Tabla espec. clave
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Ch, Ma, Sqd, Su, H, M, R||ELISA, ICC, IHC, IP, FUNC, RIA, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified mouse monoclonal IgG2b in buffer containing 0.02 M Phosphate buffer, 0.25 M NaCl with 0.1% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 6 months at 2-8°C in undiluted aliquots from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
Ficha datos de seguridad (MSDS)
Referencias bibliográficas | 28 Disponible | Ver todas las referencias
|Visión general referencias||Aplicación||Pub Med ID|
|A method for multiprotein assembly in cells reveals independent action of kinesins in complex. |
Norris, SR; Soppina, V; Dizaji, AS; Schimert, KI; Sept, D; Cai, D; Sivaramakrishnan, S; Verhey, KJ
The Journal of cell biology 207 393-406 2014
Teams of processive molecular motors are critical for intracellular transport and organization, yet coordination between motors remains poorly understood. Here, we develop a system using protein components to generate assemblies of defined spacing and composition inside cells. This system is applicable to studying macromolecular complexes in the context of cell signaling, motility, and intracellular trafficking. We use the system to study the emergent behavior of kinesin motors in teams. We find that two kinesin motors in complex act independently (do not help or hinder each other) and can alternate their activities. For complexes containing a slow kinesin-1 and fast kinesin-3 motor, the slow motor dominates motility in vitro but the fast motor can dominate on certain subpopulations of microtubules in cells. Both motors showed dynamic interactions with the complex, suggesting that motor-cargo linkages are sensitive to forces applied by the motors. We conclude that kinesin motors in complex act independently in a manner regulated by the microtubule track.
|Recycling of kinesin-1 motors by diffusion after transport. |
Blasius, TL; Reed, N; Slepchenko, BM; Verhey, KJ
PloS one 8 e76081 2013
Kinesin motors drive the long-distance anterograde transport of cellular components along microtubule tracks. Kinesin-dependent transport plays a critical role in neurogenesis and neuronal function due to the large distance separating the soma and nerve terminal. The fate of kinesin motors after delivery of their cargoes is unknown but has been postulated to involve degradation at the nerve terminal, recycling via retrograde motors, and/or recycling via diffusion. We set out to test these models concerning the fate of kinesin-1 motors after completion of transport in neuronal cells. We find that kinesin-1 motors are neither degraded nor returned by retrograde motors. By combining mathematical modeling and experimental analysis, we propose a model in which the distribution and recycling of kinesin-1 motors fits a "loose bucket brigade" where individual motors alter between periods of active transport and free diffusion within neuronal processes. These results suggest that individual kinesin-1 motors are utilized for multiple rounds of transport.
|Opposing microtubule motors drive robust nuclear dynamics in developing muscle cells. |
Wilson, MH; Holzbaur, EL
Journal of cell science 125 4158-69 2012
Dynamic interactions with the cytoskeleton drive the movement and positioning of nuclei in many cell types. During muscle cell development, myoblasts fuse to form syncytial myofibers with nuclei positioned regularly along the length of the cell. Nuclear translocation in developing myotubes requires microtubules, but the mechanisms involved have not been elucidated. We find that as nuclei actively translocate through the cell, they rotate in three dimensions. The nuclear envelope, nucleoli and chromocenters within the nucleus rotate together as a unit. Both translocation and rotation require an intact microtubule cytoskeleton, which forms a dynamic bipolar network around nuclei. The plus- and minus-end-directed microtubule motor proteins, kinesin-1 and dynein, localize to the nuclear envelope in myotubes. Kinesin-1 localization is mediated at least in part by interaction with klarsicht/ANC-1/Syne homology (KASH) proteins. Depletion of kinesin-1 abolishes nuclear rotation and significantly inhibits nuclear translocation, resulting in the abnormal aggregation of nuclei at the midline of the myotube. Dynein depletion also inhibits nuclear dynamics, but to a lesser extent, leading to altered spacing between adjacent nuclei. Thus, oppositely directed motors acting from the surface of the nucleus drive nuclear motility in myotubes. The variable dynamics observed for individual nuclei within a single myotube are likely to result from the stochastic activity of competing motors interacting with a complex bipolar microtubule cytoskeleton that is also continuously remodeled as the nuclei move. The three-dimensional rotation of myotube nuclei may facilitate their motility through the complex and crowded cellular environment of the developing muscle cell, allowing for proper myonuclear positioning.
