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|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M||ELISA, ICC, IHC, IP, WB||M||Ascites||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Liquid. Contains no preservative.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µL|
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Referencias bibliográficas | 36 Disponible | Ver todas las referencias
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|Histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation is required for suppressing the expression of an embryonically activated retrotransposon in Xenopus laevis. |
Herberg, S; Simeone, A; Oikawa, M; Jullien, J; Bradshaw, CR; Teperek, M; Gurdon, J; Miyamoto, K
Scientific reports 5 14236 2015
Transposable elements in the genome are generally silenced in differentiated somatic cells. However, increasing evidence indicates that some of them are actively transcribed in early embryos and the proper regulation of retrotransposon expression is essential for normal development. Although their developmentally regulated expression has been shown, the mechanisms controlling retrotransposon expression in early embryos are still not well understood. Here, we observe a dynamic expression pattern of retrotransposons with three out of ten examined retrotransposons (1a11, λ-olt 2-1 and xretpos(L)) being transcribed solely during early embryonic development. We also identified a transcript that contains the long terminal repeat (LTR) of λ-olt 2-1 and shows a similar expression pattern to λ-olt 2-1 in early Xenopus embryos. All three retrotransposons are transcribed by RNA polymerase II. Although their expression levels decline during development, the LTRs are marked by histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation. Furthermore, retrotransposons, especially λ-olt 2-1, are enriched with histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) when their expression is repressed. Overexpression of lysine-specific demethylase 4d removes H3K9me3 marks from Xenopus embryos and inhibits the repression of λ-olt 2-1 after gastrulation. Thus, our study shows that H3K9me3 is important for silencing the developmentally regulated retrotransposon in Xenopus laevis.
|Dynamic phosphorylation of HP1α regulates mitotic progression in human cells. |
Chakraborty, A; Prasanth, KV; Prasanth, SG
Nature communications 5 3445 2014
Heterochromatin protein 1α (HP1α), a key player in the establishment and maintenance of higher-order chromatin regulates key cellular processes, including metaphase chromatid cohesion and centromere organization. However, how HP1α controls these processes is not well understood. Here we demonstrate that post-translational modifications of HP1α dictate its mitotic functions. HP1α is constitutively phosphorylated within its amino terminus, whereas phosphorylation within the hinge domain occurs preferentially at G2/M phase of the cell cycle. The hinge-phosphorylated form of HP1α specifically localizes to kinetochores during early mitosis and this phosphorylation mediated by NDR1 kinase is required for mitotic progression and for Sgo1 binding to mitotic centromeres. Cells lacking NDR kinase show loss of mitosis-specific phosphorylation of HP1α leading to prometaphase arrest. Our results reveal that NDR kinase catalyses the hinge-specific phosphorylation of human HP1α during G2/M in vivo and this orchestrates accurate chromosome alignment and mitotic progression.
|HP1β-dependent recruitment of UBF1 to irradiated chromatin occurs simultaneously with CPDs. |
Stixová, L; Sehnalová, P; Legartová, S; Suchánková, J; Hrušková, T; Kozubek, S; Sorokin, DV; Matula, P; Raška, I; Kovařík, A; Fulneček, J; Bártová, E
Epigenetics & chromatin 7 39 2014
The repair of spontaneous and induced DNA lesions is a multistep process. Depending on the type of injury, damaged DNA is recognized by many proteins specifically involved in distinct DNA repair pathways.We analyzed the DNA-damage response after ultraviolet A (UVA) and γ irradiation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts and focused on upstream binding factor 1 (UBF1), a key protein in the regulation of ribosomal gene transcription. We found that UBF1, but not nucleolar proteins RPA194, TCOF, or fibrillarin, was recruited to UVA-irradiated chromatin concurrently with an increase in heterochromatin protein 1β (HP1β) level. Moreover, Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) confirmed interaction between UBF1 and HP1β that was dependent on a functional chromo shadow domain of HP1β. Thus, overexpression of HP1β with a deleted chromo shadow domain had a dominant-negative effect on UBF1 recruitment to UVA-damaged chromatin. Transcription factor UBF1 also interacted directly with DNA inside the nucleolus but no interaction of UBF1 and DNA was confirmed outside the nucleolus, where UBF1 recruitment to DNA lesions appeared simultaneously with cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers; this occurrence was cell-cycle-independent.We propose that the simultaneous presence and interaction of UBF1 and HP1β at DNA lesions is activated by the presence of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and mediated by the chromo shadow domain of HP1β. This might have functional significance for nucleotide excision repair.
|Loss of WSTF results in spontaneous fluctuations of heterochromatin formation and resolution, combined with substantial changes to gene expression. |
Culver-Cochran, AE; Chadwick, BP
BMC genomics 14 740 2013
Williams syndrome transcription factor (WSTF) is a multifaceted protein that is involved in several nuclear processes, including replication, transcription, and the DNA damage response. WSTF participates in a chromatin-remodeling complex with the ISWI ATPase, SNF2H, and is thought to contribute to the maintenance of heterochromatin, including at the human inactive X chromosome (Xi). WSTF is encoded by BAZ1B, and is one of twenty-eight genes that are hemizygously deleted in the genetic disorder Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS).To explore the function of WSTF, we performed zinc finger nuclease-assisted targeting of the BAZ1B gene and isolated several independent knockout clones in human cells. Our results show that, while heterochromatin at the Xi is unaltered, new inappropriate areas of heterochromatin spontaneously form and resolve throughout the nucleus, appearing as large DAPI-dense staining blocks, defined by histone H3 lysine-9 trimethylation and association of the proteins heterochromatin protein 1 and structural maintenance of chromosomes flexible hinge domain containing 1. In three independent mutants, the expression of a large number of genes were impacted, both up and down, by WSTF loss.Given the inappropriate appearance of regions of heterochromatin in BAZ1B knockout cells, it is evident that WSTF performs a critical role in maintaining chromatin and transcriptional states, a property that is likely compromised by WSTF haploinsufficiency in WBS patients.
|Murine esBAF chromatin remodeling complex subunits BAF250a and Brg1 are necessary to maintain and reprogram pluripotency-specific replication timing of select replication domains. |
Takebayashi, S; Lei, I; Ryba, T; Sasaki, T; Dileep, V; Battaglia, D; Gao, X; Fang, P; Fan, Y; Esteban, MA; Tang, J; Crabtree, GR; Wang, Z; Gilbert, DM
Epigenetics & chromatin 6 42 2013
Cellular differentiation and reprogramming are accompanied by changes in replication timing and 3D organization of large-scale (400 to 800 Kb) chromosomal domains ('replication domains'), but few gene products have been identified whose disruption affects these properties.Here we show that deletion of esBAF chromatin-remodeling complex components BAF250a and Brg1, but not BAF53a, disrupts replication timing at specific replication domains. Also, BAF250a-deficient fibroblasts reprogrammed to a pluripotency-like state failed to reprogram replication timing in many of these same domains. About half of the replication domains affected by Brg1 loss were also affected by BAF250a loss, but a much larger set of domains was affected by BAF250a loss. esBAF binding in the affected replication domains was dependent upon BAF250a but, most affected domains did not contain genes whose transcription was affected by loss of esBAF.Loss of specific esBAF complex subunits alters replication timing of select replication domains in pluripotent cells.
