Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R||ELISA, IHC, IP, RIA, WB||R||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified rat monoclonal IgG2a in buffer containing phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4) with 0.09% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µg|
Anti-Tubulin Antibody, clone YL1/2 SDS
|Anti-Tubulin, clone YL1/2||3062805|
|Anti-Tubulin, clone YL1/2 - 2148228||2148228|
|Anti-Tubulin, clone YL1/2 - 2358849||2358849|
|Anti-Tubulin, clone YL1/2 - 2392242||2392242|
|Anti-Tubulin, clone YL1/2 - 2462769||2462769|
|Anti-Tubulin, clone YL1/2 - 2041539||2041539|
|Anti-Tubulin, clone YL1/2 - 2070803||2070803|
|Anti-Tubulin, clone YL1/2 - 2281627||2281627|
|Anti-Tubulin, clone YL1/2 - 2508797||2508797|
|Anti-Tubulin, clone YL1/2 - 3173830||3173830|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Quantitative analysis reveals how EGFR activation and downregulation are coupled in normal but not in cancer cells.|
Capuani, F; Conte, A; Argenzio, E; Marchetti, L; Priami, C; Polo, S; Di Fiore, PP; Sigismund, S; Ciliberto, A
Nature communications 6 7999 2015
Ubiquitination of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) that occurs when Cbl and Grb2 bind to three phosphotyrosine residues (pY1045, pY1068 and pY1086) on the receptor displays a sharp threshold effect as a function of EGF concentration. Here we use a simple modelling approach together with experiments to show that the establishment of the threshold requires both the multiplicity of binding sites and cooperative binding of Cbl and Grb2 to the EGFR. While the threshold is remarkably robust, a more sophisticated model predicted that it could be modulated as a function of EGFR levels on the cell surface. We confirmed experimentally that the system has evolved to perform optimally at physiological levels of EGFR. As a consequence, this system displays an intrinsic weakness that causes--at the supraphysiological levels of receptor and/or ligand associated with cancer--uncoupling of the mechanisms leading to signalling through phosphorylation and attenuation through ubiquitination.
|Flattop regulates basal body docking and positioning in mono- and multiciliated cells.|
Gegg, M; Böttcher, A; Burtscher, I; Hasenoeder, S; Van Campenhout, C; Aichler, M; Walch, A; Grant, SG; Lickert, H
eLife 3 2014
Planar cell polarity (PCP) regulates basal body (BB) docking and positioning during cilia formation, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we investigate the uncharacterized gene Flattop (Fltp) that is transcriptionally activated during PCP acquisition in ciliated tissues. Fltp knock-out mice show BB docking and ciliogenesis defects in multiciliated lung cells. Furthermore, Fltp is necessary for kinocilium positioning in monociliated inner ear hair cells. In these cells, the core PCP molecule Dishevelled 2, the BB/spindle positioning protein Dlg3, and Fltp localize directly adjacent to the apical plasma membrane, physically interact and surround the BB at the interface of the microtubule and actin cytoskeleton. Dlg3 and Fltp knock-outs suggest that both cooperatively translate PCP cues for BB positioning in the inner ear. Taken together, the identification of novel BB/spindle positioning components as potential mediators of PCP signaling might have broader implications for other cell types, ciliary disease, and asymmetric cell division.
|CDK phosphorylation of SLD-2 is required for replication initiation and germline development in C. elegans.|
Gaggioli, V; Zeiser, E; Rivers, D; Bradshaw, CR; Ahringer, J; Zegerman, P
The Journal of cell biology 204 507-22 2014
Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) plays a vital role in proliferation control across eukaryotes. Despite this, how CDK mediates cell cycle and developmental transitions in metazoa is poorly understood. In this paper, we identify orthologues of Sld2, a CDK target that is important for DNA replication in yeast, and characterize SLD-2 in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans. We demonstrate that SLD-2 is required for replication initiation and the nuclear retention of a critical component of the replicative helicase CDC-45 in embryos. SLD-2 is a CDK target in vivo, and phosphorylation regulates the interaction with another replication factor, MUS-101. By mutation of the CDK sites in sld-2, we show that CDK phosphorylation of SLD-2 is essential in C. elegans. Finally, using a phosphomimicking sld-2 mutant, we demonstrate that timely CDK phosphorylation of SLD-2 is an important control mechanism to allow normal proliferation in the germline. These results determine an essential function of CDK in metazoa and identify a developmental role for regulated SLD-2 phosphorylation.
