Tabla espec. clave
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R, Mk||ELISA, ICC, IHC, IP, WB||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µg|
Ficha datos de seguridad (MSDS)
Referencias bibliográficas | 198 Disponible | Ver todas las referencias
|Visión general referencias||Aplicación||Especie||Pub Med ID|
|Cytogenesis in the adult monkey motor cortex: perivascular NG2 cells are the major adult born cell type. |
Stanton, GB; Kohler, SJ; Boklweski, J; Cameron, JL; Greenough, WT
The Journal of comparative neurology 523 849-68 2015
We used confocal microscopy and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to look for new cells in the motor cortex of adult macaque monkeys that might form the cellular bases of improved brain function from exercise. Twenty-four female Macaca fascicularis monkeys divided into groups by age (10-12 years, 15-17 years), postexercise survival periods, and controls, received 10 weekly injections of the thymidine analog, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to mark new cells. Sixteen monkeys survived 15 weeks (5 weeks postexercise) and 8 monkeys survived 27 weeks (12 weeks postexercise) after initial BrdU injections. Additionally, five Macaca mulatta female monkeys (∼5.5-7 years) received single injections of BrdU and survived 2 days, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks after BrdU injections. Neural and glial antibodies were used to identify new cell phenotypes and to look for changes in proportions of these cells with respect to time and experimental conditions. No BrdU(+) /DCx(+) cells were found but about 7.5% of new cells were calretinin-positive (Cr(+) ). BrdU(+) /GABA(+) (gamma-aminobutyric acid) cells were also found but no new Cr(+) or GABA(+) cells colabeled with a mature neuron marker, NeuN or chondroitin sulfate antibody, NG2. The proportion of new cells that were NG2(+) was about 85% for short and long survival monkeys of which two, newly described perivascular phenotypes (Pldv and Elu) and a small percentage of pericytes (2.5%) comprised 44% and 51% of the new NG2(+) cells, respectively. Proportions of NG2(+) phenotypes were affected by post-BrdU survival periods, monkey age, and possibly a postexercise sedentary period but no direct effect of exercise was found.
|Neuronal activity regulates remyelination via glutamate signalling to oligodendrocyte progenitors. |
Gautier, HO; Evans, KA; Volbracht, K; James, R; Sitnikov, S; Lundgaard, I; James, F; Lao-Peregrin, C; Reynolds, R; Franklin, RJ; Káradóttir, RT
Nature communications 6 8518 2015
Myelin regeneration can occur spontaneously in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the underlying mechanisms and causes of its frequent failure remain incompletely understood. Here we show, using an in-vivo remyelination model, that demyelinated axons are electrically active and generate de novo synapses with recruited oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), which, early after lesion induction, sense neuronal activity by expressing AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid)/kainate receptors. Blocking neuronal activity, axonal vesicular release or AMPA receptors in demyelinated lesions results in reduced remyelination. In the absence of neuronal activity there is a ∼6-fold increase in OPC number within the lesions and a reduced proportion of differentiated oligodendrocytes. These findings reveal that neuronal activity and release of glutamate instruct OPCs to differentiate into new myelinating oligodendrocytes that recover lost function. Co-localization of OPCs with the presynaptic protein VGluT2 in MS lesions implies that this mechanism may provide novel targets to therapeutically enhance remyelination.
|3-D Imaging Reveals Participation of Donor Islet Schwann Cells and Pericytes in Islet Transplantation and Graft Neurovascular Regeneration. |
Juang, JH; Kuo, CH; Peng, SJ; Tang, SC
EBioMedicine 2 109-19 2015
The primary cells that participate in islet transplantation are the endocrine cells. However, in the islet microenvironment, the endocrine cells are closely associated with the neurovascular tissues consisting of the Schwann cells and pericytes, which form sheaths/barriers at the islet exterior and interior borders. The two cell types have shown their plasticity in islet injury, but their roles in transplantation remain unclear. In this research, we applied 3-dimensional neurovascular histology with cell tracing to reveal the participation of Schwann cells and pericytes in mouse islet transplantation. Longitudinal studies of the grafts under the kidney capsule identify that the donor Schwann cells and pericytes re-associate with the engrafted islets at the peri-graft and perivascular domains, respectively, indicating their adaptability in transplantation. Based on the morphological proximity and cellular reactivity, we propose that the new islet microenvironment should include the peri-graft Schwann cell sheath and perivascular pericytes as an integral part of the new tissue.