|Mouse BAZ1A (ACF1) is dispensable for double-strand break repair but is essential for averting improper gene expression during spermatogenesis. |
Dowdle, JA; Mehta, M; Kass, EM; Vuong, BQ; Inagaki, A; Egli, D; Jasin, M; Keeney, S
PLoS genetics 9 e1003945 2013
ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers control DNA access for transcription, recombination, and other processes. Acf1 (also known as BAZ1A in mammals) is a defining subunit of the conserved ISWI-family chromatin remodelers ACF and CHRAC, first purified over 15 years ago from Drosophila melanogaster embryos. Much is known about biochemical properties of ACF and CHRAC, which move nucleosomes in vitro and in vivo to establish ordered chromatin arrays. Genetic studies in yeast, flies and cultured human cells clearly implicate these complexes in transcriptional repression via control of chromatin structures. RNAi experiments in transformed mammalian cells in culture also implicate ACF and CHRAC in DNA damage checkpoints and double-strand break repair. However, their essential in vivo roles in mammals are unknown. Here, we show that Baz1a-knockout mice are viable and able to repair developmentally programmed DNA double-strand breaks in the immune system and germ line, I-SceI endonuclease-induced breaks in primary fibroblasts via homologous recombination, and DNA damage from mitomycin C exposure in vivo. However, Baz1a deficiency causes male-specific sterility in accord with its high expression in male germ cells, where it displays dynamic, stage-specific patterns of chromosomal localization. Sterility is caused by pronounced defects in sperm development, most likely a consequence of massively perturbed gene expression in spermatocytes and round spermatids in the absence of BAZ1A: the normal spermiogenic transcription program is largely intact but more than 900 other genes are mis-regulated, primarily reflecting inappropriate up-regulation. We propose that large-scale changes in chromatin composition that occur during spermatogenesis create a window of vulnerability to promiscuous transcription changes, with an essential function of ACF and/or CHRAC chromatin remodeling activities being to safeguard against these alterations.
|Detection of senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF). |
Aird, KM; Zhang, R
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 965 185-96 2013
One of the most prominent features of cellular senescence, a stress response that prevents the propagation of cells that have accumulated potentially oncogenic alterations, is a permanent loss of proliferative potential. Thus, at odds with quiescent cells, which resume proliferation when stimulated to do so, senescent cells cannot proceed through the cell cycle even in the presence of mitogenic factors. Here, we describe a set of cytofluorometric techniques for studying how chemical and/or physical stimuli alter the cell cycle in vitro, in both qualitative and quantitative terms. Taken together, these methods allow for the identification of bona fide cytostatic effects as well as for a refined characterization of cell cycle distributions, providing information on proliferation, DNA content, as well as the presence of cell cycle phase-specific markers. At the end of the chapter, a set of guidelines is offered to assist researchers that approach the study of the cell cycle with the interpretation of results.
|SOX10 ablation arrests cell cycle, induces senescence, and suppresses melanomagenesis. |
Cronin, JC; Watkins-Chow, DE; Incao, A; Hasskamp, JH; Schönewolf, N; Aoude, LG; Hayward, NK; Bastian, BC; Dummer, R; Loftus, SK; Pavan, WJ
Cancer research 73 5709-18 2013
The transcription factor SOX10 is essential for survival and proper differentiation of neural crest cell lineages, where it plays an important role in the generation and maintenance of melanocytes. SOX10 is also highly expressed in melanoma tumors, but a role in disease progression has not been established. Here, we report that melanoma tumor cell lines require wild-type SOX10 expression for proliferation and SOX10 haploinsufficiency reduces melanoma initiation in the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (Grm1(Tg)) transgenic mouse model. Stable SOX10 knockdown in human melanoma cells arrested cell growth, altered cellular morphology, and induced senescence. Melanoma cells with stable loss of SOX10 were arrested in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, with reduced expression of the melanocyte determining factor microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, elevated expression of p21WAF1 and p27KIP2, hypophosphorylated RB, and reduced levels of its binding partner E2F1. As cell-cycle dysregulation is a core event in neoplastic transformation, the role for SOX10 in maintaining cell-cycle control in melanocytes suggests a rational new direction for targeted treatment or prevention of melanoma.
|Epigenetic regulation of myogenic gene expression by heterochromatin protein 1 alpha. |
Sdek, P; Oyama, K; Angelis, E; Chan, SS; Schenke-Layland, K; MacLellan, WR
PloS one 8 e58319 2013
Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is an essential heterochromatin-associated protein typically involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene silencing. However, recent reports have demonstrated that HP1 can also activate gene expression in certain contexts including differentiation. To explore the role of each of the three mammalian HP1 family members (α, β and γ) in skeletal muscle, their expression was individually disrupted in differentiating skeletal myocytes. Among the three isoforms of HP1, HP1α was specifically required for myogenic gene expression in myoblasts only. Knockdown of HP1α led to a defect in transcription of skeletal muscle-specific genes including Lbx1, MyoD and myogenin. HP1α binds to the genomic region of myogenic genes and depletion of HP1α results in a paradoxical increase in histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) at these sites. JHDM3A, a H3K9 demethylase also binds to myogenic gene's genomic regions in myoblasts in a HP1α-dependent manner. JHDM3A interacts with HP1α and knockdown of JHDM3A in myoblasts recapitulates the decreased myogenic gene transcription seen with HP1α depletion. These results propose a novel mechanism for HP1α-dependent gene activation by interacting with the demethylase JHDM3A and that HP1α is required for maintenance of myogenic gene expression in myoblasts.