|RNA interference of Marlin-1/Jakmip1 results in abnormal morphogenesis and migration of cortical pyramidal neurons. |
Ren Vidal,Patricio Fuentes,Jos Valenzuela,Carlos P Alvarado-Diaz,Omar A Ram,Manuel Kukuljan,Andr Couve
Molecular and cellular neurosciences 51 2012
The formation of the nervous systems requires processes that coordinate proliferation, differentiation and migration of neuronal cells, which extend axons, generate dendritic branching and establish synaptic connections during development. The structural organization and dynamic remodeling of the cytoskeleton and its association to the secretory pathway are critical determinants of cell morphogenesis and migration. Marlin-1 (Jakmip1) is a microtubule-associated protein predominantly expressed in neurons and lymphoid cells. Marlin-1 participates in polarized secretion in lymphocytes, but its functional association with the neuronal cytoskeleton and its contribution to brain development have not been explored. Combining in vitro and in vivo approaches we show that Marlin-1 contributes to the establishment of neuronal morphology. Marlin-1 associates to the cytoskeleton in neurites, is required for the maintenance of an intact Golgi apparatus and its depletion produces the down-regulation of kinesin-1, a plus-end directed molecular motor with a central function in morphogenesis and migration. RNA interference of Marlin-1 in vivo results in abnormal migration of newborn pyramidal neurons during the formation of the cortex. Our results support the involvement of Marlin-1 in the acquisition of the complex architecture and migration of pyramidal neurons, two fundamental processes for the laminar layering of the cortex.
|Distinct mechanisms of axonal globule formation in mice expressing human wild type α-synuclein or dementia with Lewy bodies-linked P123H β-synuclein. |
Sekigawa, A; Fujita, M; Sekiyama, K; Takamatsu, Y; Hatano, T; Rockenstein, E; La Spada, AR; Masliah, E; Hashimoto, M
Molecular brain 5 34 2012
Axonopathy is critical in the early pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Axonal swellings such as globules and spheroids are a distinct feature of axonopathy and our recent study showed that transgenic (tg) mice expressing DLB-linked P123H β-synuclein (P123H βS) were characterized by P123H βS-immunoreactive axonal swellings (P123H βS-globules). Therefore, the objectives of this study were to evaluate α-synuclein (αS)-immunoreactive axonal swellings (αS-globules) in the brains of tg mice expressing human wild-type αS and to compare them with the globules in P123H βS tg mice.In αS tg mice, αS-globules were formed in an age-dependent manner in various brain regions, including the thalamus and basal ganglia. These globules were composed of autophagosome-like membranous structures and were reminiscent of P123H βS-globules in P123H βS tg mice. In the αS-globules, frequent clustering and deformation of mitochondria were observed. These changes were associated with oxidative stress, based on staining of nitrated αS and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE). In accord with the absence of mitochondria in the P123H βS-globules, staining of nitrated αS and 4-HNE in these globules was weaker than that for αS-globules. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), the PARK8 of familial PD, was detected exclusively in αS-globules, suggesting a specific role of this molecule in these globules.Lysosomal pathology was similarly observed for both αS- and P123H βS-globules, while oxidative stress was associated with the αS-globules, and to a lesser extent with the P123H βS-globules. Other pathologies, such as mitochondrial alteration and LRRK2 accumulation, were exclusively detected for αS-globules. Collectively, both αS- and P123H βS-globules were formed through similar but distinct pathogenic mechanisms. Our findings suggest that synuclein family members might contribute to diverse axonal pathologies.
|A non-mammalian type opsin 5 functions dually in the photoreceptive and non-photoreceptive organs of birds. |
Ohuchi, H; Yamashita, T; Tomonari, S; Fujita-Yanagibayashi, S; Sakai, K; Noji, S; Shichida, Y
PloS one 7 e31534 2012
A mammalian type opsin 5 (neuropsin) is a recently identified ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive pigment of the retina and other photosensitive organs in birds. Two other opsin 5-related molecules have been found in the genomes of non-mammalian vertebrates. However, their functions have not been examined as yet. Here, we identify the molecular properties of a second avian opsin 5, cOpn5L2 (chicken opsin 5-like 2), and its localization in the post-hatch chicken. Spectrophotometric analysis and radionucleotide-binding assay have revealed that cOpn5L2 is a UV-sensitive bistable pigment that couples with the Gi subtype of guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein). As a bistable pigment, it also shows the direct binding ability to agonist all-trans-retinal to activate G protein. The absorption maxima of UV-light-absorbing and visible light-absorbing forms were 350 and 521 nm, respectively. Expression analysis showed relatively high expression of cOpn5L2 mRNA in the adrenal gland, which is not photoreceptive but an endocrine organ, while lower expression was found in the brain and retina. At the protein level, cOpn5L2 immunoreactive cells were present in the chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland. In the brain, cOpn5L2 immunoreactive cells were found in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus, known for photoreceptive deep brain areas. In the retina, cOpn5L2 protein was localized to subsets of cells in the ganglion cell layer and the inner nuclear layer. These results suggest that the non-mammalian type opsin 5 (Opn5L2) functions as a second UV sensor in the photoreceptive organs, while it might function as chemosensor using its direct binding ability to agonist all-trans-retinal in non-photoreceptive organs such as the adrenal gland of birds.