|Systemic inflammation in early neonatal mice induces transient and lasting neurodegenerative effects. |
Cardoso, FL; Herz, J; Fernandes, A; Rocha, J; Sepodes, B; Brito, MA; McGavern, DB; Brites, D
Journal of neuroinflammation 12 82 2015
The inflammatory mediator lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to induce acute gliosis in neonatal mice. However, the progressive effects on the murine neurodevelopmental program over the week that follows systemic inflammation are not known. Thus, we investigated the effects of repeated LPS administration in the first postnatal week in mice, a condition mimicking sepsis in late preterm infants, on the developing central nervous system (CNS).Systemic inflammation was induced by daily intraperitoneal administration (i.p.) of LPS (6 mg/kg) in newborn mice from postnatal day (PND) 4 to PND6. The effects on neurodevelopment were examined by staining the white matter and neurons with Luxol Fast Blue and Cresyl Violet, respectively. The inflammatory response was assessed by quantifying the expression/activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, high mobility group box (HMGB)-1, and autotaxin (ATX). In addition, B6 CX3CR1(gfp/+) mice combined with cryo-immunofluorescence were used to determine the acute, delayed, and lasting effects on myelination, microglia, and astrocytes.LPS administration led to acute body and brain weight loss as well as overt structural changes in the brain such as cerebellar hypoplasia, neuronal loss/shrinkage, and delayed myelination. The impaired myelination was associated with alterations in the proliferation and differentiation of NG2 progenitor cells early after LPS administration, rather than with excessive phagocytosis by CNS myeloid cells. In addition to disruptions in brain architecture, a robust inflammatory response to LPS was observed. Quantification of inflammatory biomarkers revealed decreased expression of ATX with concurrent increases in HMGB1, TLR-4, and MMP-9 expression levels. Acute astrogliosis (GFAP(+) cells) in the brain parenchyma and at the microvasculature interface together with parenchymal microgliosis (CX3CR1(+) cells) were also observed. These changes preceded the migration/proliferation of CX3CR1(+) cells around the vessels at later time points and the subsequent loss of GFAP(+) astrocytes.Collectively, our study has uncovered a complex innate inflammatory reaction and associated structural changes in the brains of neonatal mice challenged peripherally with LPS. These findings may explain some of the neurobehavioral abnormalities that develop following neonatal sepsis.
|The adhesion G protein-coupled receptor GPR56 is a cell-autonomous regulator of oligodendrocyte development. |
Giera, S; Deng, Y; Luo, R; Ackerman, SD; Mogha, A; Monk, KR; Ying, Y; Jeong, SJ; Makinodan, M; Bialas, AR; Chang, BS; Stevens, B; Corfas, G; Piao, X
Nature communications 6 6121 2015
Mutations in GPR56, a member of the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor family, cause a human brain malformation called bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria (BFPP). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of BFPP brains reveals myelination defects in addition to brain malformation. However, the cellular role of GPR56 in oligodendrocyte development remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that loss of Gpr56 leads to hypomyelination of the central nervous system in mice. GPR56 levels are abundant throughout early stages of oligodendrocyte development, but are downregulated in myelinating oligodendrocytes. Gpr56-knockout mice manifest with decreased oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) proliferation and diminished levels of active RhoA, leading to fewer mature oligodendrocytes and a reduced number of myelinated axons in the corpus callosum and optic nerves. Conditional ablation of Gpr56 in OPCs leads to a reduced number of mature oligodendrocytes as seen in constitutive knockout of Gpr56. Together, our data define GPR56 as a cell-autonomous regulator of oligodendrocyte development.
|Traumatic brain injury results in rapid pericyte loss followed by reactive pericytosis in the cerebral cortex. |
Zehendner, CM; Sebastiani, A; Hugonnet, A; Bischoff, F; Luhmann, HJ; Thal, SC
Scientific reports 5 13497 2015
Accumulating evidence suggests a pivotal role of PDGFRß positive cells, a specific marker for central nervous system (CNS) pericytes, in tissue scarring. Identification of cells that contribute to tissue reorganization in the CNS upon injury is a crucial step to develop novel treatment strategies in regenerative medicine. It has been shown that pericytes contribute to scar formation in the spinal cord. It is further known that ischemia initially triggers pericyte loss in vivo, whilst brain trauma is capable of inducing pericyte detachment from cerebral vessels. These data point towards a significant role of pericytes in CNS injury. The temporal and spatial dynamics of PDGFRß cells and their responses in traumatic brain injury are poorly understood. Here we show that PDGFRß positive cells initially decline in the acute phase following experimental traumatic brain injury. However, PDGFRß positive cells increase significantly in the trauma zone days after brain injury. Using various pericyte markers we identify these cells to be pericytes that are demarcated by reactive gliosis. Our data indicate that brain trauma causes a biphasic response of pericytes in the early phase of brain trauma that may be of relevance for the understanding of pathological cellular responses in traumatic brain injury.