|Developmentally regulated linker histone H1c promotes heterochromatin condensation and mediates structural integrity of rod photoreceptors in mouse retina. |
Popova, EY; Grigoryev, SA; Fan, Y; Skoultchi, AI; Zhang, SS; Barnstable, CJ
The Journal of biological chemistry 288 17895-907 2013
Mature rod photoreceptor cells contain very small nuclei with tightly condensed heterochromatin. We observed that during mouse rod maturation, the nucleosomal repeat length increases from 190 bp at postnatal day 1 to 206 bp in the adult retina. At the same time, the total level of linker histone H1 increased reaching the ratio of 1.3 molecules of total H1 per nucleosome, mostly via a dramatic increase in H1c. Genetic elimination of the histone H1c gene is functionally compensated by other histone variants. However, retinas in H1c/H1e/H1(0) triple knock-outs have photoreceptors with bigger nuclei, decreased heterochromatin area, and notable morphological changes suggesting that the process of chromatin condensation and rod cell structural integrity are partly impaired. In triple knock-outs, nuclear chromatin exposed several epigenetic histone modification marks masked in the wild type chromatin. Dramatic changes in exposure of a repressive chromatin mark, H3K9me2, indicate that during development linker histone plays a role in establishing the facultative heterochromatin territory and architecture in the nucleus. During retina development, the H1c gene and its promoter acquired epigenetic patterns typical of rod-specific genes. Our data suggest that histone H1c gene expression is developmentally up-regulated to promote facultative heterochromatin in mature rod photoreceptors.
|The WSTF-ISWI chromatin remodeling complex transiently associates with the human inactive X chromosome during late S-phase prior to BRCA1 and γ-H2AX. |
Culver-Cochran, AE; Chadwick, BP
PloS one 7 e50023 2012
Replicating the genome prior to each somatic cell division not only requires precise duplication of the genetic information, but also accurately reestablishing the epigenetic signatures that instruct how the genetic material is to be interpreted in the daughter cells. The mammalian inactive X chromosome (Xi), which is faithfully inherited in a silent state in each daughter cell, provides an excellent model of epigenetic regulation. While much is known about the early stages of X chromosome inactivation, much less is understood with regards to retaining the Xi chromatin through somatic cell division. Here we report that the WSTF-ISWI chromatin remodeling complex (WICH) associates with the Xi during late S-phase as the Xi DNA is replicated. Elevated levels of WICH at the Xi is restricted to late S-phase and appears before BRCA1 and γ-H2A.X. The sequential appearance of WICH and BRCA1/γ-H2A.X implicate each as performing important but distinct roles in the maturation and maintenance of heterochromatin at the Xi.
|ROS-generating NADPH oxidase NOX4 is a critical mediator in oncogenic H-Ras-induced DNA damage and subsequent senescence. |
Weyemi, U; Lagente-Chevallier, O; Boufraqech, M; Prenois, F; Courtin, F; Caillou, B; Talbot, M; Dardalhon, M; Al Ghuzlan, A; Bidart, JM; Schlumberger, M; Dupuy, C
Oncogene 31 1117-29 2012
Activated Ras oncogene induces DNA-damage response by triggering reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and this is critical for oncogene-induced senescence. Until now, little connections between oncogene expression, ROS-generating NADPH oxidases and DNA-damage response have emerged from different studies. Here we report that H-RasV12 positively regulates the NADPH oxidase system NOX4-p22(phox) that produces H(2)O(2). Knocking down the NADPH oxidase with small interference RNA decreases H-RasV12-induced DNA-damage response detected by γ-H2A.X foci analysis. Using HyPer, a specific probe for H(2)O(2), we detected an increase in H(2)O(2) in the nucleus correlated with NOX4-p22(phox) perinuclear localization. DNA damage response can be caused not only by H-RasV12-driven accumulation of ROS but also by a replicative stress due to a sustained oncogenic signal. Interestingly, NOX4 downregulation by siRNA abrogated H-RasV12 regulation of CDC6 expression, an essential regulator of DNA replication. Moreover, senescence markers, such as senescence-associated heterochromatin foci, PML bodies, HP1β foci and p21 expression, induced under H-RasV12 activation were decreased with NOX4 inactivation. Taken together, our data indicate that NADPH oxidase NOX4 is a critical mediator in oncogenic H-RasV12-induced DNA-damage response and subsequent senescence.
|Essential role of DPPA3 for chromatin condensation in mouse oocytogenesis. |
Liu, YJ; Nakamura, T; Nakano, T
Biology of reproduction 86 40 2012
Dynamic alterations in chromatin configuration occur in mammalian oocytogenesis. Based on chromatin configuration patterns, fully grown oocytes are classified into two types. One is surrounded nucleolus (SN)-type and the other is nonsurrounded nucleolus (NSN)-type oocytes. Although chromatin condensation during the transition from NSN- to SN-type oocytes is a prerequisite for normal early embryonic development, the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we analyzed the role of DPPA3 (also known as PGC7/Stella) in this transition using Dppa3-null oocytes. The NSN-to-SN transition was significantly impaired, and transcriptional repression was incomplete in the Dppa3-null oocytes. Additionally, we revealed that prior transcriptional repression was necessary for the NSN-to-SN transition. These findings demonstrate that DPPA3 is an essential factor for the production of functional oocytes through transcriptional repression and chromatin condensation.
|Suppression and recovery of BRCA1-mediated transcription by HP1γ via modulation of promoter occupancy. |
Choi, JD; Park, MA; Lee, JS
Nucleic acids research 40 11321-38 2012
Heterochromatin protein 1γ (HP1γ) is a chromatin protein involved in gene silencing. Herein, we show that HP1γ interacts with breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA1) and regulates BRCA1-mediated transcription via modulation of promoter occupancy and histone modification. We used several HP1γ mutants and small interfering RNAs for histone methyltransferases to show that BRCA1-HP1γ interaction, but not methylated histone binding, is important in HP1γ repression of BRCA1-mediated transcription. Time-lapse studies on promoter association and histone methylation after DNA damage revealed that HP1γ accumulates at the promoter before DNA damage, but BRCA1 is recruited at the promoter after the damage while promoter-resident HP1γ is disassembled. Importantly, HP1γ assembly recovers after release from the damage in a BRCA1-HP1γ interaction-dependent manner and targets SUV39H1. HP1γ/SUV39H1 restoration at the promoter results in BRCA1 disassembly and histone methylation, after which transcription repression resumes. We propose that through interaction with BRCA1, HP1γ is guided to the BRCA1 target promoter during recovery and functions in the activation-repression switch and recovery from BRCA1-mediated transcription in response to DNA damage.
|MAL Protein Controls Protein Sorting at the Supramolecular Activation Cluster of Human T Lymphocytes. |
Antón OM, Andrés-Delgado L, Reglero-Real N, Batista A, Alonso MA.
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 186 6345-56 2011
T cell membrane receptors and signaling molecules assemble at the immunological synapse (IS) in a supramolecular activation cluster (SMAC), organized into two differentiated subdomains: the central SMAC (cSMAC), with the TCR, Lck, and linker for activation of T cells (LAT), and the peripheral SMAC (pSMAC), with adhesion molecules. The mechanism of protein sorting to the SMAC subdomains is still unknown. MAL forms part of the machinery for protein targeting to the plasma membrane by specialized mechanisms involving condensed membranes or rafts. In this article, we report our investigation of the dynamics of MAL during the formation of the IS and its role in SMAC assembly in the Jurkat T cell line and human primary T cells. We observed that under normal conditions, a pool of MAL rapidly accumulates at the cSMAC, where it colocalized with condensed membranes, as visualized with the membrane fluorescent probe Laurdan. Mislocalization of MAL to the pSMAC greatly reduced membrane condensation at the cSMAC and redistributed machinery involved in docking microtubules or transport vesicles from the cSMAC to the pSMAC. As a consequence of these alterations, the raft-associated molecules Lck and LAT, but not the TCR, were missorted to the pSMAC. MAL, therefore, regulates membrane order and the distribution of microtubule and transport vesicle docking machinery at the IS and, by doing so, ensures correct protein sorting of Lck and LAT to the cSMAC.
|Age-associated increase in heterochromatic marks in murine and primate tissues. |
Kreiling, JA; Tamamori-Adachi, M; Sexton, AN; Jeyapalan, JC; Munoz-Najar, U; Peterson, AL; Manivannan, J; Rogers, ES; Pchelintsev, NA; Adams, PD; Sedivy, JM
Aging cell 10 292-304 2011
Chromatin is highly dynamic and subject to extensive remodeling under many physiologic conditions. Changes in chromatin that occur during the aging process are poorly documented and understood in higher organisms, such as mammals. We developed an immunofluorescence assay to quantitatively detect, at the single cell level, changes in the nuclear content of chromatin-associated proteins. We found increased levels of the heterochromatin-associated proteins histone macro H2A (mH2A) and heterochromatin protein 1 beta (HP1β) in human fibroblasts during replicative senescence in culture, and for the first time, an age-associated increase in these heterochromatin marks in several tissues of mice and primates. Mouse lung was characterized by monophasic mH2A expression histograms at both ages, and an increase in mean staining intensity at old age. In the mouse liver, we observed increased age-associated localization of mH2A to regions of pericentromeric heterochromatin. In the skeletal muscle, we found two populations of cells with either low or high mH2A levels. This pattern of expression was similar in mouse and baboon, and showed a clear increase in the proportion of nuclei with high mH2A levels in older animals. The frequencies of cells displaying evidence of increased heterochromatinization are too high to be readily accounted for by replicative or oncogene-induced cellular senescence, and are prominently found in terminally differentiated, postmitotic tissues that are not conventionally thought to be susceptible to senescence. Our findings distinguish specific chromatin states in individual cells of mammalian tissues, and provide a foundation to investigate further the progressive epigenetic changes that occur during aging.
|Rb and p130 control cell cycle gene silencing to maintain the postmitotic phenotype in cardiac myocytes. |
Sdek, P; Zhao, P; Wang, Y; Huang, CJ; Ko, CY; Butler, PC; Weiss, JN; Maclellan, WR
The Journal of cell biology 194 407-23 2011
The mammalian heart loses its regenerative potential soon after birth. Adult cardiac myocytes (ACMs) permanently exit the cell cycle, and E2F-dependent genes are stably silenced, although the underlying mechanism is unclear. Heterochromatin, which silences genes in many biological contexts, accumulates with cardiac differentiation. H3K9me3, a histone methylation characteristic of heterochromatin, also increases in ACMs and at E2F-dependent promoters. We hypothesize that genes relevant for cardiac proliferation are targeted to heterochromatin by retinoblastoma (Rb) family members interacting with E2F transcription factors and recruiting heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) proteins. To test this hypothesis, we created cardiac-specific Rb and p130 inducible double knockout (IDKO) mice. IDKO ACMs showed a decrease in total heterochromatin, and cell cycle genes were derepressed, leading to proliferation of ACMs. Although Rb/p130 deficiency had no effect on total H3K9me3 levels, recruitment of HP1-γ to promoters was lost. Depleting HP1-γ up-regulated proliferation-promoting genes in ACMs. Thus, Rb and p130 have overlapping roles in maintaining the postmitotic state of ACMs through their interaction with HP1-γ to direct heterochromatin formation and silencing of proliferation-promoting genes.
|Global chromatin fibre compaction in response to DNA damage. |
Hamilton, C; Hayward, RL; Gilbert, N
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 414 820-5 2011
DNA is protected by packaging it into higher order chromatin fibres, but this can impede nuclear processes like DNA repair. Despite considerable research into the factors required for signalling and repairing DNA damage, it is unclear if there are concomitant changes in global chromatin fibre structure. In human cells DNA double strand break (DSB) formation triggers a signalling cascade resulting in H2AX phosphorylation (γH2AX), the rapid recruitment of chromatin associated proteins and the subsequent repair of damaged sites. KAP1 is a transcriptional corepressor and in HCT116 cells we found that after DSB formation by chemicals or ionising radiation there was a wave of, predominantly ATM dependent, KAP1 phosphorylation. Both KAP1 and phosphorylated KAP1 were readily extracted from cells indicating they do not have a structural role and γH2AX was extracted in soluble chromatin indicating that sites of damage are not attached to an underlying structural matrix. After DSB formation we did not find a concomitant change in the sensitivity of chromatin fibres to micrococcal nuclease digestion. Therefore to directly investigate higher order chromatin fibre structures we used a biophysical sedimentation technique based on sucrose gradient centrifugation to compare the conformation of chromatin fibres isolated from cells before and after DNA DSB formation. After damage we found global chromatin fibre compaction, accompanied by rapid linker histone dephosphorylation, consistent with fibres being more regularly folded or fibre deformation being stabilized by linker histones. We suggest that following DSB formation, although there is localised chromatin unfolding to facilitate repair, the bulk genome becomes rapidly compacted protecting cells from further damage.
|Mammalian ChlR1 has a role in heterochromatin organization. |
Inoue, A; Hyle, J; Lechner, MS; Lahti, JM
Experimental cell research 317 2522-35 2011
The ChlR1 DNA helicase, encoded by DDX11 gene, which is responsible for Warsaw breakage syndrome (WABS), has a role in sister-chromatid cohesion. In this study, we show that human ChlR1 deficient cells exhibit abnormal heterochromatin organization. While constitutive heterochromatin is discretely localized at perinuclear and perinucleolar regions in control HeLa cells, ChlR1-depleted cells showed dispersed localization of constitutive heterochromatin accompanied by disrupted centromere clustering. Cells isolated from Ddx11(-/-) embryos also exhibited diffuse localization of centromeres and heterochromatin foci. Similar abnormalities were found in HeLa cells depleted of combinations of HP1α and HP1β. Immunofluorescence and chromatin immunoprecipitation showed a decreased level of HP1α at pericentric regions in ChlR1-depleted cells. Trimethyl-histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9-me3) was also modestly decreased at pericentric sequences. The abnormality in pericentric heterochromatin was further supported by decreased DNA methylation within major satellite repeats of Ddx11(-/-) embryos. Furthermore, micrococcal nuclease (MNase) assay revealed a decreased chromatin density at the telomeres. These data suggest that in addition to a role in sister-chromatid cohesion, ChlR1 is also involved in the proper formation of heterochromatin, which in turn contributes to global nuclear organization and pleiotropic effects.
