|Presentation||Purified Goat IgG in buffer containing liquid in PBS, pH 7.1 with 15 mg/mL BSA and 0.01% thimerosal.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||The undiluted antibody is stable at 2-8°C for 12 months. Do not store in a diluted format. DO NOT FREEZE.|
|Material Size||1 mL|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Sox9 is critical for suppression of neurogenesis but not initiation of gliogenesis in the cerebellum.|
Vong, KI; Leung, CK; Behringer, RR; Kwan, KM
Molecular brain 8 25 2015
The high mobility group (HMG) family transcription factor Sox9 is critical for induction and maintenance of neural stem cell pool in the central nervous system (CNS). In the spinal cord and retina, Sox9 is also the master regulator that defines glial fate choice by mediating the neurogenic-to-gliogenic fate switch. On the other hand, the genetic repertoire governing the maintenance and fate decision of neural progenitor pool in the cerebellum has remained elusive.By employing the Cre/loxP strategy, we specifically inactivated Sox9 in the mouse cerebellum. Unexpectedly, the self-renewal capacity and multipotency of neural progenitors at the cerebellar ventricular zone (VZ) were not perturbed upon Sox9 ablation. Instead, the mutants exhibited an increased number of VZ-derived neurons including Purkinje cells and GABAergic interneurons. Simultaneously, we observed continuous neurogenesis from Sox9-null VZ at late gestation, when normally neurogenesis ceases to occur and gives way for gliogenesis. Surprisingly, glial cell specification was not affected upon Sox9 ablation.Our findings suggest Sox9 may mediate the neurogenic-to-gliogenic fate switch in mouse cerebellum by modulating the termination of neurogenesis, and therefore indicate a functional discrepancy of Sox9 between the development of cerebellum and other major neural tissues.
|Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents Fat Deposition and Inflammation in Brown Adipose Tissue and Enhances Sympathetic Activity in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.|
Dinh, CH; Szabo, A; Yu, Y; Camer, D; Zhang, Q; Wang, H; Huang, XF
Nutrients 7 4705-23 2015
Obesity results in changes in brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology, leading to fat deposition, inflammation, and alterations in sympathetic nerve activity. Bardoxolone methyl (BARD) has been extensively studied for the treatment of chronic diseases. We present for the first time the effects of oral BARD treatment on BAT morphology and associated changes in the brainstem. Three groups (n = 7) of C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HFD), a high-fat diet supplemented with BARD (HFD/BARD), or a low-fat diet (LFD) for 21 weeks. BARD was administered daily in drinking water. Interscapular BAT, and ventrolateral medulla (VLM) and dorsal vagal complex (DVC) in the brainstem, were collected for analysis by histology, immunohistochemistry and Western blot. BARD prevented fat deposition in BAT, demonstrated by the decreased accumulation of lipid droplets. When administered BARD, HFD mice had lower numbers of F4/80 and CD11c macrophages in the BAT with an increased proportion of CD206 macrophages, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. BARD increased phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase in BAT and VLM. In the VLM, BARD increased energy expenditure proteins, including beta 3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α). Overall, oral BARD prevented fat deposition and inflammation in BAT, and stimulated sympathetic nerve activity.
|Alzheimer's therapeutics targeting amyloid beta 1-42 oligomers I: Abeta 42 oligomer binding to specific neuronal receptors is displaced by drug candidates that improve cognitive deficits.|
Izzo, NJ; Staniszewski, A; To, L; Fa, M; Teich, AF; Saeed, F; Wostein, H; Walko, T; Vaswani, A; Wardius, M; Syed, Z; Ravenscroft, J; Mozzoni, K; Silky, C; Rehak, C; Yurko, R; Finn, P; Look, G; Rishton, G; Safferstein, H; Miller, M; Johanson, C; Stopa, E; Windisch, M; Hutter-Paier, B; Shamloo, M; Arancio, O; LeVine, H; Catalano, SM
PloS one 9 e111898 2014
Synaptic dysfunction and loss caused by age-dependent accumulation of synaptotoxic beta amyloid (Abeta) 1-42 oligomers is proposed to underlie cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Alterations in membrane trafficking induced by Abeta oligomers mediates reduction in neuronal surface receptor expression that is the basis for inhibition of electrophysiological measures of synaptic plasticity and thus learning and memory. We have utilized phenotypic screens in mature, in vitro cultures of rat brain cells to identify small molecules which block or prevent the binding and effects of Abeta oligomers. Synthetic Abeta oligomers bind saturably to a single site on neuronal synapses and induce deficits in membrane trafficking in neuronal cultures with an EC50 that corresponds to its binding affinity. The therapeutic lead compounds we have found are pharmacological antagonists of Abeta oligomers, reducing the binding of Abeta oligomers to neurons in vitro, preventing spine loss in neurons and preventing and treating oligomer-induced deficits in membrane trafficking. These molecules are highly brain penetrant and prevent and restore cognitive deficits in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease. Counter-screening these compounds against a broad panel of potential CNS targets revealed they are highly potent and specific ligands of the sigma-2/PGRMC1 receptor. Brain concentrations of the compounds corresponding to greater than 80% receptor occupancy at the sigma-2/PGRMC1 receptor restore cognitive function in transgenic hAPP Swe/Ldn mice. These studies demonstrate that synthetic and human-derived Abeta oligomers act as pharmacologically-behaved ligands at neuronal receptors--i.e. they exhibit saturable binding to a target, they exert a functional effect related to their binding and their displacement by small molecule antagonists blocks their functional effect. The first-in-class small molecule receptor antagonists described here restore memory to normal in multiple AD models and sustain improvement long-term, representing a novel mechanism of action for disease-modifying Alzheimer's therapeutics.