|Interneurons and oligodendrocyte progenitors form a structured synaptic network in the developing neocortex. |
Orduz, D; Maldonado, PP; Balia, M; Vélez-Fort, M; de Sars, V; Yanagawa, Y; Emiliani, V; Angulo, MC
eLife 4 2015
NG2 cells, oligodendrocyte progenitors, receive a major synaptic input from interneurons in the developing neocortex. It is presumed that these precursors integrate cortical networks where they act as sensors of neuronal activity. We show that NG2 cells of the developing somatosensory cortex form a transient and structured synaptic network with interneurons that follows its own rules of connectivity. Fast-spiking interneurons, highly connected to NG2 cells, target proximal subcellular domains containing GABAA receptors with γ2 subunits. Conversely, non-fast-spiking interneurons, poorly connected with these progenitors, target distal sites lacking this subunit. In the network, interneuron-NG2 cell connectivity maps exhibit a local spatial arrangement reflecting innervation only by the nearest interneurons. This microcircuit architecture shows a connectivity peak at PN10, coinciding with a switch to massive oligodendrocyte differentiation. Hence, GABAergic innervation of NG2 cells is temporally and spatially regulated from the subcellular to the network level in coordination with the onset of oligodendrogenesis.
|A Rac/Cdc42 exchange factor complex promotes formation of lateral filopodia and blood vessel lumen morphogenesis. |
Abraham, S; Scarcia, M; Bagshaw, RD; McMahon, K; Grant, G; Harvey, T; Yeo, M; Esteves, FO; Thygesen, HH; Jones, PF; Speirs, V; Hanby, AM; Selby, PJ; Lorger, M; Dear, TN; Pawson, T; Marshall, CJ; Mavria, G
Nature communications 6 7286 2015
During angiogenesis, Rho-GTPases influence endothelial cell migration and cell-cell adhesion; however it is not known whether they control formation of vessel lumens, which are essential for blood flow. Here, using an organotypic system that recapitulates distinct stages of VEGF-dependent angiogenesis, we show that lumen formation requires early cytoskeletal remodelling and lateral cell-cell contacts, mediated through the RAC1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) DOCK4 (dedicator of cytokinesis 4). DOCK4 signalling is necessary for lateral filopodial protrusions and tubule remodelling prior to lumen formation, whereas proximal, tip filopodia persist in the absence of DOCK4. VEGF-dependent Rac activation via DOCK4 is necessary for CDC42 activation to signal filopodia formation and depends on the activation of RHOG through the RHOG GEF, SGEF. VEGF promotes interaction of DOCK4 with the CDC42 GEF DOCK9. These studies identify a novel Rho-family GTPase activation cascade for the formation of endothelial cell filopodial protrusions necessary for tubule remodelling, thereby influencing subsequent stages of lumen morphogenesis.
|Limitations of the dorsal skinfold window chamber model in evaluating anti-angiogenic therapy during early phase of angiogenesis. |
Biel, NM; Lee, JA; Sorg, BS; Siemann, DW
Vascular cell 6 17 2014
Angiogenesis is an essential process during tumor development and growth. The murine dorsal skinfold window chamber model has been used for the study of both tumor microvasculature and other vascular diseases, including the study of anti-angiogenic agents in cancer therapy. Hyperspectral imaging of oxygen status of the microvasculature has not been widely used to evaluate response to inhibition of angiogenesis in early tumor cell induced vascular development. This study demonstrates the use of two different classes of anti-angiogenic agents, one targeting the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) pathway involved with vessel sprouting and the other targeting the Angiopoietin/Tie2 pathway involved in vascular destabilization. Studies evaluated the tumor microvascular response to anti-angiogenic inhibitors in the highly angiogenic renal cell carcinoma induced angiogenesis model.Human renal cell carcinoma, Caki-2 cells, were implanted in the murine skinfold window chamber. Mice were treated with either VEGF pathway targeted small molecule inhibitor Sunitinib (100 mg/kg) or with an anti-Ang-2 monoclonal antibody (10 mg/kg) beginning the day of window chamber surgery and tumor cell implantation. Hyperspectral imaging of hemoglobin saturation was used to evaluate both the development and oxygenation of the tumor microvasculature. Tumor volume over time was also assessed over an 11-day period post surgery.The window chamber model was useful to demonstrate the inhibition of angiogenesis using the VEGF pathway targeted agent Sunitinib. Results show impairment of tumor microvascular development, reduced oxygenation of tumor-associated vasculature and impairment of tumor volume growth compared to control. On the other hand, this model failed to demonstrate the anti-angiogenic effect of the Ang-2 targeted agent. Follow up experiments suggest that the initial surgery of the window chamber model may interfere with such an agent thus skewing the actual effects on angiogenesis.Results show that this model has great potential to evaluate anti-VEGF, or comparable, targeted agents; however the mere protocol of the window chamber model interferes with proper evaluation of Ang-2 targeted agents. The limitations of this in vivo model in evaluating the response of tumor vasculature to anti-angiogenic agents are discussed.
