Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Ch, H, M, R||WB||Rb||Culture Supernatant||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Cultured supernantant in 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at -20°C from date of receipt.
For maximum recovery of product, centrifuge the vial prior to removing the cap.
|Material Size||100 µL|
|Anti-phospho-GluR1 (Ser831), clone N453 - 2387820||2387820|
|Anti-phospho-GluR1 (Ser831), clone N453 - 2150756||2150756|
|Anti-phospho-GluR1 (Ser831), -2548703||2548703|
|Anti-phospho-GluR1 (Ser831), -2551205||2551205|
|Anti-phospho-GluR1 (Ser831), -2575747||2575747|
|Anti-phospho-GluR1 (Ser831), -2625342||2625342|
|Anti-phospho-GluR1 (Ser831), -2691193||2691193|
|Anti-phospho-GluR1 (Ser831), -2700780||2700780|
|Anti-phospho-GluR1 (Ser831), -2726818||2726818|
|Anti-phospho-GluR1 (Ser831), -2802591||2802591|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Inhibition of adenylyl cyclase type 5 prevents L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in an animal model of Parkinson's disease.|
Park, HY; Kang, YM; Kang, Y; Park, TS; Ryu, YK; Hwang, JH; Kim, YH; Chung, BH; Nam, KH; Kim, MR; Lee, CH; Han, PL; Kim, KS
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 11744-53 2014
The dopamine precursor L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) is widely used as a therapeutic choice for the treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease. However, the long-term use of L-DOPA leads to the development of debilitating involuntary movements, called L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). The cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling in the striatum is known to play a role in LID. However, from among the nine known adenylyl cyclases (ACs) present in the striatum, the AC that mediates LID remains unknown. To address this issue, we prepared an animal model with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions in the substantia nigra in wild-type and AC5-knock-out (KO) mice, and examined behavioral responses to short-term or long-term treatment with L-DOPA. Compared with the behavioral responses of wild-type mice, LID was profoundly reduced in AC5-KO mice. The behavioral protection of long-term treatment with L-DOPA in AC5-KO mice was preceded by a decrease in the phosphorylation levels of PKA substrates ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) 1/2, MSK1 (mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1), and histone H3, levels of which were all increased in the lesioned striatum of wild-type mice. Consistently, FosB/ΔFosB expression, which was induced by long-term L-DOPA treatment in the lesioned striatum, was also decreased in AC5-KO mice. Moreover, suppression of AC5 in the dorsal striatum with lentivirus-shRNA-AC5 was sufficient to attenuate LID, suggesting that the AC5-regulated signaling cascade in the striatum mediates LID. These results identify the AC5/cAMP system in the dorsal striatum as a therapeutic target for the treatment of LID in patients with Parkinson's disease.
|Reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulate AMPA receptor phosphorylation and cell-surface localization in concert with pain-related behavior.|
Lee, DZ; Chung, JM; Chung, K; Kang, MG
Pain 153 1905-15 2012
Sensitization of dorsal horn neurons (DHNs) in the spinal cord is dependent on pain-related synaptic plasticity and causes persistent pain. The DHN sensitization is mediated by a signal transduction pathway initiated by the activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDA-Rs). Recent studies have shown that elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and phosphorylation-dependent trafficking of GluA2 subunit of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptors (AMPA-Rs) are a part of the signaling pathway for DHN sensitization. However, the relationship between ROS and AMPA-R phosphorylation and trafficking is not known. Thus, this study investigated the effects of ROS scavengers on the phosphorylation and cell-surface localization of GluA1 and GluA2. Intrathecal NMDA- and intradermal capsaicin-induced hyperalgesic mice were used for this study since both pain models share the NMDA-R activation-dependent DHN sensitization in the spinal cord. Our behavioral, biochemical, and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that: 1) NMDA-R activation in vivo increased the phosphorylation of AMPA-Rs at GluA1 (S818, S831, and S845) and GluA2 (S880) subunits; 2) NMDA-R activation in vivo increased cell-surface localization of GluA1 but decreased that of GluA2; and 3) reduction of ROS levels by ROS scavengers PBN (N-tert-butyl-α-phenylnitrone) or TEMPOL (4-hydroxy-2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl) reversed these changes in AMPA-Rs, as well as pain-related behavior. Given that AMPA-R trafficking to the cell surface and synapse is regulated by NMDA-R activation-dependent phosphorylation of GluA1 and GluA2, our study suggests that the ROS-dependent changes in the phosphorylation and cell-surface localization of AMPA-Rs are necessary for DHN sensitization and thus, pain-related behavior. We further suggest that ROS reduction will ameliorate these molecular changes and pain.
|Identification of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II regulatory phosphorylation site in the alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate-type glutamate receptor.|
Barria, A, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 272: 32727-30 (1997) 1997
Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaM-KII) can phosphorylate and potentiate responses of alpha-amino3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate-type glutamate receptors in a number of systems, and recent studies implicate this mechanism in long term potentiation, a cellular model of learning and memory. In this study we have identified this CaM-KII regulatory site using deletion and site-specific mutants of glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1). Only mutations affecting Ser831 altered the 32P peptide maps of GluR1 from HEK-293 cells co-expressing an activated CaM-KII. Likewise, when CaM-KII was infused into cells expressing GluR1, the Ser831 to Ala mutant failed to show potentiation of the GluR1 current. The Ser831 site is specific to GluR1, and CaM-KII did not phosphorylate or potentiate current in cells expressing GluR2, emphasizing the importance of the GluR1 subunit in this regulatory mechanism. Because Ser831 has previously been identified as a protein kinase C phosphorylation site (Roche, K. W., O'Brien, R. J., Mammen, A. L., Bernhardt, J., and Huganir, R. L. (1996) Neuron 16, 1179-1188), this raises the possibility of synergistic interactions between CaM-KII and protein kinase C in regulating synaptic plasticity.
|Characterization of multiple phosphorylation sites on the AMPA receptor GluR1 subunit.|
Roche, K W, et al.
Neuron, 16: 1179-88 (1996) 1996
We have characterized the phosphorylation of the glutamate receptor subunit GluR1, using biochemical and electrophysiological techniques. GluR1 is phosphorylated on multiple sites that are all located on the C-terminus of the protein. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase specifically phosphorylates SER-845 of GluR1 in transfected HEK cells and in neurons in culture. Phosphorylation of this residue results in a 40% potentiation of the peak current through GluR1 homomeric channels. In addition, protein kinase C specifically phosphorylates Ser-831 of GluR1 in HEK-293 cells and in cultured neurons. These results are consistent with the recently proposed transmembrane topology models of glutamate receptors, in which the C-terminus is intracellular. In addition, the modulation of GluR1 by PKA phosphorylation of Ser-845 suggests that phosphorylation of this residue may underlie the PKA-induced potentiation of AMPA receptors in neurons.
|The striatal mosaic in primates: striosomes and matrix are differentially enriched in ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits.|
Martin, L J, et al.
J. Neurosci., 13: 782-92 (1993) 1993
|The distribution of glutamate receptors in cultured rat hippocampal neurons: postsynaptic clustering of AMPA-selective subunits.|
Craig, A M, et al.
Neuron, 10: 1055-68 (1993) 1993
The distribution of several glutamate receptor subunits was investigated in cultured rat hippocampal neurons by in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. The AMPA/kainate-selective receptors GluR1-6 exhibited two patterns of mRNA expression: most neurons expressed GluR1, R2, and R6, whereas only about 20% expressed significant levels of GluR3, R4, and R5. By immunocytochemistry, the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR1 alpha was detectable only in a subpopulation of GABAergic interneurons. GluR1 and GluR2/3 segregated to the somatodendritic domain within the first week in culture, even in the absence of synaptogenesis. Glutamate receptor-enriched spines developed later and were present only on presumptive pyramidal cells, not on GABAergic interneurons. Clusters of GluR1 and GluR2/3 completely colocalized and were restricted to a subset of postsynaptic sites. Thus, glutamate receptor subunits exhibit both a cell type-specific expression and a selective subcellular localization.
|Cellular localizations of AMPA glutamate receptors within the basal forebrain magnocellular complex of rat and monkey.|
Martin, L J, et al.
J. Neurosci., 13: 2249-63 (1993) 1993
The cellular distributions of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors within the rodent and nonhuman primate basal forebrain magnocellular complex (BFMC) were demonstrated immunocytochemically using anti-peptide antibodies that recognize glutamate receptor (GluR) subunit proteins (i.e., GluR1, GluR4, and a conserved region of GluR2, GluR3, and GluR4c). In both species, many large GluR1-positive neuronal perikarya and aspiny dendrites are present within the medial septal nucleus, the nucleus of the diagonal band of Broca, and the nucleus basalis of Meynert. In this population of neurons in rat and monkey, GluR2/3/4c and GluR4 immunoreactivities are less abundant than GluR1 immunoreactivity. In rat, GluR1 does not colocalize with ChAT, but, within many neurons, GluR1 does colocalize with GABA, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), and parvalbumin immunoreactivities. GluR1- and GABA/GAD-positive neurons intermingle extensively with ChAT-positive neurons. In monkey, however, most GluR1-immunoreactive neurons express ChAT and calbindin-D28 immunoreactivities. The results reveal that noncholinergic GABAergic neurons, within the BFMC of rat, express AMPA receptors, whereas cholinergic neurons in the BFMC of monkey express AMPA receptors. Thus, the cellular localizations of the AMPA subtype of GluR are different within the BFMC of rat and monkey, suggesting that excitatory synaptic regulation of distinct subsets of BFMC neurons may differ among species. We conclude that, in the rodent, BFMC GABAergic neurons receive glutamatergic inputs, whereas cholinergic neurons either do not receive glutamatergic synapses or utilize GluR subtypes other than AMPA receptors. In contrast, in primate, basal forebrain cholinergic neurons are innervated directly by glutamatergic afferents and utilize AMPA receptors.