|In vitro motility of liver connexin vesicles along microtubules utilizes kinesin motors. |
Fort, AG; Murray, JW; Dandachi, N; Davidson, MW; Dermietzel, R; Wolkoff, AW; Spray, DC
The Journal of biological chemistry 286 22875-85 2011
Trafficking of the proteins that form gap junctions (connexins) from the site of synthesis to the junctional domain appears to require cytoskeletal delivery mechanisms. Although many cell types exhibit specific delivery of connexins to polarized cell sites, such as connexin32 (Cx32) gap junctions specifically localized to basolateral membrane domains of hepatocytes, the precise roles of actin- and tubulin-based systems remain unclear. We have observed fluorescently tagged Cx32 trafficking linearly at speeds averaging 0.25 μm/s in a polarized hepatocyte cell line (WIF-B9), which is abolished by 50 μM of the microtubule-disrupting agent nocodazole. To explore the involvement of cytoskeletal components in the delivery of connexins, we have used a preparation of isolated Cx32-containing vesicles from rat hepatocytes and assayed their ATP-driven motility along stabilized rhodamine-labeled microtubules in vitro. These assays revealed the presence of Cx32 and kinesin motor proteins in the same vesicles. The addition of 50 μM ATP stimulated vesicle motility along linear microtubule tracks with velocities of 0.4-0.5 μm/s, which was inhibited with 1 mM of the kinesin inhibitor AMP-PNP (adenylyl-imidodiphosphate) and by anti-kinesin antibody but only minimally affected by 5 μM vanadate, a dynein inhibitor, or by anti-dynein antibody. These studies provide evidence that Cx32 can be transported intracellularly along microtubules and presumably to junctional domains in cells and highlight an important role of kinesin motor proteins in microtubule-dependent motility of Cx32.
|KASH protein Syne-2/Nesprin-2 and SUN proteins SUN1/2 mediate nuclear migration during mammalian retinal development. |
Yu, J; Lei, K; Zhou, M; Craft, CM; Xu, G; Xu, T; Zhuang, Y; Xu, R; Han, M
Human molecular genetics 20 1061-73 2011
Nuclear movement relative to cell bodies is a fundamental process during certain aspects of mammalian retinal development. During the generation of photoreceptor cells in the cell division cycle, the nuclei of progenitors oscillate between the apical and basal surfaces of the neuroblastic layer (NBL). This process is termed interkinetic nuclear migration (INM). Furthermore, newly formed photoreceptor cells migrate and form the outer nuclear layer (ONL). In the current study, we demonstrated that a KASH domain-containing protein, Syne-2/Nesprin-2, as well as SUN domain-containing proteins, SUN1 and SUN2, play critical roles during INM and photoreceptor cell migration in the mouse retina. A deletion mutation of Syne-2/Nesprin-2 or double mutations of Sun1 and Sun2 caused severe reduction of the thickness of the ONL, mislocalization of photoreceptor nuclei and profound electrophysiological dysfunction of the retina characterized by a reduction of a- and b-wave amplitudes. We also provide evidence that Syne-2/Nesprin-2 forms complexes with either SUN1 or SUN2 at the nuclear envelope to connect the nucleus with dynein/dynactin and kinesin molecular motors during the nuclear migrations in the retina. These key retinal developmental signaling results will advance our understanding of the mechanism of nuclear migration in the mammalian retina.Artículo Texto completo
|Effects of ALS-related SOD1 mutants on dynein- and KIF5-mediated retrograde and anterograde axonal transport. |
Ping Shi,Anna-Lena Ström,Jozsef Gal,Haining Zhu
Biochimica et biophysica acta 1802 2010
Transport of material and signals between extensive neuronal processes and the cell body is essential to neuronal physiology and survival. Slowing of axonal transport has been shown to occur before the onset of symptoms in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We have previously shown that several familial ALS-linked copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) mutants (A4V, G85R, and G93A) interacted and colocalized with the retrograde dynein-dynactin motor complex in cultured cells and affected tissues of ALS mice. We also found that the interaction between mutant SOD1 and the dynein motor played a critical role in the formation of large inclusions containing mutant SOD1. In this study, we showed that, in contrast to the dynein situation, mutant SOD1 did not interact with anterograde transport motors of the kinesin-1 family (KIF5A, B and C). Using dynein and kinesin accumulation at the sciatic nerve ligation sites as a surrogate measurement of axonal transport, we also showed that dynein mediated retrograde transport was slower in G93A than in WT mice at an early presymptomatic stage. While no decrease in KIF5A-mediated anterograde transport was detected, the slowing of anterograde transport of dynein heavy chain as a cargo was observed in the presymptomatic G93A mice. The results from this study along with other recently published work support that mutant SOD1 might only interact with and interfere with some kinesin members, which, in turn, could result in the impairment of a selective subset of cargos. Although it remains to be further investigated how mutant SOD1 affects different axonal transport motor proteins and various cargos, it is evident that mutant SOD1 can induce defects in axonal transport, which, subsequently, contribute to the propagation of toxic effects and ultimately motor neuron death in ALS.Artículo Texto completo
|A switch in retrograde signaling from survival to stress in rapid-onset neurodegeneration. |
Perlson, E; Jeong, GB; Ross, JL; Dixit, R; Wallace, KE; Kalb, RG; Holzbaur, EL
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 29 9903-17 2009