|Dynamin 2 regulation of integrin endocytosis, but not VEGF signaling, is crucial for developmental angiogenesis. |
Lee, MY; Skoura, A; Park, EJ; Landskroner-Eiger, S; Jozsef, L; Luciano, AK; Murata, T; Pasula, S; Dong, Y; Bouaouina, M; Calderwood, DA; Ferguson, SM; De Camilli, P; Sessa, WC
Development (Cambridge, England) 141 1465-72 2014
Here we show that dynamin 2 (Dnm2) is essential for angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. In cultured endothelial cells lacking Dnm2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling and receptor levels are augmented whereas cell migration and morphogenesis are impaired. Mechanistically, the loss of Dnm2 increases focal adhesion size and the surface levels of multiple integrins and reduces the activation state of β1 integrin. In vivo, the constitutive or inducible loss of Dnm2 in endothelium impairs branching morphogenesis and promotes the accumulation of β1 integrin at sites of failed angiogenic sprouting. Collectively, our data show that Dnm2 uncouples VEGF signaling from function and coordinates the endocytic turnover of integrins in a manner that is crucially important for angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo.
|Endothelial Kruppel-like factor 4 regulates angiogenesis and the Notch signaling pathway. |
Hale, AT; Tian, H; Anih, E; Recio, FO; Shatat, MA; Johnson, T; Liao, X; Ramirez-Bergeron, DL; Proweller, A; Ishikawa, M; Hamik, A
The Journal of biological chemistry 289 12016-28 2014
Regulation of endothelial cell biology by the Notch signaling pathway (Notch) is essential to vascular development, homeostasis, and sprouting angiogenesis. Although Notch determines cell fate and differentiation in a wide variety of cells, the molecular basis of upstream regulation of Notch remains poorly understood. Our group and others have implicated the Krüppel-like factor family of transcription factors as critical regulators of endothelial function. Here, we show that Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a central regulator of sprouting angiogenesis via regulating Notch. Using a murine model in which KLF4 is overexpressed exclusively in the endothelium, we found that sustained expression of KLF4 promotes ineffective angiogenesis leading to diminished tumor growth independent of endothelial cell proliferation or cell cycling effects. These tumors feature increased vessel density yet are hypoperfused, leading to tumor hypoxia. Mechanistically, we show that KLF4 differentially regulates expression of Notch receptors, ligands, and target genes. We also demonstrate that KLF4 limits cleavage-mediated activation of Notch1. Finally, we rescue Notch target gene expression and the KLF4 sprouting angiogenesis phenotype by supplementation of DLL4 recombinant protein. Identification of this hitherto undiscovered role of KLF4 implicates this transcription factor as a critical regulator of Notch, tumor angiogenesis, and sprouting angiogenesis.
|Selective chemical modulation of gene transcription favors oligodendrocyte lineage progression. |
Gacias, M; Gerona-Navarro, G; Plotnikov, AN; Zhang, G; Zeng, L; Kaur, J; Moy, G; Rusinova, E; Rodriguez, Y; Matikainen, B; Vincek, A; Joshua, J; Casaccia, P; Zhou, MM
Chemistry & biology 21 841-54 2014
Lysine acetylation regulates gene expression through modulating protein-protein interactions in chromatin. Chemical inhibition of acetyl-lysine binding bromodomains of the major chromatin regulators BET (bromodomain and extraterminal domain) proteins has been shown to effectively block cell proliferation in cancer and inflammation. However, whether selective inhibition of individual BET bromodomains has distinctive functional consequences remains only partially understood. In this study, we show that selective chemical inhibition of the first bromodomain of BET proteins using our small-molecule inhibitor, Olinone, accelerated the progression of mouse primary oligodendrocyte progenitors toward differentiation, whereas inhibition of both bromodomains of BET proteins hindered differentiation. This effect was target specific, as it was not detected in cells treated with inactive analogs and independent of any effect on proliferation. Therefore, selective chemical modulation of individual bromodomains, rather than use of broad-based inhibitors, may enhance regenerative strategies in disorders characterized by myelin loss such as aging and neurodegeneration.
