific and selective inhibitors targeting the enzyme as antitumor agents that have a minimal risk of adverse reaction.Full Text Article
|Expression and function of EZH2 in synovial fibroblasts: epigenetic repression of the Wnt inhibitor SFRP1 in rheumatoid arthritis.|
Trenkmann M, Brock M, Gay RE, Kolling C, Speich R, Michel BA, Gay S, Huber LC
Annals of the rheumatic diseases 70 1482-8. Epub 2011 Apr 22. 2011
|STX140 and STX641 cause apoptosis via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway and down-regulate survivin and XIAP expression in ovarian and prostate cancer cells.|
Foster PA, Ho YT, Newman SP, Leese MP, Potter BV, Reed MJ, Purohit A
Anticancer research 29 3751-7 2009
Many anticancer drugs target microtubules and induce apoptosis. However, improved microtubule-targeting drugs, such as STX140 and STX641, are being developed. These compounds induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a variety of tumour cells. The mechanisms that induce apoptosis and the key mediators involved are elucidated in this study. Results demonstrate that STX140 and STX641 depolarise mitochondrial bioenergetics and activate caspase 3/7 in A2780, LNCaP and MCF-7 cancer cells. Furthermore, both compounds cause a significant reduction in the expression of survivin and XIAP. This work details the temporal organisation of apoptosis induced by two microtubule disruptors and highlights the role that the down-regulation of survivin and XIAP-05-play in this process.
|Heat shock protein 90 inhibitors attenuate LPS-induced endothelial hyperpermeability.|
Chatterjee, A; Snead, C; Yetik-Anacak, G; Antonova, G; Zeng, J; Catravas, JD
American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology 294 L755-63 2008
Endothelial hyperperme ability leading to vascular leak is an important consequence of sepsis and sepsis-induced lung injury. We previously reported that heat shock protein (hsp) 90 inhibitor pretreatment improved pulmonary barrier dysfunction in a murine model of sepsis-induced lung injury. We now examine the effects of hsp90 inhibitors on LPS-mediated endothelial hyperpermeability, as reflected in changes in transendothelial electrical resistance (TER) of bovine pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (BPAEC). Vehicle-pretreated cells exposed to endotoxin exhibited a concentration-dependent decrease in TER, activation of pp60(Src), phosphorylation of the focal adhesion protein paxillin, and reduced expression of the adherens junction proteins, vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin and beta-catenin. Pretreatment with the hsp90 inhibitor, radicicol, prevented the decrease in TER, maintained VE-cadherin and beta-catenin expression, and inhibited activation of pp60(Src) and phosphorylation of paxillin. Similarly, when BPAEC hyperpermeability was induced by endotoxin-activated neutrophils, pretreatment of neutrophils and/or endothelial cells with radicicol protected against the activated neutrophil-induced decrease in TER. Increased paxillin phosphorylation and decreased expression of beta-catenin and VE-cadherin were also observed in mouse lungs 12 h after intraperitoneal endotoxin and attenuated in mice pretreated with radicicol. These results suggest that hsp90 plays an important role in sepsis-associated endothelial barrier dysfunction.
|The p21 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor suppresses tumorigenicity in vivo.|
Yang, Z Y, et al.
Nat. Med., 1: 1052-6 (1995) 1995
The p21 gene encodes a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that affects cell-cycle progression, but the potential of this gene product to serve as a tumour suppressor in vivo has not been established. In this report, we show that the growth of malignant cells in vitro and in vivo is inhibited by expression of p21. Expression of p21 resulted in an accumulation of cells in G0/G1, altered morphology, and cell differentiation, but apoptosis was not induced. Introduction of p21 with adenoviral vectors into malignant cells completely suppressed their growth in vivo and also reduced the growth of established pre-existing tumours. Gene transfer of p21 may provide a molecular genetic approach to arresting cancer cell growth by committing malignant cells irreversibly to a pathway of terminal differentiation.