|DNA synthesis and epigenetic modification during mouse oocyte fertilization by human or hamster sperm injection. |
Xu, YN; Cui, XS; Tae, JC; Jin, YX; Kim, NH
Journal of assisted reproduction and genetics 28 325-33 2011
To evaluate DNA synthesis and epigenetic modification in mouse oocytes during the first cell cycle following the injection of human or hamster sperm.Mouse oocytes following the injection of human and hamster sperm and cultured in M16 medium.Male and female pronucleus formation, DNA synthesis, histone protein modification, and heterochromatin formation were similar in mouse oocytes injected with human or hamster sperm. However, DNA methylation patterns were altered in mouse oocytes following human sperm injection. Immunocytochemical staining with a histone H3-MeK9 antibody revealed that human and hamster sperm chromatin associated normally with female mouse chromatin, then entered into the metaphase and formed normal, two-cell stage embryos.Although differences in epigenetic modification of DNA were observed, fertilization and cleavage occurred in a species non-specific manner in mouse oocytes.
|Isoform-specific intermolecular disulfide bond formation of heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1). |
Higo, S; Asano, Y; Kato, H; Yamazaki, S; Nakano, A; Tsukamoto, O; Seguchi, O; Asai, M; Asakura, M; Asanuma, H; Sanada, S; Minamino, T; Komuro, I; Kitakaze, M; Takashima, S
The Journal of biological chemistry 285 31337-47 2010
Three mammalian isoforms of heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), α, β, and γ, play diverse roles in gene regulation. Despite their structural similarity, the diverse functions of these isoforms imply that they are additionally regulated by post-translational modifications. Here, we have identified intermolecular disulfide bond formation of HP1 cysteines in an isoform-specific manner. Cysteine 133 in HP1α and cysteine 177 in HP1γ were involved in intermolecular homodimerization. Although both HP1α and HP1γ contain reactive cysteine residues, only HP1γ readily and reversibly formed disulfide homodimers under oxidative conditions. Oxidatively dimerized HP1γ strongly and transiently interacted with TIF1β, a universal transcriptional co-repressor. Under oxidative conditions, HP1γ dimerized and held TIF1β in a chromatin component and inhibited its repression ability. Our results highlight a novel, isoform-specific role for HP1 as a sensor of the cellular redox state.Artículo Texto completo
|The Mi-2/NuRD complex associates with pericentromeric heterochromatin during S phase in rapidly proliferating lymphoid cells. |
Helbling Chadwick, L; Chadwick, BP; Jaye, DL; Wade, PA
Chromosoma 118 445-57 2009
Chromosomal replication results in the duplication not only of DNA sequence but also of the patterns of histone modification, DNA methylation, and nucleoprotein structure that constitute epigenetic information. Pericentromeric heterochromatin in human cells is characterized by unique patterns of histone and DNA modification. Here, we describe association of the Mi-2/NuRD complex with specific segments of pericentromeric heterochromatin consisting of Satellite II/III DNA located on human chromosomes 1, 9, and 16 in some but not all cell types. This association is linked in part to DNA replication and chromatin assembly and may suggest a role in these processes. Mi-2/NuRD accumulation is independent of Polycomb association and is characterized by a unique pattern of histone modification. We propose that Mi-2/NuRD constitutes an enzymatic component of a pathway for assembly and maturation of chromatin utilized by rapidly proliferating lymphoid cells for replication of constitutive heterochromatin.
|The interaction of NSBP1/HMGN5 with nucleosomes in euchromatin counteracts linker histone-mediated chromatin compaction and modulates transcription. |
Rochman, M; Postnikov, Y; Correll, S; Malicet, C; Wincovitch, S; Karpova, TS; McNally, JG; Wu, X; Bubunenko, NA; Grigoryev, S; Bustin, M
Molecular cell 35 642-56 2009
Structural changes in specific chromatin domains are essential to the orderly progression of numerous nuclear processes, including transcription. We report that the nuclear protein NSBP1 (HMGN5), a recently discovered member of the HMGN nucleosome-binding protein family, is specifically targeted by its C-terminal domain to nucleosomes in euchromatin. We find that the interaction of NSBP1 with nucleosomes alters the compaction of cellular chromatin and that in living cells, NSBP1 interacts with linker histones. We demonstrate that the negatively charged C-terminal domain of NSBP1 interacts with the positively charged C-terminal domain of H5 and that NSBP1 counteracts the linker histone-mediated compaction of a nucleosomal array. Dysregulation of the cellular levels of NSBP1 alters the transcription level of numerous genes. We suggest that mouse NSBP1 is an architectural protein that binds preferentially to euchromatin and modulates the fidelity of the cellular transcription profile by counteracting the chromatin-condensing activity of linker histones.
|Erasure of the paternal transcription program during spermiogenesis: the first step in the reprogramming of sperm chromatin for zygotic development. |
Junke Zheng,Xiaoyu Xia,Hui Ding,Ayong Yan,Shaunggang Hu,Xun Gong,Shudong Zong,Yonglian Zhang,Hui Z Sheng
Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists 237 2008
Male germ cells possess a unique epigenetic program and express a male-specific transcription profile. However, when its chromatin is passed onto the zygote, it expresses an transcription/epigenetic program characteristic of the zygote. The mechanism underlying this reprogramming process is not understood at present. In this study, we show that an extensive range of chromatin factors (CFs), including essential transcription factors and regulators, remodeling factors, histone deacetylases, heterochromatin-binding proteins, and topoisomerases, were removed from chromatin during spermiogenesis. This process will erase the paternal epigenetic program to generate a relatively naive chromatin, which is likely to be essential for installation of the zygotic developmental program after fertilization. We have also showed that transcription termination in male germ cells was temporally correlated with CF dissociation. A genome-wide CF dissociation will inevitably disassemble the transcription apparatus and regulatory mechanism and lead to transcription silence. Based on data presented in this and previous studies (Sun et al., Cell Research  17:117-134), we propose that paternal-zygotic transcription reprogramming begins with a genome-wide CF dissociation to erase the existing transcription program in later stages of spermatogenesis. This will be followed by assembling of the zygotic equivalent after fertilization. The transcription/epigenetic program of the male germ cell is transformed into a zygotic one using an erase-and-rebuild strategy similar to that used in the maternal-zygotic transition. It is also noted that transcription is terminated long after meiosis is completed and before chromatin becomes highly condensed during spermatogenesis. The temporal order of these events suggests that transcription silence does not have to be coupled to meiosis or chromatin condensation.