|C/EBPβ expression is an independent predictor of overall survival in breast cancer patients by MHCII/CD4-dependent mechanism of metastasis formation. |
Kurzejamska, E; Johansson, J; Jirström, K; Prakash, V; Ananthaseshan, S; Boon, L; Fuxe, J; Religa, P
Oncogenesis 3 e125 2014
CCAAT-enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ) is a transcription factor that has a critical role in mammary gland development and breast cancer progression. Loss of C/EBPβ increases metastatic dissemination of mouse mammary tumor cells. However, the mechanism by which C/EBPβ expression affects metastasis formation remains unknown. This study aims at determining the relationship between C/EBPβ and survival of breast cancer patients, and elucidating C/EBPβ's link with metastasis formation. C/EBPβ expression was evaluated in 137 cases of human breast cancer, and the correlation with overall survival was estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Additionally, the mouse 4T1 tumor model was used for in vivo studies. Decreased C/EBPβ expression was found to be associated with shorter overall survival of breast cancer patients. In the murine 4T1 model, loss of C/EBPβ affects tumor growth, morphology and promotes metastatic spread to the lungs. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that C/EBPβ inhibition leads to increased major histocompatibility complex II (MHCII) expression, followed by the accumulation of CD45-, CD3- and CD4-positive (CD4+) lymphocytes in the tumors. Inflammation involvement in C/EBPβ-mediated metastasis formation was confirmed by DNA microarray and by experiments on CD4+ cell-deprived nude mice. Additionally, anti-CD3 and anti-CD4 treatments of C/EBPβ-silenced tumor-bearing mice resulted in reverting the C/EBPβ effect on tumor growth and metastasis. Altogether, C/EBPβ is a predictor of overall survival in breast cancer patients, and affects tumor growth, morphology and lung metastasis formation in murine 4T1 model. The mechanism of metastasis formation involves immunologic response depending on C/EBPβ-mediated activation of MHCII and accumulation of CD4+ lymphocytes in the tumor.
|Accelerated repair of demyelinated CNS lesions in the absence of non-muscle myosin IIB. |
Rusielewicz, T; Nam, J; Damanakis, E; John, GR; Raine, CS; Melendez-Vasquez, CV
Glia 62 580-91 2014
The oligodendrocyte (OL), the myelinating cell of the central nervous system, undergoes dramatic changes in the organization of its cytoskeleton as it differentiates from a precursor (oligodendrocyte precursor cells) to a myelin-forming cell. These changes include an increase in its branching cell processes, a phenomenon necessary for OL to myelinate multiple axon segments. We have previously shown that levels and activity of non-muscle myosin II (NMII), a regulator of cytoskeletal contractility, decrease as a function of differentiation and that inhibition of NMII increases branching and myelination of OL in coculture with neurons. We have also found that mixed glial cell cultures derived from NMIIB knockout mice display an increase in mature myelin basic protein-expressing OL compared with wild-type cultures. We have now extended our studies to investigate the role of NMIIB ablation on myelin repair following focal demyelination by lysolecithin. To this end, we generated an oligodendrocyte-specific inducible knockout model using a Plp-driven promoter in combination with a temporally activated CRE-ER fusion protein. Our data indicate that conditional ablation of NMII in adult mouse brain, expedites lesion resolution and remyelination by Plp+ oligodendrocyte-lineage cells when compared with that observed in control brains. Taken together, these data validate the function of NMII as that of a negative regulator of OL myelination in vivo and provide a novel target for promoting myelin repair in conditions such as multiple sclerosis.