|Purkinje cell compartmentation in the cerebellum of the lysosomal Acid phosphatase 2 mutant mouse (nax - naked-ataxia mutant mouse).|
Bailey, K; Rahimi Balaei, M; Mannan, A; Del Bigio, MR; Marzban, H
PloS one 9 e94327 2014
The Acp2 gene encodes the beta subunit of lysosomal acid phosphatase, which is an isoenzyme that hydrolyzes orthophosphoric monoesters. In mice, a spontaneous mutation in Acp2 results in severe cerebellar defects. These include a reduced size, abnormal lobulation, and an apparent anterior cerebellar disorder with an absent or hypoplastic vermis. Based on differential gene expression in the cerebellum, the mouse cerebellar cortex can normally be compartmentalized anteroposteriorly into four transverse zones and mediolaterally into parasagittal stripes. In this study, immunohistochemistry was performed using various Purkinje cell compartmentation markers to examine their expression patterns in the Acp2 mutant. Despite the abnormal lobulation and anterior cerebellar defects, zebrin II and PLCβ4 showed similar expression patterns in the nax mutant and wild type cerebellum. However, fewer stripes were found in the anterior zone of the nax mutant, which could be due to a lack of Purkinje cells or altered expression of the stripe markers. HSP25 expression was uniform in the central zone of the nax mutant cerebellum at around postnatal day (P) 18-19, suggesting that HSP25 immunonegative Purkinje cells are absent or delayed in stripe pattern expression compared to the wild type. HSP25 expression became heterogeneous around P22-23, with twice the number of parasagittal stripes in the nax mutant compared to the wild type. Aside from reduced size and cortical disorganization, both the posterior zone and nodular zone in the nax mutant appeared less abnormal than the rest of the cerebellum. From these results, it is evident that the anterior zone of the nax mutant cerebellum is the most severely affected, and this extends beyond the primary fissure into the rostral central zone/vermis. This suggests that ACP2 has critical roles in the development of the anterior cerebellum and it may regulate anterior and central zone compartmentation.
|Two desmin gene mutations associated with myofibrillar myopathies in Polish families.|
Fichna, JP; Karolczak, J; Potulska-Chromik, A; Miszta, P; Berdynski, M; Sikorska, A; Filipek, S; Redowicz, MJ; Kaminska, A; Zekanowski, C
PloS one 9 e115470 2014
Desmin is a muscle-specific intermediate filament protein which forms a network connecting the sarcomere, T tubules, sarcolemma, nuclear membrane, mitochondria and other organelles. Mutations in the gene coding for desmin (DES) cause skeletal myopathies often combined with cardiomyopathy, or isolated cardiomyopathies. The molecular pathomechanisms of the disease remain ambiguous. Here, we describe and comprehensively characterize two DES mutations found in Polish patients with a clinical diagnosis of desminopathy. The study group comprised 16 individuals representing three families. Two mutations were identified: a novel missense mutation (Q348P) and a small deletion of nine nucleotides (A357_E359del), previously described by us in the Polish population. A common ancestry of all the families bearing the A357_E359del mutation was confirmed. Both mutations were predicted to be pathogenic using a bioinformatics approach, including molecular dynamics simulations which helped to rationalize abnormal behavior at molecular level. To test the impact of the mutations on DES expression and the intracellular distribution of desmin muscle biopsies were investigated. Elevated desmin levels as well as its atypical localization in muscle fibers were observed. Additional staining for M-cadherin, α-actinin, and myosin heavy chains confirmed severe disruption of myofibrill organization. The abnormalities were more prominent in the Q348P muscle, where both small atrophic fibers as well large fibers with centrally localized nuclei were observed. We propose that the mutations affect desmin structure and cause its aberrant folding and subsequent aggregation, triggering disruption of myofibrils organization.
|Hydrophobin fusion of an influenza virus hemagglutinin allows high transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana, easy purification and immune response with neutralizing activity.|
Jacquet, N; Navarre, C; Desmecht, D; Boutry, M
PloS one 9 e115944 2014
The expression of recombinant hemagglutinin in plants is a promising alternative to the current egg-based production system for the influenza vaccines. Protein-stabilizing fusion partners have been developed to overcome the low production yields and the high downstream process costs associated with the plant expression system. In this context, we tested the fusion of hydrophobin I to the hemagglutinin ectodomain of the influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 virus controlled by the hybrid En2PMA4 transcriptional promoter to rapidly produce high levels of recombinant antigen by transient expression in agro-infiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. The fusion increased the expression level by a factor of ∼ 2.5 compared to the unfused protein allowing a high accumulation level of 8.6% of the total soluble proteins. Hemagglutinin was located in ER-derived protein bodies and was successfully purified by combining an aqueous-two phase partition system and a salting out step. Hydrophobin interactions allowed the formation of high molecular weight hemagglutinin structures, while unfused proteins were produced as monomers. Purified protein was shown to be biologically active and to induce neutralizing antibodies after mice immunization. Hydrophobin fusion to influenza hemagglutinin might therefore be a promising approach for rapid, easy, and low cost production of seasonal or pandemic influenza vaccines in plants.
|Common partner Smad-independent canonical bone morphogenetic protein signaling in the specification process of the anterior rhombic lip during cerebellum development.|
Tong, KK; Kwan, KM
Molecular and cellular biology 33 1925-37 2013
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is critical for cerebellum development. However, the details of receptor regulated-Smad (R-Smad) and common partner Smad (Co-Smad, or Smad4) involvement are unclear. Here, we report that cerebellum-specific double conditional inactivation of Smad1 and Smad5 (Smad1/5) results in cerebellar hypoplasia, reduced granule cell numbers, and disorganized Purkinje neuron migration during embryonic development. However, single conditional inactivation of either Smad1 or Smad5 did not result in cerebellar abnormalities. Surprisingly, conditional inactivation of Smad4, which is considered to be the central mediator of canonical BMP-Smad signaling, resulted only in very mild cerebellar defects. Conditional inactivation of Smad1/5 led to developmental defects in the anterior rhombic lip (ARL), as shown by reduced cell proliferation and loss of Pax6 and Atoh1 expression. These defects subsequently caused the loss of the nuclear transitory zone and a region of the deep cerebellar nuclei. The normal maturation of the remaining granule cell precursors in the external granular layer (EGL) suggests Smad1/5 signaling is required for the specification process in ARL but not for the subsequent EGL development. Our results demonstrate functional redundancy for Smad1 and Smad5 but functional discrepancy between Smad1/5 and Smad4 during cerebellum development.
|Decreased APOE-containing HDL subfractions and cholesterol efflux capacity of serum in mice lacking Pcsk9.|
Choi, S; Aljakna, A; Srivastava, U; Peterson, BR; Deng, B; Prat, A; Korstanje, R
Lipids in health and disease 12 112 2013
Studies in animals showed that PCSK9 is involved in HDL metabolism. We investigated the molecular mechanism by which PCSK9 regulates HDL cholesterol concentration and also whether Pcsk9 inactivation might affect cholesterol efflux capacity of serum and atherosclerotic fatty streak volume.Mass spectrometry and western blot were used to analyze the level of apolipoprotein E (APOE) and A1 (APOA1). A mouse model overexpressing human LDLR was used to test the effect of high levels of liver LDLR on the concentration of HDL cholesterol and APOE-containing HDL subfractions. Pcsk9 knockout males lacking LDLR and APOE were used to test whether LDLR and APOE are necessary for PCSK9-mediated HDL cholesterol regulation. We also investigated the effects of Pcsk9 inactivation on cholesterol efflux capacity of serum using THP-1 and J774.A1 macrophage foam cells and atherosclerotic fatty streak volume in the aortic sinus of Pcsk9 knockout males fed an atherogenic diet.APOE and APOA1 were reduced in the same HDL subfractions of Pcsk9 knockout and human LDLR transgenic male mice. In Pcsk9/Ldlr double-knockout mice, HDL cholesterol concentration was lower than in Ldlr knockout mice and higher than in wild-type controls. In Pcsk9/Apoe double-knockout mice, HDL cholesterol concentration was similar to that of Apoe knockout males. In Pcsk9 knockout males, THP-1 macrophage cholesterol efflux capacity of serum was reduced and the fatty streak lesion volume was similar to wild-type controls.In mice, LDLR and APOE are important factors for PCSK9-mediated HDL regulation. Our data suggest that, although LDLR plays a major role in PCSK9-mediated regulation of HDL cholesterol concentration, it is not the only mechanism and that, regardless of mechanism, APOE is essential. Pcsk9 inactivation decreases the HDL cholesterol concentration and cholesterol efflux capacity in serum, but does not increase atherosclerotic fatty streak volume.