|Perturbation of HP1 localization and chromatin binding ability causes defects in sister-chromatid cohesion. |
Akira Inoue, Judith Hyle, Mark S Lechner, Jill M Lahti, Akira Inoue, Judith Hyle, Mark S Lechner, Jill M Lahti, Akira Inoue, Judith Hyle, Mark S Lechner, Jill M Lahti
Mutation research 657 48-55 2008
Sister-chromatid cohesion, the machinery used in eukaryote organisms to prevent aneuploidy, tethers sister chromatids together after their replication in S phase until mitosis. Previous studies in fission yeast, Drosophila and mammals have demonstrated the requirement for the heterochromatin formation pathway for proper centromeric cohesion. However, the exact role of heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) in sister-chromatid cohesion in mammals is still unknown. In this study, we disrupted endogenous HP1 expression in HeLa cells using a dominant-negative mutant of HP1beta and wild-type or mutant forms of HP1alpha. We then examined their effects on chromosome alignment, segregation and cohesion. Enforced expression of these constructs leads to frequent chromosome misalignment and missegregation. Mitotic chromosomes from these cells also exhibit a loosened primary constriction and separated sister chromatids. We further demonstrate that alignment of the cohesin proteins around kinetochores was also aberrant and that cohesin complexes bound less tightly in these cells. Unexpectedly, we observed a "wavy" chromosome morphology resembling that seen upon depletion of condensin proteins in cells with over-expression of HP1alpha, but not in cells expressing the HP1beta mutant. These results indicate that proper HP1 status is required for sister-chromatid cohesion in mammalian cells, and suggest that HP1alpha might be required for chromosome condensation.
|Histone deacetylase inhibitor depsipeptide activates silenced genes through decreasing both CpG and H3K9 methylation on the promoter. |
Wu, LP; Wang, X; Li, L; Zhao, Y; Lu, S; Yu, Y; Zhou, W; Liu, X; Yang, J; Zheng, Z; Zhang, H; Feng, J; Yang, Y; Wang, H; Zhu, WG
Molecular and cellular biology 28 3219-35 2008
Histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) has been shown to demethylate the mammalian genome, which further strengthens the concept that DNA methylation and histone modifications interact in regulation of gene expression. Here, we report that an HDAC inhibitor, depsipeptide, exhibited significant demethylating activity on the promoters of several genes, including p16, SALL3, and GATA4 in human lung cancer cell lines H719 and H23, colon cancer cell line HT-29, and pancreatic cancer cell line PANC1. Although expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) was not affected by depsipeptide, a decrease in binding of DNMT1 to the promoter of these genes played a dominant role in depsipeptide-induced demethylation and reactivation. Depsipeptide also suppressed expression of histone methyltransferases G9A and SUV39H1, which in turn resulted in a decrease of di- and trimethylated H3K9 around these genes' promoter. Furthermore, both loading of heterochromatin-associated protein 1 (HP1alpha and HP1beta) to methylated H3K9 and binding of DNMT1 to these genes' promoter were significantly reduced in depsipeptide-treated cells. Similar DNA demethylation was induced by another HDAC inhibitor, apicidin, but not by trichostatin A. Our data describe a novel mechanism of HDACi-mediated DNA demethylation via suppression of histone methyltransferases and reduced recruitment of HP1 and DNMT1 to the genes' promoter.Artículo Texto completo
|Maternal depletion of CTCF reveals multiple functions during oocyte and preimplantation embryo development. |
Wan, LB; Pan, H; Hannenhalli, S; Cheng, Y; Ma, J; Fedoriw, A; Lobanenkov, V; Latham, KE; Schultz, RM; Bartolomei, MS
Development (Cambridge, England) 135 2729-38 2008
CTCF is a multifunctional nuclear factor involved in epigenetic regulation. Despite recent advances that include the systematic discovery of CTCF-binding sites throughout the mammalian genome, the in vivo roles of CTCF in adult tissues and during embryonic development are largely unknown. Using transgenic RNAi, we depleted maternal stores of CTCF from growing mouse oocytes, and identified hundreds of misregulated genes. Moreover, our analysis suggests that CTCF predominantly activates or derepresses transcription in oocytes. CTCF depletion causes meiotic defects in the egg, and mitotic defects in the embryo that are accompanied by defects in zygotic gene expression, and culminate in apoptosis. Maternal pronuclear transfer and CTCF mRNA microinjection experiments indicate that CTCF is a mammalian maternal effect gene, and that persistent transcriptional defects rather than persistent chromosomal defects perturb early embryonic development. This is the first study detailing a global and essential role for CTCF in mouse oocytes and preimplantation embryos.
|Identification of cellular proteins that maintain retroviral epigenetic silencing: evidence for an antiviral response. |
Poleshko, A; Palagin, I; Zhang, R; Boimel, P; Castagna, C; Adams, PD; Skalka, AM; Katz, RA
Journal of virology 82 2313-23 2008
Integrated retroviral DNA is subject to epigenetic gene silencing, resulting in loss of expression of viral genes as well as reporter or therapeutic genes transduced by retroviral vectors. Possible mediators of such silencing include the histone deacetylase (HDAC) family of cellular proteins. We previously isolated HeLa cell populations that harbored silent avian sarcoma virus-based green fluorescent protein (GFP) vectors that could be reactivated by treatment with HDAC inhibitors. Here, we developed a small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based approach to identify specific host factors that participate in the maintenance of silencing. Knockdown of HDAC1, the transcriptional repressor Daxx (a binding partner of HDAC1), or heterochromatin protein 1 gamma resulted in robust and specific GFP reporter gene reactivation. Analyses of cell clones and diverse GFP vector constructs revealed that the roles of HDAC1 and Daxx in retroviral silencing are largely independent of the integration site or the promoter controlling the silent GFP reporter gene. Previous findings from our laboratory and those of others have suggested that Daxx and HDAC proteins may act broadly as part of an antiviral response to repress viral gene transcription. Expression of presumptive viral "countermeasure" proteins that are known to inhibit Daxx or HDACs (pp71, IE2, and Gam1) resulted in the reactivation of GFP reporter gene expression. This study has identified individual host factors that maintain retroviral silencing and supports the proposal that these factors participate in an antiviral response. Furthermore, our results indicate that siRNAs can be used as specific reagents to interrupt the maintenance of epigenetic silencing.