|Regulation of blood flow in the retinal trilaminar vascular network. |
Kornfield, TE; Newman, EA
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 11504-13 2014
Light stimulation evokes neuronal activity in the retina, resulting in the dilation of retinal blood vessels and increased blood flow. This response, named functional hyperemia, brings oxygen and nutrients to active neurons. However, it remains unclear which vessels mediate functional hyperemia. We have characterized blood flow regulation in the rat retina in vivo by measuring changes in retinal vessel diameter and red blood cell (RBC) flux evoked by a flickering light stimulus. We found that, in first- and second-order arterioles, flicker evoked large (7.5 and 5.0%), rapid (0.73 and 0.70 s), and consistent dilations. Flicker-evoked dilations in capillaries were smaller (2.0%) and tended to have a slower onset (0.97 s), whereas dilations in venules were smaller (1.0%) and slower (1.06 s) still. The proximity of pericyte somata did not predict capillary dilation amplitude. Expression of the contractile protein α-smooth muscle actin was high in arterioles and low in capillaries. Unexpectedly, we found that blood flow in the three vascular layers was differentially regulated. Flicker stimulation evoked far larger dilations and RBC flux increases in the intermediate layer capillaries than in the superficial and deep layer capillaries (2.6 vs 0.9 and 0.7% dilation; 25.7 vs 0.8 and 11.3% RBC flux increase). These results indicate that functional hyperemia in the retina is driven primarily by active dilation of arterioles. The dilation of intermediate layer capillaries is likely mediated by active mechanisms as well. The physiological consequences of differential regulation in the three vascular layers are discussed.
|WT1 regulates angiogenesis in Ewing Sarcoma. |
Katuri, V; Gerber, S; Qiu, X; McCarty, G; Goldstein, SD; Hammers, H; Montgomery, E; Chen, AR; Loeb, DM
Oncotarget 5 2436-49 2014
Angiogenesis is required for tumor growth. WT1, a protein that affects both mRNA transcription and splicing, has recently been shown to regulate expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), one of the major mediators of angiogenesis. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that WT1 is a key regulator of tumor angiogenesis in Ewing sarcoma. We expressed exogenous WT1 in the WT1-null Ewing sarcoma cell line, SK-ES-1, and we suppressed WT1 expression using shRNA in the WT1-positive Ewing sarcoma cell line, MHH-ES. Suppression of WT1 in MHH-ES cells impairs angiogenesis, while expression of WT1 in SK-ES-1 cells causes increased angiogenesis. Different WT1 isoforms result in vessels with distinct morphologies, and this correlates with preferential upregulation of particular VEGF isoforms. WT1-expressing tumors show increased expression of pro-angiogenic molecules such as VEGF, MMP9, Ang-1, and Tie-2, supporting the hypothesis that WT1 is a global regulator of angiogenesis. We also demonstrate that WT1 regulates the expression of a panel of pro-angiogenic molecules in Ewing sarcoma cell lines. Finally, we found that WT1 expression is correlated with VEGF expression, MMP9 expression, and microvessel density in samples of primary Ewing sarcoma. Thus, our results demonstrate that WT1 expression directly regulates tumor angiogenesis by controlling the expression of a panel of pro-angiogenic genes.
|NDRG2 as a marker protein for brain astrocytes. |
Flügge, G; Araya-Callis, C; Garea-Rodriguez, E; Stadelmann-Nessler, C; Fuchs, E
Cell and tissue research 357 31-41 2014
The protein NDRG2 (N-myc downregulated gene 2) is expressed in astrocytes. We show here that NDRG2 is located in the cytosol of protoplasmic and fibrous astrocytes throughout the mammalian brain, including Bergmann glia as observed in mouse, rat, tree shrew, marmoset and human. NDRG2 immunoreactivity is detectable in the astrocytic cell bodies and excrescencies including fine distal processes. Glutamatergic and GABAergic nerve terminals are associated with NDRG2 immunopositive astrocytic processes. Müller glia in the retina displays no NDRG2 immunoreactivity. NDRG2 positive astrocytes are more abundant and more evenly distributed in the brain than GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein) immunoreactive cells. Some regions with very little GFAP such as the caudate nucleus show pronounced NDRG2 immunoreactivity. In white matter areas, NDRG2 is less strong than GFAP labeling. Most NDRG2 positive somata are immunoreactive for S100ß but not all S100ß cells express NDRG2. NDRG2 positive astrocytes do not express nestin and NG2 (chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4). The localization of NDRG2 overlaps only partially with that of aquaporin 4, the membrane-bound water channel that is concentrated in the astrocytic endfeet. Reactive astrocytes at a cortical lesion display very little NDRG2, which indicates that expression of the protein is reduced in reactive astrocytes. In conclusion, our data show that NDRG2 is a specific marker for a large population of mature, non-reactive brain astrocytes. Visualization of NDRG2 immunoreactive structures may serve as a reliable tool for quantitative studies on numbers of astrocytes in distinct brain regions and for high-resolution microscopy studies on distal astrocytic processes.