|Cathepsin H mediates the processing of talin and regulates migration of prostate cancer cells.|
Jevnikar, Z; Rojnik, M; Jamnik, P; Doljak, B; Fonovic, UP; Kos, J
The Journal of biological chemistry 288 2201-9 2013
The cytoskeletal protein talin, an actin- and β-integrin tail-binding protein, plays an important role in cell migration by promoting integrin activation and focal adhesion formation. Here, we show that talin is a substrate for cathepsin H (CtsH), a lysosomal cysteine protease with a strong aminopeptidase activity. Purified active CtsH sequentially cleaved a synthetic peptide representing the N terminus of the talin F0 head domain. The processing of talin by CtsH was determined also in the metastatic PC-3 prostate cancer cell line, which exhibits increased expression of CtsH. The attenuation of CtsH aminopeptidase activity by a specific inhibitor or siRNA-mediated silencing significantly reduced the migration of PC-3 cells on fibronectin and invasion through Matrigel. We found that in migrating PC-3 cells, CtsH was co-localized with talin in the focal adhesions. Furthermore, specific inhibition of CtsH increased the activation of α(v)β(3)-integrin on PC-3 cells. We propose that CtsH-mediated processing of talin might promote cancer cell progression by affecting integrin activation and adhesion strength.
|A novel, lactase-based selection and strain improvement strategy for recombinant protein expression in Kluyveromyces lactis.|
Krijger, JJ; Baumann, J; Wagner, M; Schulze, K; Reinsch, C; Klose, T; Onuma, OF; Simon, C; Behrens, SE; Breunig, KD
Microbial cell factories 11 112 2012
The Crabtree-negative yeast species Kluyveromyces lactis has been established as an attractive microbial expression system for recombinant proteins at industrial scale. Its LAC genes allow for utilization of the inexpensive sugar lactose as a sole source of carbon and energy. Lactose efficiently induces the LAC4 promoter, which can be used to drive regulated expression of heterologous genes. So far, strain manipulation of K. lactis by homologous recombination was hampered by the high rate of non-homologous end-joining.Selection for growth on lactose was applied to target the insertion of heterologous genes downstream of the LAC4 promoter into the K. lactis genome and found to yield high numbers of positive transformants. Concurrent reconstitution of the β-galactosidase gene indicated the desired integration event of the expression cassette, and β-galactosidase activity measurements were used to monitor gene expression for strain improvement and fermentation optimization. The system was particularly improved by usage of a cell lysis resistant strain, VAK367-D4, which allowed for protein accumulation in long-term fermentation. Further optimization was achieved by increased gene dosage of KlGAL4 encoding the activator of lactose and galactose metabolic genes that led to elevated transcription rates. Pilot experiments were performed with strains expressing a single-chain antibody fragment (scFvox) and a viral envelope protein (BVDV-E2), respectively. scFvox was shown to be secreted into the culture medium in an active, epitope-binding form indicating correct processing and protein folding; the E2 protein could be expressed intracellularly. Further data on the influence of protein toxicity on batch fermentation and potential post-transcriptional bottlenecks in protein accumulation were obtained.A novel Kluyveromyces lactis host-vector system was developed that places heterologous genes under the control of the chromosomal LAC4 promoter and that allows monitoring of its transcription rates by β-galactosidase measurement. The procedure is rapid and efficient, and the resulting recombinant strains contain no foreign genes other than the gene of interest. The recombinant strains can be grown non-selectively in rich medium and stably maintained even when the gene product exerts protein toxicity.
|Goat anti-Mouse IgG, Peroxidase Conjugated, H&L - Data Sheet|