|The auto-inhibitory domain and ATP-independent microtubule-binding region of Kinesin heavy chain are major functional domains for transport in the Drosophila germline.|
Williams, LS; Ganguly, S; Loiseau, P; Ng, BF; Palacios, IM
Development (Cambridge, England) 141 176-86 2014
The major motor Kinesin-1 provides a key pathway for cell polarization through intracellular transport. Little is known about how Kinesin works in complex cellular surroundings. Several cargos associate with Kinesin via Kinesin light chain (KLC). However, KLC is not required for all Kinesin transport. A putative cargo-binding domain was identified in the C-terminal tail of fungal Kinesin heavy chain (KHC). The tail is conserved in animal KHCs and might therefore represent an alternative KLC-independent cargo-interacting region. By comprehensive functional analysis of the tail during Drosophila oogenesis we have gained an understanding of how KHC achieves specificity in its transport and how it is regulated. This is, to our knowledge, the first in vivo structural/functional analysis of the tail in animal Kinesins. We show that the tail is essential for all functions of KHC except Dynein transport, which is KLC dependent. These tail-dependent KHC activities can be functionally separated from one another by further characterizing domains within the tail. In particular, our data show the following. First, KHC is temporally regulated during oogenesis. Second, the IAK domain has an essential role distinct from its auto-inhibitory function. Third, lack of auto-inhibition in itself is not necessarily detrimental to KHC function. Finally, the ATP-independent microtubule-binding motif is required for cargo localization. These results stress that two unexpected highly conserved domains, namely the auto-inhibitory IAK and the auxiliary microtubule-binding motifs, are crucial for transport by Kinesin-1 and that, although not all cargos are conserved, their transport involves the most conserved domains of animal KHCs.
|Keratins as the main component for the mechanical integrity of keratinocytes.|
Ramms, L; Fabris, G; Windoffer, R; Schwarz, N; Springer, R; Zhou, C; Lazar, J; Stiefel, S; Hersch, N; Schnakenberg, U; Magin, TM; Leube, RE; Merkel, R; Hoffmann, B
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110 18513-8 2013
Keratins are major components of the epithelial cytoskeleton and are believed to play a vital role for mechanical integrity at the cellular and tissue level. Keratinocytes as the main cell type of the epidermis express a differentiation-specific set of type I and type II keratins forming a stable network and are major contributors of keratinocyte mechanical properties. However, owing to compensatory keratin expression, the overall contribution of keratins to cell mechanics was difficult to examine in vivo on deletion of single keratin genes. To overcome this problem, we used keratinocytes lacking all keratins. The mechanical properties of these cells were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and magnetic tweezers experiments. We found a strong and highly significant softening of keratin-deficient keratinocytes when analyzed by AFM on the cell body and above the nucleus. Magnetic tweezers experiments fully confirmed these results showing, in addition, high viscous contributions to magnetic bead displacement in keratin-lacking cells. Keratin loss neither affected actin or microtubule networks nor their overall protein concentration. Furthermore, depolymerization of actin preserves cell softening in the absence of keratin. On reexpression of the sole basal epidermal keratin pair K5/14, the keratin filament network was reestablished, and mechanical properties were restored almost to WT levels in both experimental setups. The data presented here demonstrate the importance of keratin filaments for mechanical resilience of keratinocytes and indicate that expression of a single keratin pair is sufficient for almost complete reconstitution of their mechanical properties.
|Interphase cytofission maintains genomic integrity of human cells after failed cytokinesis.|
Choudhary, A; Lera, RF; Martowicz, ML; Oxendine, K; Laffin, JJ; Weaver, BA; Burkard, ME
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110 13026-31 2013
In cell division, cytokinesis is tightly coupled with mitosis to maintain genomic integrity. Failed cytokinesis in humans can result in tetraploid cells that can become aneuploid and promote cancer. However, the likelihood of aneuploidy and cancer after a failed cytokinesis event is unknown. Here we evaluated cell fate after failed cytokinesis. We interrupted cytokinesis by brief chemical treatments in cell populations of human epithelial lines. Surprisingly, up to 50% of the resulting binucleate cells generated colonies. In RPE1 cells, 90% of colonies obtained from binucleate founders had a karyotype that matched the parental cell type. Time-lapse videomicroscopy demonstrated that binucleate cells are delayed in the first growth phase of the cell cycle (G1) and undergo interphase cellular fission (cytofission) that distributes nuclei into separate daughters. The fission is not compatible with delayed cytokinesis because events occur in the absence of polymerized microtubules and without canonical components of the cytokinetic machinery. However, the cytofission can be interrupted by inhibiting function of actin or myosin II. Fission events occur in both two- and three-dimensional culture. Our data demonstrate that cytofission can preserve genomic integrity after failed cytokinesis. Thus, traction-mediated cytofission, originally observed in Dictyostelium, is relevant to human biology--where it seems to be an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that can preserve genomic integrity.