|Mesenchymal-endothelial transition contributes to cardiac neovascularization. |
Ubil, E; Duan, J; Pillai, IC; Rosa-Garrido, M; Wu, Y; Bargiacchi, F; Lu, Y; Stanbouly, S; Huang, J; Rojas, M; Vondriska, TM; Stefani, E; Deb, A
Nature 514 585-90 2014
Endothelial cells contribute to a subset of cardiac fibroblasts by undergoing endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition, but whether cardiac fibroblasts can adopt an endothelial cell fate and directly contribute to neovascularization after cardiac injury is not known. Here, using genetic fate map techniques, we demonstrate that cardiac fibroblasts rapidly adopt an endothelial-cell-like phenotype after acute ischaemic cardiac injury. Fibroblast-derived endothelial cells exhibit anatomical and functional characteristics of native endothelial cells. We show that the transcription factor p53 regulates such a switch in cardiac fibroblast fate. Loss of p53 in cardiac fibroblasts severely decreases the formation of fibroblast-derived endothelial cells, reduces post-infarct vascular density and worsens cardiac function. Conversely, stimulation of the p53 pathway in cardiac fibroblasts augments mesenchymal-to-endothelial transition, enhances vascularity and improves cardiac function. These observations demonstrate that mesenchymal-to-endothelial transition contributes to neovascularization of the injured heart and represents a potential therapeutic target for enhancing cardiac repair.
|Mitochondrial translocation of p53 modulates neuronal fate by preventing differentiation-induced mitochondrial stress. |
Xavier, JM; Morgado, AL; Solá, S; Rodrigues, CM
Antioxidants & redox signaling 21 1009-24 2014
Apoptosis regulatory proteins, such as p53, play a pivotal role in neural differentiation, through mechanisms independent of cell death. In addition, p53 has been identified as an important regulator of mitochondrial survival response, maintaining mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) integrity and oxidative protection. The aim of this study was to determine the role of mitochondrial p53 in organelle damage and neural differentiation.Our results show that mitochondrial apoptotic events such as reactive oxygen species production, mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, and cytochrome c release are typical of early-stage mouse neural stem cell differentiation, which occurs 3-18 h after induction of differentiation, with no evidence of cell death. In addition, decreased mtDNA content, lipidated LC3 (LC3-II), colocalization of mitochondria and LC3-II puncta, and mitochondria-associated Parkin are consistent with activation of mitophagy. Importantly, at early stages of neural differentiation, p53 was actively translocated to mitochondria and attenuated mitochondrial oxidative stress, cytochrome c release, and mitophagy. Forced mitochondrial translocation of p53 increased neurogenic potential and neurite outgrowth.In conclusion, our results reveal a novel role for mitochondrial p53, which modulates mitochondrial damage and apoptosis-related events in the context of neural differentiation, thus enhancing neuronal fate.
|Trkb signaling in pericytes is required for cardiac microvessel stabilization. |
Anastasia, A; Deinhardt, K; Wang, S; Martin, L; Nichol, D; Irmady, K; Trinh, J; Parada, L; Rafii, S; Hempstead, BL; Kermani, P
PloS one 9 e87406 2014
Pericyte and vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) recruitment to the developing vasculature is an important step in blood vessel maturation. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), expressed by endothelial cells, activates the receptor tyrosine kinase TrkB to stabilize the cardiac microvasculature in the perinatal period. However, the effects of the BDNF/TrkB signaling on pericytes/SMCs and the mechanisms downstream of TrkB that promote vessel maturation are unknown. To confirm the involvement of TrkB in vessel maturation, we evaluated TrkB deficient (trkb (-/-)) embryos and observed severe cardiac vascular abnormalities leading to lethality in late gestation to early prenatal life. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrates that trkb(-/-) embryos exhibit defects in endothelial cell integrity and perivascular edema. As TrkB is selectively expressed by pericytes and SMCs in the developing cardiac vasculature, we generated mice deficient in TrkB in these cells. Mice with TrkB deficiency in perivascular cells exhibit reduced pericyte/SMC coverage of the cardiac microvasculature, abnormal endothelial cell ultrastructure, and increased vascular permeability. To dissect biological actions and the signaling pathways downstream of TrkB in pericytes/SMCs, human umbilical SMCs were treated with BDNF. This induced membranous protrusions and cell migration, events dependent on myosin light chain phosphorylation. Moreover, inhibition of Rho GTPase and the Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) prevented membrane protrusion and myosin light chain phosphorylation in response to BDNF. These results suggest an important role for BDNF in regulating migration of TrkB-expressing pericytes/SMCs to promote cardiac blood vessel ensheathment and functional integrity during development.