Retrograde axonal transport of cellular signals driven by dynein is vital for neuronal survival. Mouse models with defects in the retrograde transport machinery, including the Loa mouse (point mutation in dynein) and the Tg(dynamitin) mouse (overexpression of dynamitin), exhibit mild neurodegenerative disease. Transport defects have also been observed in more rapidly progressive neurodegeneration, such as that observed in the SOD1(G93A) transgenic mouse model for familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here, we test the hypothesis that alterations in retrograde signaling lead to neurodegeneration. In vivo, in vitro, and live-cell imaging motility assays show misregulation of transport and inhibition of retrograde signaling in the SOD1(G93A) model. However, similar inhibition is also seen in the Loa and Tg(dynamitin) mouse models. Thus, slowing of retrograde signaling leads only to mild degeneration and cannot explain ALS etiology. To further pursue this question, we used a proteomics approach to investigate dynein-associated retrograde signaling. These data indicate a significant decrease in retrograde survival factors, including P-Trk (phospho-Trk) and P-Erk1/2, and an increase in retrograde stress factor signaling, including P-JNK (phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase), caspase-8, and p75(NTR) cleavage fragment in the SOD1(G93A) model; similar changes are not seen in the Loa mouse. Cocultures of motor neurons and glia expressing mutant SOD1 (mSOD1) in compartmentalized chambers indicate that inhibition of retrograde stress signaling is sufficient to block activation of cellular stress pathways and to rescue motor neurons from mSOD1-induced toxicity. Hence, a shift from survival-promoting to death-promoting retrograde signaling may be key to the rapid onset of neurodegeneration seen in ALS.Artículo Texto completo
|Mutant SOD1 impairs axonal transport of choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholine release by sequestering KAP3. |
Tateno, M; Kato, S; Sakurai, T; Nukina, N; Takahashi, R; Araki, T
Human molecular genetics 18 942-55 2009
Mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 (sod1) gene cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS), likely due to the toxic properties of misfolded mutant SOD1 protein. Here we demonstrated that, starting from the pre-onset stage of FALS, misfolded SOD1 species associates specifically with kinesin-associated protein 3 (KAP3) in the ventral white matter of SOD1(G93A)-transgenic mouse spinal cord. KAP3 is a kinesin-2 subunit responsible for binding to cargos including choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). Motor axons in SOD1(G93A)-Tg mice also showed a reduction in ChAT transport from the pre-onset stage. By employing a novel FALS modeling system using NG108-15 cells, we showed that microtubule-dependent release of acetylcholine was significantly impaired by misfolded SOD1 species. Furthermore, such impairment was able to be normalized by KAP3 overexpression. KAP3 was incorporated into SOD1 aggregates in human FALS cases as well. These results suggest that KAP3 sequestration by misfolded SOD1 species and the resultant inhibition of ChAT transport play a role in the dysfunction of ALS.
|Enhanced sensitivity of striatal neurons to axonal transport defects induced by mutant huntingtin. |
Her, LS; Goldstein, LS
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 28 13662-72 2008
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease linked to a polyQ (polyglutamine) expansion in the huntingtin protein. Although general brain atrophy is found in HD patients, the striatum is the most severely affected region. Loss or mutant forms of huntingtin were reported to disrupt fast axonal transport in Drosophila, squid, and mice. However, previous work did not resolve whether mutant huntingtin affects global axonal transport or only a subset of cargoes, nor did it resolve whether striatal neurons are preferentially sensitive to huntingtin-mediated defects. We used amyloid precursor protein (APP)-yellow fluorescent protein and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-mCherry fusion proteins as markers for fast axonal transport when huntingtin is altered. We found that movement of APP and BDNF is impaired in striatal and hippocampal, but not cortical, neurons from presymptomatic homozygous mutant mice carrying 150Q huntingtin knock-in mutations. In addition, loss of huntingtin disrupts APP axonal transport, whereas overexpression of wild-type, but not mutant, huntingtin enhances APP transport in all three types of neurons tested. These data suggest that a loss of wild-type huntingtin function in fast axonal transport plays important roles in the development of cell-type-specific defects in HD.
|Phosphorylation of tau regulates its axonal transport by controlling its binding to kinesin. |
Cuchillo-Ibanez, I; Seereeram, A; Byers, HL; Leung, KY; Ward, MA; Anderton, BH; Hanger, DP
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 22 3186-95 2008
Defective axonal transport has been proposed as an underlying mechanism that may give rise to neurodegeneration. We investigated the effect of phosphorylation on the axonal transport of tau, a neuronal protein that stabilizes microtubules and is hyperphosphorylated and mislocalized in Alzheimer's disease. We report here that specific inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) reduces tau phosphorylation and significantly decreases the overall rate of axonal transport of tau in rat cortical neurons. Tau mutants, with serine/threonine targets of GSK-3 mutated to glutamate to mimic a permanent state of phosphorylation, were transported at a significantly increased rate compared to wild-type tau. Conversely, tau mutants, in which alanine replaced serine/threonine to mimic permanent dephosphorylation, were transported at a decreased rate compared to wild-type tau. We also found that tau interacts with the light chain of kinesin-1 and that this is dependent on the phosphorylation state of tau. Tau phosphorylation by GSK-3 increased binding, and dephosphorylated tau exhibited a reduced association with kinesin-1. We conclude that GSK-3 phosphorylation of tau modulates its axonal transport by regulating binding to kinesin-1. Hyperphosphorylated tau in Alzheimer's disease appearing first in distal portions of axons may result from aberrant axonal transport of phosphorylated tau reported here.
|Conventional kinesin holoenzymes are composed of heavy and light chain homodimers. |
DeBoer, Scott R, et al.