|Structural differences in centromeric heterochromatin are spatially reconciled on fertilisation in the mouse zygote. |
Aline V Probst, Fátima Santos, Wolf Reik, Geneviève Almouzni, Wendy Dean
Chromosoma 116 403-15 2007
In mammals, paternal and maternal pronuclei undergo profound chromatin reorganisation upon fertilisation. How these events are orchestrated within centromeric regions to ensure proper chromosome segregation in the following cellular divisions is unknown. In this study, we followed the dynamic unfolding of the centromeric regions, i.e. the centric and pericentric satellite repeats, by DNA fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) during the first cell cycle up to the two-cell stage. The distinct chromatin from female and male gametes both undergo rapid remodelling and reach a zygotic organisation in which the satellites occupy restricted spatial domains surrounding the nucleolar precursor body. A transition from this zygotic to a somatic cell-like organisation takes place during the two-cell stage. Using 3D immuno-FISH, we find that, whereas maternal pericentric regions are marked with H3K9me3, H4K20me3 and HP1beta, paternal ones only showed HP1beta marking. Thus, despite different chromatin features, male and female pronuclei organise their centromeric regions in the same way within the nuclei to align chromosomes on the metaphase plate and segregate them appropriately. Our findings highlight the importance of ensuring a proper centromere function while preserving the distinction of parental genome origin during the return to totipotency in the zygote.
|Jmjd1a and Jmjd2c histone H3 Lys 9 demethylases regulate self-renewal in embryonic stem cells. |
Loh, YH; Zhang, W; Chen, X; George, J; Ng, HH
Genes & development 21 2545-57 2007
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells with the ability to self-renew indefinitely. These unique properties are controlled by genetic factors and chromatin structure. The exit from the self-renewing state is accompanied by changes in epigenetic chromatin modifications such as an induction in the silencing-associated histone H3 Lys 9 dimethylation and trimethylation (H3K9Me2/Me3) marks. Here, we show that the H3K9Me2 and H3K9Me3 demethylase genes, Jmjd1a and Jmjd2c, are positively regulated by the ES cell transcription factor Oct4. Interestingly, Jmjd1a or Jmjd2c depletion leads to ES cell differentiation, which is accompanied by a reduction in the expression of ES cell-specific genes and an induction of lineage marker genes. Jmjd1a demethylates H3K9Me2 at the promoter regions of Tcl1, Tcfcp2l1, and Zfp57 and positively regulates the expression of these pluripotency-associated genes. Jmjd2c acts as a positive regulator for Nanog, which encodes for a key transcription factor for self-renewal in ES cells. We further demonstrate that Jmjd2c is required to reverse the H3K9Me3 marks at the Nanog promoter region and consequently prevents transcriptional repressors HP1 and KAP1 from binding. Our results connect the ES cell transcription circuitry to chromatin modulation through H3K9 demethylation in pluripotent cells.Artículo Texto completo
|Major and essential role for the DNA methylation mark in mouse embryogenesis and stable association of DNMT1 with newly replicated regions. |
Takebayashi, S; Tamura, T; Matsuoka, C; Okano, M
Molecular and cellular biology 27 8243-58 2007
DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) plays an important role in the inheritance of genomic DNA methylation, which is coupled to the DNA replication process. Early embryonic lethality in DNMT1-null mutant (Dnmt1(c)) mice indicates that DNA methylation is essential for mammalian development. DNMT1, however, interacts with a number of transcriptional regulators and has a transcriptional repressor activity independent of its catalytic activity. To examine the roles of the catalytic activity of DNMT1 in vivo, we generated a Dnmt1(ps) allele that expresses a point-mutated protein that lacks catalytic activity (DNMT1-C1229S). Dnmt1(ps) mutant mice showed developmental arrest shortly after gastrulation, near-complete loss of DNA methylation, and an altered distribution of repressive chromatin markers in the nuclei; these phenotypes are quite similar to those of the Dnmt1(c) mutant. The mutant DNMT1 protein failed to associate with replication foci in Dnmt1(ps) cells. Reconstitution experiments and replication labeling in Dnmt1-/- Dnmt3a-/- Dnmt3b-/- (i.e., unmethylated) embryonic stem cells revealed that preexisting DNA methylation is a major determinant for the cell cycle-dependent localization of DNMT1. The C-terminal catalytic domain of DNMT1 inhibited its stable association with unmethylated chromatin. Our results reveal essential roles for the DNA methylation mark in mammalian development and in DNMT1 localization.
|Nuclear reprogramming: the zygotic transcription program is established through an "erase-and-rebuild" strategy. |
Sun, F; Fang, H; Li, R; Gao, T; Zheng, J; Chen, X; Ying, W; Sheng, HZ
Cell research 17 117-34 2007
Oocytes display a maternal-specific gene expression profile, which is switched to a zygotic profile when a haploid set of chromatin is passed on to the fertilized egg that develops into an embryo. The mechanism underlying this transcription reprogramming is currently unknown. Here we demonstrate that by the time when transcription is shut down in germinal vesicle oocytes, a range of general transcription factors and transcriptional regulators are dissociated from the chromatin. The global dissociation of chromatin factors (CFs) disrupts physical contacts between the chromatin and CFs and leads to erasure of the maternal transcription program at the functional level. Critical transcription factors and regulators remain separated from chromatin for a prolonged period, and become re-associated with chromatin shortly after pronuclear formation. This is followed temporally by the re-establishment of nuclear functions such as DNA replication and transcription. We propose that the maternal transcription program is erased during oogenesis to generate a relatively naïve chromatin and the zygotic transcription program is rebuilt de novo after fertilization. This process is termed as the "erase-and-rebuild" process, which is used to reset the transcription program, and most likely other nuclear processes as well, from a maternal one to that of the embryo. We further show in the accompanying paper (Gao T, et al., Cell Res 2007; 17: 135-150.) that the same strategy is also employed to reprogram transcriptional profiles in somatic cell nuclear transfer and parthenogenesis, suggesting that this model is universally applicable to all forms of transcriptional reprogramming during early embryogenesis. Displacement of CFs from chromatin also offers an explanation for the phenomenon of transcription silence during the maternal to zygotic transition.
