|Modulation of network activity and induction of homeostatic synaptic plasticity by enzymatic removal of heparan sulfates. |
Korotchenko, S; Cingolani, LA; Kuznetsova, T; Bologna, LL; Chiappalone, M; Dityatev, A
Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
Heparan sulfates (HSs) are complex and highly active molecules that are required for synaptogenesis and long-term potentiation. A deficit in HSs leads to autistic phenotype in mice. Here, we investigated the long-term effect of heparinase I, which digests highly sulfated HSs, on the spontaneous bioelectrical activity of neuronal networks in developing primary hippocampal cultures. We found that chronic heparinase treatment led to a significant reduction of the mean firing rate of neurons, particularly during the period of maximal neuronal activity. Furthermore, firing pattern in heparinase-treated cultures often appeared as epileptiform bursts, with long periods of inactivity between them. These changes in network activity were accompanied by an increase in the frequency and amplitude of miniature postsynaptic excitatory currents, which could be described by a linear up-scaling of current amplitudes. Biochemically, we observed an upregulation in the expression of the glutamate receptor subunit GluA1, but not GluA2, and a strong increase in autophosphorylation of α and β Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), without changes in the levels of kinase expression. These data suggest that a deficit in HSs triggers homeostatic synaptic plasticity and drastically affects functional maturation of neural network.
|GluA1 phosphorylation contributes to postsynaptic amplification of neuropathic pain in the insular cortex. |
Qiu, S; Zhang, M; Liu, Y; Guo, Y; Zhao, H; Song, Q; Zhao, M; Huganir, RL; Luo, J; Xu, H; Zhuo, M
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Long-term potentiation of glutamatergic transmission has been observed after physiological learning or pathological injuries in different brain regions, including the spinal cord, hippocampus, amygdala, and cortices. The insular cortex is a key cortical region that plays important roles in aversive learning and neuropathic pain. However, little is known about whether excitatory transmission in the insular cortex undergoes plastic changes after peripheral nerve injury. Here, we found that peripheral nerve ligation triggered the enhancement of AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-mediated excitatory synaptic transmission in the insular cortex. The synaptic GluA1 subunit of AMPAR, but not the GluA2/3 subunit, was increased after nerve ligation. Genetic knock-in mice lacking phosphorylation of the Ser845 site, but not that of the Ser831 site, blocked the enhancement of the synaptic GluA1 subunit, indicating that GluA1 phosphorylation at the Ser845 site by protein kinase A (PKA) was critical for this upregulation after nerve injury. Furthermore, A-kinase anchoring protein 79/150 (AKAP79/150) and PKA were translocated to the synapses after nerve injury. Genetic deletion of adenylyl cyclase subtype 1 (AC1) prevented the translocation of AKAP79/150 and PKA, as well as the upregulation of synaptic GluA1-containing AMPARs. Pharmacological inhibition of calcium-permeable AMPAR function in the insular cortex reduced behavioral sensitization caused by nerve injury. Our results suggest that the expression of AMPARs is enhanced in the insular cortex after nerve injury by a pathway involving AC1, AKAP79/150, and PKA, and such enhancement may at least in part contribute to behavioral sensitization together with other cortical regions, such as the anterior cingulate and the prefrontal cortices.
|Cdk5 is required for memory function and hippocampal plasticity via the cAMP signaling pathway. |
Guan, JS; Su, SC; Gao, J; Joseph, N; Xie, Z; Zhou, Y; Durak, O; Zhang, L; Zhu, JJ; Clauser, KR; Carr, SA; Tsai, LH
Memory formation is modulated by pre- and post-synaptic signaling events in neurons. The neuronal protein kinase Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 (Cdk5) phosphorylates a variety of synaptic substrates and is implicated in memory formation. It has also been shown to play a role in homeostatic regulation of synaptic plasticity in cultured neurons. Surprisingly, we found that Cdk5 loss of function in hippocampal circuits results in severe impairments in memory formation and retrieval. Moreover, Cdk5 loss of function in the hippocampus disrupts cAMP signaling due to an aberrant increase in phosphodiesterase (PDE) proteins. Dysregulation of cAMP is associated with defective CREB phosphorylation and disrupted composition of synaptic proteins in Cdk5-deficient mice. Rolipram, a PDE4 inhibitor that prevents cAMP depletion, restores synaptic plasticity and memory formation in Cdk5-deficient mice. Collectively, our results demonstrate a critical role for Cdk5 in the regulation of cAMP-mediated hippocampal functions essential for synaptic plasticity and memory formation.
|Learning-induced glutamate receptor phosphorylation resembles that induced by long term potentiation. |
Shukla, K; Kim, J; Blundell, J; Powell, CM
The Journal of biological chemistry
Long term potentiation and long term depression of synaptic responses in the hippocampus are thought to be critical for certain forms of learning and memory, although until recently it has been difficult to demonstrate that long term potentiation or long term depression occurs during hippocampus-dependent learning. Induction of long term potentiation or long term depression in hippocampal slices in vitro modulates phosphorylation of the alpha-amino-3-hydrozy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid subtype of glutamate receptor subunit GluR1 at distinct phosphorylation sites. In long term potentiation, GluR1 phosphorylation is increased at the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C site serine 831, whereas in long term depression, phosphorylation of the protein kinase A site serine 845 is decreased. Indeed, phosphorylation of one or both of these sites is required for long term synaptic plasticity and for certain forms of learning and memory. Here we demonstrate that training in a hippocampus-dependent learning task, contextual fear conditioning is associated with increased phosphorylation of GluR1 at serine 831 in the hippocampal formation. This increased phosphorylation is specific to learning, has a similar time course to that in long term potentiation, and like memory and long term potentiation, is dependent on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation during training. Furthermore, the learning-induced increase in serine 831 phosphorylation is present at synapses and is in heteromeric complexes with the glutamate receptor subunit GluR2. These data indicate that a biochemical correlate of long term potentiation occurs at synapses in receptor complexes in a final, downstream, postsynaptic effector of long term potentiation during learning in vivo, further strengthening the link between long term potentiation and memory.