Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H||WB||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Affinity purified rabbit polyclonal IgG in storage buffer containing PBS with 0.05% sodium azide in 50% glycerol.|
|Application||Anti-phospho-IRS1 (Tyr608) mouse/ (Tyr612) human Antibody detects level of phospho-IRS1 (Tyr608) mouse/ (Tyr612) human & has been published & validated for use in WB.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µL|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|High-fat diet induces hepatic insulin resistance and impairment of synaptic plasticity.|
Liu, Z; Patil, IY; Jiang, T; Sancheti, H; Walsh, JP; Stiles, BL; Yin, F; Cadenas, E
PloS one 10 e0128274 2015
High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity is associated with insulin resistance, which may affect brain synaptic plasticity through impairment of insulin-sensitive processes underlying neuronal survival, learning, and memory. The experimental model consisted of 3 month-old C57BL/6J mice fed either a normal chow diet (control group) or a HFD (60% of calorie from fat; HFD group) for 12 weeks. This model was characterized as a function of time in terms of body weight, fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR values, and plasma triglycerides. IRS-1/Akt pathway was assessed in primary hepatocytes and brain homogenates. The effect of HFD in brain was assessed by electrophysiology, input/output responses and long-term potentiation. HFD-fed mice exhibited a significant increase in body weight, higher fasting glucose- and insulin levels in plasma, lower glucose tolerance, and higher HOMA-IR values. In liver, HFD elicited (a) a significant decrease of insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1) phosphorylation on Tyr608 and increase of Ser307 phosphorylation, indicative of IRS-1 inactivation; (b) these changes were accompanied by inflammatory responses in terms of increases in the expression of NFκB and iNOS and activation of the MAP kinases p38 and JNK; (c) primary hepatocytes from mice fed a HFD showed decreased cellular oxygen consumption rates (indicative of mitochondrial functional impairment); this can be ascribed partly to a decreased expression of PGC1α and mitochondrial biogenesis. In brain, HFD feeding elicited (a) an inactivation of the IRS-1 and, consequentially, (b) a decreased expression and plasma membrane localization of the insulin-sensitive neuronal glucose transporters GLUT3/GLUT4; (c) a suppression of the ERK/CREB pathway, and (d) a substantial decrease in long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of hippocampus (indicative of impaired synaptic plasticity). It may be surmised that 12 weeks fed with HFD induce a systemic insulin resistance that impacts profoundly on brain activity, i.e., synaptic plasticity.
|Insulin and IGF1 signalling pathways in human astrocytes in vitro and in vivo; characterisation, subcellular localisation and modulation of the receptors.|
Garwood, CJ; Ratcliffe, LE; Morgan, SV; Simpson, JE; Owens, H; Vazquez-Villaseñor, I; Heath, PR; Romero, IA; Ince, PG; Wharton, SB
Molecular brain 8 51 2015
The insulin/IGF1 signalling (IIS) pathways are involved in longevity regulation and are dysregulated in neurons in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We previously showed downregulation in IIS gene expression in astrocytes with AD-neuropathology progression, but IIS in astrocytes remains poorly understood. We therefore examined the IIS pathway in human astrocytes and developed models to reduce IIS at the level of the insulin or the IGF1 receptor (IGF1R).We determined IIS was present and functional in human astrocytes by immunoblotting and showed astrocytes express the insulin receptor (IR)-B isoform of Ir. Immunocytochemistry and cell fractionation followed by western blotting revealed the phosphorylation status of insulin receptor substrate (IRS1) affects its subcellular localisation. To validate IRS1 expression patterns observed in culture, expression of key pathway components was assessed on post-mortem AD and control tissue using immunohistochemistry. Insulin signalling was impaired in cultured astrocytes by treatment with insulin + fructose and resulted in decreased IR and Akt phosphorylation (pAkt S473). A monoclonal antibody against IGF1R (MAB391) induced degradation of IGF1R receptor with an associated decrease in downstream pAkt S473. Neither treatment affected cell growth or viability as measured by MTT and Cyquant® assays or GFAP immunoreactivity.IIS is functional in astrocytes. IR-B is expressed in astrocytes which differs from the pattern in neurons, and may be important in differential susceptibility of astrocytes and neurons to insulin resistance. The variable presence of IRS1 in the nucleus, dependent on phosphorylation pattern, suggests the function of signalling molecules is not confined to cytoplasmic cascades. Down-regulation of IR and IGF1R, achieved by insulin + fructose and monoclonal antibody treatments, results in decreased downstream signalling, though the lack of effect on viability suggests that astrocytes can compensate for changes in single pathways. Changes in signalling in astrocytes, as well as in neurons, may be important in ageing and neurodegeneration.
|Differential interaction of Apolipoprotein-E isoforms with insulin receptors modulates brain insulin signaling in mutant human amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice.|
Chan, ES; Chen, C; Cole, GM; Wong, BS
Scientific reports 5 13842 2015
It is unclear how human apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) increases the risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although Aβ levels can lead to insulin signaling impairment, these experiments were done in the absence of human ApoE. To examine ApoE role, we crossed the human ApoE-targeted replacement mice with mutant human amyloid precursor protein (APP) mice. In 26 week old mice with lower Aβ levels, the expression and phosphorylation of insulin signaling proteins remained comparable among APP, ApoE3xAPP and ApoE4xAPP mouse brains. When the mice aged to 78 weeks, these proteins were markedly reduced in APP and ApoE4xAPP mouse brains. While Aβ can bind to insulin receptor, how ApoE isoforms modulate this interaction remains unknown. Here, we showed that ApoE3 had greater association with insulin receptor as compared to ApoE4, regardless of Aβ42 concentration. In contrast, ApoE4 bound more Aβ42 with increasing peptide levels. Using primary hippocampal neurons, we showed that ApoE3 and ApoE4 neurons are equally sensitive to physiological levels of insulin. However, in the presence of Aβ42, insulin failed to elicit a downstream response only in ApoE4 hippocampal neurons. Taken together, our data show that ApoE genotypes can modulate this Aβ-mediated insulin signaling impairment.
|Reduced phosphorylation of brain insulin receptor substrate and Akt proteins in apolipoprotein-E4 targeted replacement mice.|
Ong, QR; Chan, ES; Lim, ML; Cole, GM; Wong, BS
Scientific reports 4 3754 2014
Human ApoE4 accelerates memory decline in ageing and in Alzheimer's disease. Although intranasal insulin can improve cognition, this has little effect in ApoE4 subjects. To understand this ApoE genotype-dependent effect, we examined brain insulin signaling in huApoE3 and huApoE4 targeted replacement (TR) mice. At 32 weeks, lower insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) at S636/639 and Akt phosphorylation at T308 were detected in fasting huApoE4 TR mice as compared to fasting huApoE3 TR mice. These changes in fasting huApoE4 TR mice were linked to lower brain glucose content and have no effect on plasma glucose level. However, at 72 weeks of age, these early changes were accompanied by reduction in IRS2 expression, IRS1 phosphorylation at Y608, Akt phosphorylation at S473, and MAPK (p38 and p44/42) activation in the fasting huApoE4 TR mice. The lower brain glucose was significantly associated with higher brain insulin in the aged huApoE4 TR mice. These results show that ApoE4 reduces brain insulin signaling and glucose level leading to higher insulin content.
|Oxidative stress and altered lipid homeostasis in the programming of offspring fatty liver by maternal obesity.|
Alfaradhi, MZ; Fernandez-Twinn, DS; Martin-Gronert, MS; Musial, B; Fowden, A; Ozanne, SE
American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology 307 R26-34 2014
Changes in the maternal nutritional environment during fetal development can influence offspring's metabolic risk in later life. Animal models have demonstrated that offspring of diet-induced obese dams develop metabolic complications, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In this study we investigated the mechanisms in young offspring that lead to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Female offspring of C57BL/6J dams fed either a control or obesogenic diet were studied at 8 wk of age. We investigated the roles of oxidative stress and lipid metabolism in contributing to fatty liver in offspring. There were no differences in body weight or adiposity at 8 wk of age; however, offspring of obese dams were hyperinsulinemic. Oxidative damage markers were significantly increased in their livers, with reduced levels of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase-1. Mitochondrial complex I and II activities were elevated, while levels of mitochondrial cytochrome c were significantly reduced and glutamate dehydrogenase was significantly increased, suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction. Offspring of obese dams also had significantly greater hepatic lipid content, associated with increased levels of PPARγ and reduced triglyceride lipase. Liver glycogen and protein content were concomitantly reduced in offspring of obese dams. In conclusion, offspring of diet-induced obese dams have disrupted liver metabolism and develop NAFLD prior to any differences in body weight or body composition. Oxidative stress may play a mechanistic role in the progression of fatty liver in these offspring.
|Artemisia scoparia extract attenuates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in diet-induced obesity mice by enhancing hepatic insulin and AMPK signaling independently of FGF21 pathway.|
Wang, Zhong Q, et al.
Metab. Clin. Exp., (2013) 2013
OBJECTIVE: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disease which has no standard treatment. In this regard, we sought to evaluate the effects of extracts of Artemisia santolinaefolia (SANT) and Artemisia scoparia (SCO) on hepatic lipid deposition and cellular signaling in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) animal model. MATERIALS/METHODS: DIO C57/B6J mice were randomly divided into three groups, i.e. HFD, SANT and SCO. Both extracts were incorporated into HFD at a concentration of 0.5% (w/w). Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, adiponectin, and FGF21 concentrations were measured. RESULTS: At the end of the 4-week intervention, liver tissues were collected for analysis of insulin, AMPK, and FGF21 signaling. SANT and SCO supplementation significantly increased plasma adiponectin levels when compared with the HFD mice (P<0.001). Fasting insulin levels were significantly lower in the SCO than HFD mice, but not in SANT group. Hepatic H&E staining showed fewer lipid droplets in the SCO group than in the other two groups. Cellular signaling data demonstrated that SCO significantly increased liver IRS-2 content, phosphorylation of IRS-1, IR β, Akt1 and Akt2, AMPK α1 and AMPK activity and significantly reduced PTP 1B abundance when compared with the HFD group. SCO also significantly decreased fatty acid synthase (FAS), HMG-CoA Reductase (HMGR), and Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c), but not Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-1) when compared with HFD group. Neither SANT nor SCO significantly altered plasma FGF21 concentrations and liver FGF21 signaling. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that SCO may attenuate liver lipid accumulation in DIO mice. Contributing mechanisms were postulated to include promotion of adiponectin expression, inhibition of hepatic lipogenesis, and/or enhanced insulin and AMPK signaling independent of FGF21 pathway.
|Muscle-specific knock-out of NUAK family SNF1-like kinase 1 (NUAK1) prevents high fat diet-induced glucose intolerance.|
Inazuka, F; Sugiyama, N; Tomita, M; Abe, T; Shioi, G; Esumi, H
The Journal of biological chemistry 287 16379-89 2012
NUAK1 is a member of the AMP-activated protein kinase-related kinase family. Recent studies have shown that NUAK1 is involved in cellular senescence and motility in epithelial cells and fibroblasts. However, the physiological roles of NUAK1 are poorly understood because of embryonic lethality in NUAK1 null mice. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the roles of NUAK1 in adult tissues. We determined the tissue distribution of NUAK1 and generated muscle-specific NUAK1 knock-out (MNUAK1KO) mice. For phenotypic analysis, whole body glucose homeostasis and muscle glucose metabolism were examined. Quantitative phosphoproteome analysis of soleus muscle was performed to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the knock-out phenotype. Nuak1 mRNA was preferentially expressed in highly oxidative tissues such as brain, heart, and soleus muscle. On a high fat diet, MNUAK1KO mice had a lower fasting blood glucose level, greater glucose tolerance, higher insulin sensitivity, and higher concentration of muscle glycogen than control mice. Phosphoproteome analysis revealed that phosphorylation of IRS1 Ser-1097 was markedly decreased in NUAK1-deficient muscle. Consistent with this, insulin signaling was enhanced in the soleus muscle of MNUAK1KO mice, as evidenced by increased phosphorylation of IRS1 Tyr-608, AKT Thr-308, and TBC1D4 Thr-649. These observations suggest that a physiological role of NUAK1 is to suppress glucose uptake through negative regulation of insulin signaling in oxidative muscle.
|Comparing the effects of nano-sized sugarcane fiber with cellulose and psyllium on hepatic cellular signaling in mice.|
Wang, Zhong Q, et al.
Int J Nanomedicine, 7: 2999-3012 (2012) 2012
To compare the effects of dietary fibers on hepatic cellular signaling in mice.
|A CD36-dependent pathway enhances macrophage and adipose tissue inflammation and impairs insulin signalling.|
Kennedy, David J, et al.
Cardiovasc. Res., 89: 604-13 (2011) 2011
Obesity and hyperlipidaemia are associated with insulin resistance (IR); however, the mechanisms responsible remain incompletely understood. Pro-atherogenic hyperlipidaemic states are characterized by inflammation, oxidant stress, and pathophysiologic oxidized lipids, including ligands for the scavenger receptor CD36. Here we tested the hypothesis that the absence of CD36 protects mice from IR associated with diet-induced obesity and hyperlipidaemia.
|An organic matrix-mediated processing methodology to fabricate hydroxyapatite based nanostructured biocomposites.|
Kithva PH, Grøndahl L, Kumar R, Martin D, Trau M
Nanoscale 1 229-32. Epub 2009 Aug 13. 2009
An amorphous calcium phosphate precursor phase, which forms by adding orthophosphoric acid to a calcium hydroxide suspension, is transformed into crystalline hydroxyapatite by introducing polymer solutions. The nanostructured composite films formed by a solvent casting technique from the concentrated hybrid suspension are characterised for structure and mechanical properties.