|The chemokine growth-regulated oncogene 1 (Gro-1) links RAS signaling to the senescence of stromal fibroblasts and ovarian tumorigenesis. |
Yang, G; Rosen, DG; Zhang, Z; Bast, RC; Mills, GB; Colacino, JA; Mercado-Uribe, I; Liu, J
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103 16472-7 2006
Epithelial-stromal interactions play a critical role in tumor initiation and progression; cancer-associated stroma, but not normal stroma, is known to be tumor-promoting. However, the molecular signal used by epithelial cancer cells to reprogram normal stroma to a tumorigenic stroma is not known. Here, we present evidence to suggest that the chemokine growth-regulated oncogene 1 (Gro-1) may be one such signaling molecule. We showed that the expression of Gro-1 is activated by RAS and is vital for cell survival and the malignant transformation of ovarian epithelial cells. Surprisingly, we found that Gro-1 is a potent inducer of senescence in stromal fibroblasts and that this effect depends on functional p53. Senescent fibroblasts induced by Gro-1 can promote tumor growth whereas abrogation of senescence through immortalization results in loss of such tumor promoting activity. We also demonstrated that stromal fibroblasts adjacent to epithelial cancer cells are senescent in human ovarian cancer specimens and in heterografts from RAS-transformed human ovarian epithelial cells and ovarian cancer cells. Moreover, Gro-1 was expressed at significantly higher amounts in ovarian cancer than in normal tissues and was higher in serum samples from women with ovarian cancer than in serum from women without ovarian cancer. These findings provide strong evidence that RAS-induced Gro-1 can reprogram the stromal microenvironment through the induction of senescence of fibroblasts and thus can promote tumorigenesis. Therefore, Gro-1 may be a therapeutic target as well as a diagnostic marker in ovarian cancer.Artículo Texto completo
|A requirement for dimerization of HP1Hsalpha in suppression of breast cancer invasion. |
Norwood, LE; Moss, TJ; Margaryan, NV; Cook, SL; Wright, L; Seftor, EA; Hendrix, MJ; Kirschmann, DA; Wallrath, LL
The Journal of biological chemistry 281 18668-76 2006
The development and progression of cancer is controlled by gene expression, often regulated through chromatin packaging. Heterochromatin protein 1(Hsalpha) (HP1(Hsalpha)), one of three human HP1 family members, participates in heterochromatin formation and gene regulation. HP1(Hsalpha) possesses an amino-terminal chromodomain, which binds methylated lysine 9 of histone H3 (meK9 H3), and a carboxyl-terminal chromoshadow domain (CSD) that is required for dimerization and interaction with partner proteins. HP1(Hsalpha) is down-regulated in invasive metastatic breast cancer cells compared with poorly invasive nonmetastatic breast cancer cells. Expression of EGFP-HP1(Hsalpha) in highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cells causes a reduction in in vitro invasion, without affecting cell growth. Conversely, knock-down of HP1(Hsalpha) levels in the poorly invasive breast cancer cell line MCF-7 increased invasion, without affecting cell growth. To determine whether functions of the CSD were required for the regulation of invasion, mutant forms of HP1(Hsalpha) were expressed in MDA-MB-231 cells. A W174A mutation that disrupts interactions between HP1(Hsalpha) and PXVXL-containing partner proteins reduced invasion similar to that of the wild type protein. In contrast, an I165E mutation that disrupts dimerization of HP1(Hsalpha) did not decrease invasion. No gross changes in localization and abundance of HP1(Hsbeta), HP1(Hsgamma), and meK9 H3 were observed upon expression of wild type and mutant forms of HP1(Hsalpha) in MDA-MB-231 cells. Taken together, these data demonstrate that modulation of HP1(Hsalpha) alters the invasive potential of breast cancer cells through mechanisms requiring HP1 dimerization, but not interactions with PXVXL-containing proteins.
|Dynamic chromatin modifications characterise the first cell cycle in mouse embryos. |
Fátima Santos, Antoine H Peters, Arie P Otte, Wolf Reik, Wendy Dean
Developmental biology 280 225-36 2005
On fertilisation, gametes undergo epigenetic reorganisation and re-establish totipotency. Here, we investigate links between chromatin remodelling and asymmetric maintenance of DNA methylation in the early mouse embryo. Using antibodies for lysine specific H3 methylation reveals that the male pronucleus is negative for di- and trimethyl H3-K9 yet the female is positive for these residues. However, the male is positive for monomethyl H3-K9 and H3-K27 and these signals increase during pronuclear maturation. Non-histone chromatin proteins of the Polycomb group are found in the paternal compartment as early as sperm decondensation. However, trimethyl H3-K27 is not observed in the male until the completion of DNA replication. Heterochromatin protein 1 beta (HP1beta) is abundant in the male pronucleus, despite the absence of di- and trimethyl H3-K9, and co-localises with monomethyl H3-K9. Recent evidence identifies monomethyl H3-K9 as the preferred substrate of Suvar39h, the histone methyl transferase (HMT) responsible for heterochromatic H3-K9 trimethylation. The association of HP1beta with monomethyl H3-K9 may assist in preventing further modification of H3-K9. Association of dimethylation but not trimethylation of H3-K9 with DNA methylation, in the female pronucleus, suggests a mechanistically significant link. These differences begin to provide a chromatin based explanation for paternal-specific active DNA demethylation and maternal specific protection in the mouse.
|Chromatin of the Barr body: histone and non-histone proteins associated with or excluded from the inactive X chromosome. |
Chadwick, BP; Willard, HF
Human molecular genetics 12 2167-78 2003
The Barr body has long been recognized as the cytological manifestation of the inactive X chromosome (Xi) in interphase nuclei. Despite being known for over 50 years, relatively few components of the Barr body have been identified. In this study, we have screened over 30 histone variants, modified histones and non-histone proteins for their association with or exclusion from the Barr body. We demonstrate that, similar to the histone variant macroH2A, heterochromatin protein-1 (HP1), histone H1 and the high mobility group protein HMG-I/Y are elevated at the territory of the Xi in interphase in human cell lines, but only when the Xi chromatin is heteropycnotic, implicating each as a component of the Barr body. Surprisingly, however, virtually all other candidate proteins involved in establishing heterochromatin and gene silencing are notably absent from the Barr body despite being localized generally elsewhere throughout the nucleus, indicating that the Barr body represents a discrete subnuclear compartment that is not freely accessible to most chromatin proteins. A similar dichotomous pattern of association or exclusion describes the spatial relationship of a number of specific histone methylation patterns in relation to the Barr body. Notably, though, several methylated forms of histone H3 that are deficient in Xi chromatin generally are present at a region near the macrosatellite repeat DXZ4, as are the chromatin proteins CTCF and SAP30, indicating a distinctive chromatin state in this region of the Xi. Taken together, our data imply that the Xi adopts a distinct chromatin configuration in interphase nuclei and are consistent with a mechanism by which HP1, through histone H3 lysine-9 methylation, recognizes and assists in maintaining heterochromatin and gene silencing at the human Xi.
|Anti-Heterochromatin Protein-1 beta, clone 1MOD-1A9 - Data Sheet|