Biochemistry, 47: 4535-43 (2008) 2008
Conventional kinesin is a major microtubule-based motor protein responsible for anterograde transport of various membrane-bounded organelles (MBO) along axons. Structurally, this molecular motor protein is a tetrameric complex composed of two heavy (kinesin-1) chains and two light chain (KLC) subunits. The products of three kinesin-1 (kinesin-1A, -1B, and -1C, formerly KIF5A, -B, and -C) and two KLC (KLC1, KLC2) genes are expressed in mammalian nervous tissue, but the functional significance of this subunit heterogeneity remains unknown. In this work, we examine all possible combinations among conventional kinesin subunits in brain tissue. In sharp contrast with previous reports, immunoprecipitation experiments here demonstrate that conventional kinesin holoenzymes are formed of kinesin-1 homodimers. Similar experiments confirmed previous findings of KLC homodimerization. Additionally, no specificity was found in the interaction between kinesin-1s and KLCs, suggesting the existence of six variant forms of conventional kinesin, as defined by their gene product composition. Subcellular fractionation studies indicate that such variants associate with biochemically different MBOs and further suggest a role of kinesin-1s in the targeting of conventional kinesin holoenzymes to specific MBO cargoes. Taken together, our data address the combination of subunits that characterize endogenous conventional kinesin. Findings on the composition and subunit organization of conventional kinesin as described here provide a molecular basis for the regulation of axonal transport and delivery of selected MBOs to discrete subcellular locations.
|Processive bidirectional motion of dynein-dynactin complexes in vitro. |
Jennifer L Ross, Karen Wallace, Henry Shuman, Yale E Goldman, Erika L F Holzbaur
Nature cell biology 8 562-70 2006
Cytoplasmic dynein is the primary molecular motor responsible for transport of vesicles, organelles, proteins and RNA cargoes from the periphery of the cell towards the nucleus along the microtubule cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells. Dynactin, a large multi-subunit activator of dynein, docks cargo to the motor and may enhance dynein processivity. Here, we show that individual fluorescently labelled dynein-dynactin complexes exhibit bidirectional and processive motility towards both the plus and minus ends of microtubules. The dependence of this activity on substrate ATP concentration, nucleotide analogues and inhibitors suggests that bidirectional motility is an active energy-transduction property of dynein-dynactin motor mechano-chemistry. The unique motility characteristics observed may reflect the flexibility of the dynein structure that leads to an enhanced ability to navigate around obstacles in the cell.
|Calsyntenin-1 docks vesicular cargo to kinesin-1. |
Konecna, A; Frischknecht, R; Kinter, J; Ludwig, A; Steuble, M; Meskenaite, V; Indermühle, M; Engel, M; Cen, C; Mateos, JM; Streit, P; Sonderegger, P
Molecular biology of the cell 17 3651-63 2006
We identified a direct interaction between the neuronal transmembrane protein calsyntenin-1 and the light chain of Kinesin-1 (KLC1). GST pulldowns demonstrated that two highly conserved segments in the cytoplasmic domain of calsyntenin-1 mediate binding to the tetratricopeptide repeats of KLC1. A complex containing calsyntenin-1 and the Kinesin-1 motor was isolated from developing mouse brain and immunoelectron microscopy located calsyntenin-1 in association with tubulovesicular organelles in axonal fiber tracts. In primary neuronal cultures, calsyntenin-1-containing organelles were aligned along microtubules and partially colocalized with Kinesin-1. Using live imaging, we showed that these organelles are transported along axons with a velocity and processivity typical for fast axonal transport. Point mutations in the two kinesin-binding segments of calsyntenin-1 significantly reduced binding to KLC1 in vitro, and vesicles bearing mutated calsyntenin-1 exhibited a markedly altered anterograde axonal transport. In summary, our results indicate that calsyntenin-1 links a certain type of vesicular and tubulovesicular organelles to the Kinesin-1 motor.
|Differential roles of microtubule assembly and sliding in proplatelet formation by megakaryocytes. |
Patel, SR; Richardson, JL; Schulze, H; Kahle, E; Galjart, N; Drabek, K; Shivdasani, RA; Hartwig, JH; Italiano, JE
Blood 106 4076-85 2005
Megakaryocytes are terminally differentiated cells that, in their final hours, convert their cytoplasm into long, branched proplatelets, which remodel into blood platelets. Proplatelets elongate at an average rate of 0.85 microm/min in a microtubule-dependent process. Addition of rhodamine-tubulin to permeabilized proplatelets, immunofluorescence microscopy of the microtubule plus-end marker end-binding protein 3 (EB3), and fluorescence time-lapse microscopy of EB3-green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing megakaryocytes reveal that microtubules, organized as bipolar arrays, continuously polymerize throughout the proplatelet. In immature megakaryocytes lacking proplatelets, microtubule plus-ends initiate and grow by centrosomal nucleation at rates of 8.9 to 12.3 microm/min. In contrast, plus-end growth rates of microtubules within proplatelets are highly variable (1.5-23.5 microm/min) and are both slower and faster than those seen in immature cells. Despite the continuous assembly of microtubules, proplatelets continue to elongate when net microtubule assembly is arrested. One alternative mechanism for force generation is microtubule sliding. Triton X-100-permeabilized proplatelets containing dynein and its regulatory complex, dynactin, but not kinesin, elongate with the addition of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) at a rate of 0.65 microm/min. Retroviral expression in megakaryocytes of dynamitin (p50), which disrupts dynactin-dynein function, inhibits proplatelet elongation. We conclude that while continuous polymerization of microtubules is necessary to support the enlarging proplatelet mass, the sliding of overlapping microtubules is a vital component of proplatelet elongation.Artículo Texto completo
|c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase-interacting protein-3 facilitates phosphorylation and controls localization of amyloid-beta precursor protein. |
Muresan, Z; Muresan, V
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 25 3741-51 2005
Abnormal phosphorylation of amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP) is a pathologic feature of Alzheimer's disease. To begin to understand the mechanism of APP phosphorylation, we studied this process in differentiating neurons under normal physiological conditions. We found that c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), not cyclin-dependent kinase 5, is required for APP phosphorylation, leading to localized accumulation of phosphorylated APP (pAPP) in neurites. We show that JNK-interacting protein-3 (JIP-3), a JNK scaffolding protein that does not bind APP, selectively increases APP phosphorylation, accumulation of pAPP into processes, and stimulates process extension in both neurons and COS-1 cells. Downregulation of JIP-3 by small interfering RNA impairs neurite extension and reduces the amount of localized pAPP. Finally, whereas stress-activated JNK generates pAPP only in the cell body, concomitant expression of JIP-3 restores pAPP accumulation into neurites. Thus, APP phosphorylation, transport of the generated pAPP into neurites, and neurite extension are interdependent processes regulated by JIP-3/JNK, in a pathway distinct from stress-activated JNK signaling.
|BACE overexpression alters the subcellular processing of APP and inhibits Abeta deposition in vivo. |
Edward B Lee, Bin Zhang, Kangning Liu, Eric A Greenbaum, Robert W Doms, John Q Trojanowski, Virginia M-Y Lee
The Journal of cell biology 168 291-302 2005
Introducing mutations within the amyloid precursor protein (APP) that affect beta- and gamma-secretase cleavages results in amyloid plaque formation in vivo. However, the relationship between beta-amyloid deposition and the subcellular site of Abeta production is unknown. To determine the effect of increasing beta-secretase (BACE) activity on Abeta deposition, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing human BACE. Although modest overexpression enhanced amyloid deposition, high BACE overexpression inhibited amyloid formation despite increased beta-cleavage of APP. However, high BACE expression shifted the subcellular location of APP cleavage to the neuronal perikarya early in the secretory pathway. These results suggest that the production, clearance, and aggregation of Abeta peptides are highly dependent on the specific neuronal subcellular domain wherein Abeta is generated and highlight the importance of perikaryal versus axonal APP proteolysis in the development of Abeta amyloid pathology in Alzheimer's disease.Artículo Texto completo
|Molecular motors implicated in the axonal transport of tau and alpha-synuclein. |
Utton, MA; Noble, WJ; Hill, JE; Anderton, BH; Hanger, DP
Journal of cell science 118 4645-54 2005
Tau and alpha-synuclein are both proteins implicated in the pathology of neurodegenerative disease. Here we have investigated the mechanisms of axonal transport of tau and alpha-synuclein, because failure of axonal transport has been implicated in the development of several neurodegenerative disorders. We found that the transport of both of these proteins depend on an intact microtubule- but not actin-cytoskeleton, and that tau and alpha-synuclein both move at overall slow rates of transport. We used time-lapse video microscopy to obtain images of live neurons that had been transfected with plasmids expressing proteins tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein. We found that particulate structures containing tau or alpha-synuclein travel rapidly when moving along axons but spend the majority of the time paused, and these structures have similar characteristics to those previously observed for neurofilaments. The motile particles containing tau or alpha-synuclein colocalise with the fast-transporting molecular motor kinesin-1 in neurons. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that tau and alpha-synuclein are each associated with complexes containing kinesin-1, whereas only alpha-synuclein appears to interact with dynein-containing complexes. In vitro glutathione S-transferase-binding assays using rat brain homogenate or recombinant protein as bait reveals a direct interaction of kinesin-1 light chains 1 and 2 with tau, but not with alpha-synuclein. Our findings suggest that the axonal transport of tau occurs via a mechanism utilising fast transport motors, including the kinesin family of proteins, and that alpha-synuclein transport in neurons may involve both kinesin and dynein motor proteins.
|The early onset dystonia protein torsinA interacs with kinesin light chain 1 |
Kamm, C. et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 279(19):19882-19892 (2004) 2004
|Facilitation of dendritic mRNA transport by CPEB. |
Huang, YS; Carson, JH; Barbarese, E; Richter, JD
Genes & development 17 638-53 2003
In neurons, the proteins derived from mRNAs localized in dendrites have been implicated in synaptic plasticity. The cytoplasmic polyadenylation element (CPE), a cis element in the 3'-UTRs of specific dendritic mRNAs, promotes cytoplasmic polyadenylation-induced translation in response to synaptic stimulation. Here, we demonstrate that the CPE and its binding protein CPEB facilitate mRNA transport to dendrites. In rat hippocampal neurons infected with recombinant viruses, the CPE is sufficient to direct a reporter RNA into dendrites. CPEB-GFP protein forms RNA-containing particles that are transported into dendrites in a microtubule-dependent fashion at an average velocity of 4-8 microm/min. Such particles also contain maskin, a CPEB-associated factor that mediates cap-dependent translational repression of CPE-containing mRNA, and the molecular motors dynein and kinesin. Overexpression of CPEB in neurons promotes the transport of CPE-containing endogenous MAP2 mRNA to dendrites, whereas overexpression of a mutant CPEB that is defective for interaction with molecular motors inhibits this transport. In neurons derived from CPEB knockout mice, the dendritic transport of a CPE-containing reporter RNA is reduced. These results suggest a mechanism whereby CPE-containing mRNAs can be transported to dendrites in a translationally dormant form, but activated at synapses in response to NMDA receptor stimulation.Artículo Texto completo
|Bicaudal D induces selective dynein-mediated microtubule minus end-directed transport. |
Casper C Hoogenraad, Phebe Wulf, Natalia Schiefermeier, Tatiana Stepanova, Niels Galjart, J Victor Small, Frank Grosveld, Chris I de Zeeuw, Anna Akhmanova
The EMBO journal 22 6004-15 2003
Bicaudal D is an evolutionarily conserved protein, which is involved in dynein-mediated motility both in Drosophila and in mammals. Here we report that the N-terminal portion of human Bicaudal D2 (BICD2) is capable of inducing microtubule minus end-directed movement independently of the molecular context. This characteristic offers a new tool to exploit the relocalization of different cellular components by using appropriate targeting motifs. Here, we use the BICD2 N-terminal domain as a chimera with mitochondria and peroxisome-anchoring sequences to demonstrate the rapid dynein-mediated transport of selected organelles. Surprisingly, unlike other cytoplasmic dynein-mediated processes, this transport shows very low sensitivity to overexpression of the dynactin subunit dynamitin. The dynein-recruiting activity of the BICD2 N-terminal domain is reduced within the full-length molecule, indicating that the C-terminal part of the protein might regulate the interaction between BICD2 and the motor complex. Our findings provide a novel model system for dissection of the molecular mechanism of dynein motility.Artículo Texto completo
|Perinuclear localization of huntingtin as a consequence of its binding to microtubules through an interaction with beta-tubulin: relevance to Huntington's disease. |
Hoffner, Guylaine, et al.
J. Cell. Sci., 115: 941-8 (2002) 2002
Huntington's disease results from an expansion of a series of glutamine repeats in the protein huntingtin. We have discovered from immunopurification studies that huntingtin combines specifically with the beta subunit of tubulin. This binding explains why huntingtin can be shown on assembled microtubules by electron microscopy. Immunostaining shows that most of the huntingtin in the cytoplasm is associated with microtubules. Huntingtin is particularly abundant in the perinuclear region, where it is also associated with microtubules and in the centrosomal region, where it co-localizes with gamma-tubulin. In Huntington's disease, inclusions are often nuclear or perinuclear. Since the perinuclear concentration of huntingtin does not depend on the number of its glutamine repeats, we propose that inclusions are found in perinuclear and intranuclear locations because the beta-tubulin binding property of huntingtin brings it to the perinuclear region, from which it readily gains access to the nucleus. The mutational glutamine expansion then promotes insolubility and results in an inclusion.
|Androgen receptor with elongated polyglutamine tract forms aggregates that alter axonal trafficking and mitochondrial distribution in motor neuronal processes. |
Piccioni, F; Pinton, P; Simeoni, S; Pozzi, P; Fascio, U; Vismara, G; Martini, L; Rizzuto, R; Poletti, A
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 16 1418-20 2002
The CAG/polyglutamine (polyGln)-related diseases include nine different members that together form the most common class of inherited neurodegenerative disorders; neurodegeneration is linked to the same type of mutation, found in unrelated genes, consisting of an abnormal expansion of a polyGln tract normally present in the wild-type proteins. Nuclear, cytoplasmic, or neuropil aggregates are detectable in CAG/polyGln-related diseases, but their role is still debated. Alteration of the androgen receptor (AR), one of these proteins, has been linked to spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, an X-linked recessive disease characterized by motoneuronal death. By using immortalized motoneuronal cells (the neuroblastoma-spinal cord cell line NSC34), we analyzed neuropil aggregate formation and toxicity: green fluorescent protein-tagged wild-type or mutated ARs were cotransfected into NSC34 cells with a blue fluorescent protein tagged to mitochondria. Altered mitochondrial distribution was observed in neuronal processes containing aggregates; occasionally, neuropil aggregates and mitochondrial concentration corresponded to axonal swelling. Neuropil aggregates also impaired the distribution of the motor protein kinesin. These data suggest that neuropil aggregates may physically alter neurite transport and thus deprive neuronal processes of factors or components that are important for axonal and dendritic functions. The soma may then be affected, leading to neuronal dysfunctions and possibly to cell death.