|WAVE/SCAR promotes endocytosis and early endosome morphology in polarized C. elegans epithelia.|
Patel, FB; Soto, MC
Developmental biology 377 319-32 2013
Cells can use the force of actin polymerization to drive intracellular transport, but the role of actin in endocytosis is not clear. Studies in single-celled yeast demonstrate the essential role of the branched actin nucleator, Arp2/3, and its activating nucleation promoting factors (NPFs) in the process of invagination from the cell surface through endocytosis. However, some mammalian studies have disputed the need for F-actin and Arp2/3 in Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis (CME) in multicellular organisms. We investigate the role of Arp2/3 during endocytosis in Caenorhabditis elegans, a multicellular organism with polarized epithelia. Arp2/3 and its NPF, WAVE/SCAR, are essential for C. elegans embryonic morphogenesis. We show that WAVE/SCAR and Arp2/3 regulate endocytosis and early endosome morphology in diverse tissues of C. elegans. Depletion of WAVE/SCAR or Arp2/3, but not of the NPF Wasp, severely disrupts the distribution of molecules proposed to be internalized via CME, and alters the subcellular enrichment of the early endosome regulator RAB-5. Loss of WAVE/SCAR or of the GEFs that regulate RAB-5 results in similar defects in endocytosis in the intestine and coelomocyte cells. This study in a multicellular organism supports an essential role for branched actin regulators in endocytosis, and identifies WAVE/SCAR as a key NPF that promotes Arp2/3 endocytic function in C. elegans.
|Regional heterogeneity in murine lung fibroblasts from normal mice or mice exposed once to cigarette smoke.|
Preobrazhenska, O; Wright, JL; Churg, A
PloS one 7 e39761 2012
Chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) is characterized by matrix deposition in the small airways but matrix loss from the parenchyma, phenomena which must depend on the ability of local fibroblasts to produce matrix after smoke exposure. To investigate this idea, we exposed C57Bl/6 mice once to cigarette smoke or to air (control) and prepared primary cultures of lung fibroblasts by microdissecting large airways (trachea, LAF), medium size airways (major bronchi, MAF) and parenchyma (PF). Control PF showed the lowest rate of wound closure and wound closure was depressed in all lines by a single in vivo smoke exposure. Gene expression of matrix proteins differed considerably among the sites; decorin, which may sequester TGFβ, was markedly higher in PF. PF showed higher intrinsic ratios of pSmad2/Smad2. Smoke caused much greater increases in secreted and matrix deposited collagens 1 and 3 in PF than in LAF or MAF. Expression of Thy-1, a gene that suppresses myofibroblast differentiation, was increased by smoke in PF. We conclude that there is considerable regional heterogeneity in murine lung fibroblasts in terms of matrix production, either basally or after in vivo smoke exposure; that PF have lower ability to repair wounds and higher intrinsic TGFβ signaling; and that a single exposure to smoke produces lasting changes in the pattern of matrix production and wound repair, changes that may be mediated in part by smoke-induced release of TGFβ. However, PF still retain the ability to repair by producing new matrix after a single in vivo smoke exposure.
|A phase 1 dose-escalation study of ARRY-520, a kinesin spindle protein inhibitor, in patients with advanced myeloid leukemias.|
Hanna Jean Khoury,Guillermo Garcia-Manero,Gautam Borthakur,Tapan Kadia,Maria Cielo Foudray,Martha Arellano,Amelia Langston,Beverly Bethelmie-Bryan,Selena Rush,Kevin Litwiler,Sharon Karan,Heidi Simmons,Adam I Marcus,Mieke Ptaszynski,Hagop Kantarjian
Cancer 118 2012
ARRY-520 selectively inhibits the mitotic kinesin spindle protein (KSP), which leads to abnormal monopolar spindle formation and apoptosis.
|Stromal interaction molecules 1 and 2 are key regulators of autoreactive T cell activation in murine autoimmune central nervous system inflammation.|
Michael K Schuhmann,David Stegner,Alejandro Berna-Erro,Stefan Bittner,Attila Braun,Christoph Kleinschnitz,Guido Stoll,Heinz Wiendl,Sven G Meuth,Bernhard Nieswandt
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 184 2010
Calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling in T lymphocytes is essential for a variety of functions, including the regulation of differentiation, gene transcription, and effector functions. A major Ca(2+) entry pathway in nonexcitable cells, including T cells, is store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE), wherein depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) stores upon receptor stimulation causes subsequent influx of extracellular Ca(2+) across the plasma membrane. Stromal interaction molecule (STIM) 1 is the Ca(2+) sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum, which controls this process, whereas the other STIM isoform, STIM2, coregulates SOCE. Although the contribution of STIM molecules and SOCE to T lymphocyte function is well studied in vitro, their significance for immune processes in vivo has remained largely elusive. In this study, we studied T cell function in mice lacking STIM1 or STIM2 in a model of myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG(35-55))-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We found that STIM1 deficiency significantly impaired the generation of neuroantigen-specific T cell responses in vivo with reduced Th1/Th17 responses, resulting in complete protection from EAE. Mice lacking STIM2 developed EAE, but the disease course was ameliorated. This was associated with a reduced clinical peak of disease. Deficiency of STIM2 was associated with an overall reduced proliferative capacity of lymphocytes and a reduction of IFN-gamma/IL-17 production by neuroantigen-specific T cells. Neither STIM1 nor STIM2 deficiency altered the phenotype or function of APCs. These findings reveal a crucial role of STIM-dependent pathways for T cell function and activation under autoimmune inflammatory conditions, establishing them as attractive new molecular therapeutic targets for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders.