|A small-molecule inhibitor of Haspin alters the kinetochore functions of Aurora B.|
De Antoni, A; Maffini, S; Knapp, S; Musacchio, A; Santaguida, S
The Journal of cell biology
By phosphorylating Thr3 of histone H3, Haspin promotes centromeric recruitment of the chromosome passenger complex (CPC) during mitosis. Aurora B kinase, a CPC subunit, sustains chromosome bi-orientation and the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). Here, we characterize the small molecule 5-iodotubercidin (5-ITu) as a potent Haspin inhibitor. In vitro, 5-ITu potently inhibited Haspin but not Aurora B. Consistently, 5-ITu counteracted the centromeric localization of the CPC without affecting the bulk of Aurora B activity in HeLa cells. Mislocalization of Aurora B correlated with dephosphorylation of CENP-A and Hec1 and SAC override at high nocodazole concentrations. 5-ITu also impaired kinetochore recruitment of Bub1 and BubR1 kinases, and this effect was reversed by concomitant inhibition of phosphatase activity. Forcing localization of Aurora B to centromeres in 5-ITu also restored Bub1 and BubR1 localization but failed to rescue the SAC override. This result suggests that a target of 5-ITu, possibly Haspin itself, may further contribute to SAC signaling downstream of Aurora B.
|Cdc48/p97-Ufd1-Npl4 antagonizes Aurora B during chromosome segregation in HeLa cells.|
Dobrynin, G; Popp, O; Romer, T; Bremer, S; Schmitz, MH; Gerlich, DW; Meyer, H
Journal of cell science
During exit from mitosis in Xenopus laevis egg extracts, the AAA+ ATPase Cdc48/p97 (also known as VCP in vertebrates) and its adapter Ufd1-Npl4 remove the kinase Aurora B from chromatin to allow nucleus formation. Here, we show that in HeLa cells Ufd1-Npl4 already antagonizes Aurora B on chromosomes during earlier mitotic stages and that this is crucial for proper chromosome segregation. Depletion of Ufd1-Npl4 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) caused chromosome alignment and anaphase defects resulting in missegregated chromosomes and multi-lobed nuclei. Ufd1-Npl4 depletion also led to increased levels of Aurora B on prometaphase and metaphase chromosomes. This increase was associated with higher Aurora B activity, as evidenced by the partial resistance of CENP-A phosphorylation to the Aurora B inhibitor hesperadin. Furthermore, low concentrations of hesperadin partially rescued chromosome alignment in Ufd1-depleted cells, whereas, conversely, Ufd1-depletion partially restored congression in the presence of hesperadin. These data establish Cdc48/p97-Ufd1-Npl4 as a crucial negative regulator of Aurora B early in mitosis of human somatic cells and suggest that the activity of Aurora B on chromosomes needs to be restrained to ensure faithful chromosome segregation.
|Human RASSF7 regulates the microtubule cytoskeleton and is required for spindle formation, Aurora B activation and chromosomal congression during mitosis.|
Recino, A; Sherwood, V; Flaxman, A; Cooper, WN; Latif, F; Ward, A; Chalmers, AD
The Biochemical journal
RASSF7, a member of the N-terminal Ras association domain family, has increased expression in various cancers and, on the basis of our previous work in Xenopus embryos, may be a regulator of mitosis. In the present study, we address, for the first time, the role of human RASSF7 in mitosis. We demonstrate that RASSF7 is expressed in a broad range of different cell types and that this expression could be enhanced following exposure to hypoxia. Knocking down RASSF7 in human cell lines inhibited cell growth and induced defects in mitosis, including aberrant spindle formation and a failure in chromosomal congression. In order to understand the molecular basis of the defects in more detail, we analysed the activity of mitotic signalling proteins and found that activation of Aurora B did not occur in cells in which RASSF7 was knocked down. We also show that endogenous RASSF7 protein localizes to the centrosome and demonstrate using microtubule-regrowth assays that RASSF7 is an important regulator of microtubule dynamics. On the basis of these observations, we propose that, owing to its key role in regulating the microtubule cytoskeleton, RASSF7 is required for mitosis in human cells.Full Text Article