|A monoclonal antibody against kinesin inhibits both anterograde and retrograde fast axonal transport in squid axoplasm. |
Brady, S T, et al.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 87: 1061-5 (1990) 1990
One of our monoclonal antibodies against the heavy chain of bovine kinesin (H2) also recognized the heavy chain of squid kinesin. The immunofluorescence pattern of H2 in axoplasm was similar to that seen in mammalian cells with antibodies specific for kinesin light and heavy chains, indicating that squid kinesin is also concentrated on membrane-bounded organelles. Although kinesin is assumed to be a motor for translocation of membrane-bounded organelles in fast axonal transport, direct evidence has been lacking. Perfusion of axoplasm with purified H2 at 0.1-0.4 mg/ml resulted in a profound inhibition of both the rates and number of organelles moving in anterograde and retrograde directions in the interior of the axoplasm, and comparable inhibition was noted in bidirectional movement along individual microtubules at the periphery. Maximal inhibition developed over 30-60 min. Perfusion with higher concentrations of H2 (greater than 1 mg of IgG per ml) were less effective, whereas perfusion with 0.04 mg of H2 per ml resulted in minimal inhibition. Movement of membrane-bounded organelles after perfusion with comparable levels of irrelevant mouse IgG (0.04 to greater than 1 mg/ml) were not distinguishable from perfusion with buffer controls. Inhibition of fast axonal transport by an antibody specific for kinesin provides direct evidence that kinesin is involved in the translocation of membrane-bounded organelles in axons. Moreover, the inhibition of bidirectional axonal transport by H2 raises the possibility that kinesin may play some role in both anterograde and retrograde axonal transport.
|Submolecular domains of bovine brain kinesin identified by electron microscopy and monoclonal antibody decoration. |
Hirokawa, N, et al.
Cell, 56: 867-78 (1989) 1989
Kinesin is a microtubule-activated ATPase thought to transport membrane-bounded organelles along MTs. To illuminate the structural basis for this function, EM was used to locate submolecular domains on bovine brain kinesin. Rotary shadowed kinesin appeared rod-shaped and approximately 80 nm long. One end of each molecule contained a pair of approximately 10 x 9 nm globular domains, while the opposite end was fan-shaped. Monoclonal antibodies against the approximately 124 kd heavy chains of kinesin decorated the globular structures, while those specific for the approximately 64 kd light chains labeled the fan-shaped end. Quick-freeze, deep-etch EM was used to analyze MTs polymerized from tubulin and cross-linked to latex microspheres by kinesin. Microspheres frequently attached to MTs by arm-like structures, 25-30 nm long. The MT attachment sites often appeared as one or two approximately 10 nm globular bulges. Morphologically similar cross-links were observed by quick-freeze, deep-etch EM between organelles and MTs in the neuronal cytoskeleton in vivo. These collective observations suggest that bovine brain kinesin binds to MTs by globular domains that contain the heavy chains, and that the attachment sites for organelles are at the opposite, fan-shaped end of kinesin, where the light chains are located.
|Monoclonal antibodies to kinesin heavy and light chains stain vesicle-like structures, but not microtubules, in cultured cells. |
Pfister, K K, et al.
J. Cell Biol., 108: 1453-63 (1989) 1989
Kinesin, a microtubule-activated ATPase and putative motor protein for the transport of membrane-bounded organelles along microtubules, was purified from bovine brain and used as an immunogen for the production of murine monoclonal antibodies. Hybridoma lines that secreted five distinct antikinesin IgGs were cloned. Three of the antibodies reacted on immunoblots with the 124-kD heavy chain of kinesin, while the other two antibodies recognized the 64-kD light chain. When used for immunofluorescence microscopy, the antibodies stained punctate, cytoplasmic structures in a variety of cultured mammalian cell types. Consistent with the identification of these structures as membrane-bounded organelles was the observation that cells which had been extracted with Triton X-100 before fixation contained little or no immunoreactive material. Staining of microtubules in the interphase cytoplasm or mitotic spindle was never observed, nor were associated structures, such as centrosomes and primary cilia, labeled by any of the antibodies. Nevertheless, in double-labeling experiments using antibodies to kinesin and tubulin, kinesin-containing particles were most abundant in regions where microtubules were most highly concentrated and the particles often appeared to be aligned on microtubules. These results constitute the first direct evidence for the association of kinesin with membrane-bounded organelles, and suggest a molecular mechanism for organelle motility based on transient interactions of organelle-bound kinesin with the microtubule surface.
|Anti-Kinesin, heavy chain, a.a.420-445, clone H2 - Data Sheet|