|Restoration of oligodendrocyte pools in a mouse model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. |
McQueen, J; Reimer, MM; Holland, PR; Manso, Y; McLaughlin, M; Fowler, JH; Horsburgh, K
PloS one 9 e87227 2014
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, a sustained modest reduction in cerebral blood flow, is associated with damage to myelinated axons and cognitive decline with ageing. Oligodendrocytes (the myelin producing cells) and their precursor cells (OPCs) may be vulnerable to the effects of hypoperfusion and in some forms of injury OPCs have the potential to respond and repair damage by increased proliferation and differentiation. Using a mouse model of cerebral hypoperfusion we have characterised the acute and long term responses of oligodendrocytes and OPCs to hypoperfusion in the corpus callosum. Following 3 days of hypoperfusion, numbers of OPCs and mature oligodendrocytes were significantly decreased compared to controls. However following 1 month of hypoperfusion, the OPC pool was restored and increased numbers of oligodendrocytes were observed. Assessment of proliferation using PCNA showed no significant differences between groups at either time point but showed reduced numbers of proliferating oligodendroglia at 3 days consistent with the loss of OPCs. Cumulative BrdU labelling experiments revealed higher numbers of proliferating cells in hypoperfused animals compared to controls and showed a proportion of these newly generated cells had differentiated into oligodendrocytes in a subset of animals. Expression of GPR17, a receptor important for the regulation of OPC differentiation following injury, was decreased following short term hypoperfusion. Despite changes to oligodendrocyte numbers there were no changes to the myelin sheath as revealed by ultrastructural assessment and fluoromyelin however axon-glial integrity was disrupted after both 3 days and 1 month hypoperfusion. Taken together, our results demonstrate the initial vulnerability of oligodendroglial pools to modest reductions in blood flow and highlight the regenerative capacity of these cells.
|Prominin-1 (CD133) defines both stem and non-stem cell populations in CNS development and gliomas. |
Holmberg Olausson, K; Maire, CL; Haidar, S; Ling, J; Learner, E; Nistér, M; Ligon, KL
PloS one 9 e106694 2014
Prominin-1 (CD133) is a commonly used cancer stem cell marker in central nervous system (CNS) tumors including glioblastoma (GBM). Expression of Prom1 in cancer is thought to parallel expression and function in normal stem cells. Using RNA in situ hybridization and antibody tools capable of detecting multiple isoforms of Prom1, we find evidence for two distinct Prom1 cell populations in mouse brain. Prom1 RNA is first expressed in stem/progenitor cells of the ventricular zone in embryonic brain. Conversely, in adult mouse brain Prom1 RNA is low in SVZ/SGZ stem cell zones but high in a rare but widely distributed cell population (Prom1(hi)). Lineage marker analysis reveals Prom1(hi) cells are Olig2+Sox2+ glia but Olig1/2 knockout mice lacking oligodendroglia retain Prom1(hi) cells. Bromodeoxyuridine labeling identifies Prom1(hi) as slow-dividing distributed progenitors distinct from NG2+Olig2+ oligodendrocyte progenitors. In adult human brain, PROM1 cells are rarely positive for OLIG2, but express astroglial markers GFAP and SOX2. Variability of PROM1 expression levels in human GBM and patient-derived xenografts (PDX) - from no expression to strong, uniform expression--highlights that PROM1 may not always be associated with or restricted to cancer stem cells. TCGA and PDX data show that high expression of PROM1 correlates with poor overall survival. Within proneural subclass tumors, high PROM1 expression correlates inversely with IDH1 (R132H) mutation. These findings support PROM1 as a tumor cell-intrinsic marker related to GBM survival, independent of its stem cell properties, and highlight potentially divergent roles for this protein in normal mouse and human glia.
|Contribution of tumor heterogeneity in a new animal model of CNS tumors. |
Chen, F; Becker, AJ; LoTurco, JJ
Molecular cancer research : MCR 12 742-53 2014
The etiology of central nervous system (CNS) tumor heterogeneity is unclear. To clarify this issue, a novel animal model was developed of glioma and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid-like tumor (ATRT) produced in rats by nonviral cellular transgenesis initiated in utero. This model system affords the opportunity for directed oncogene expression, clonal labeling, and addition of tumor-modifying transgenes. By directing HRasV12 and AKT transgene expression in different cell populations with promoters that are active ubiquitously (CAG promoter), astrocyte-selective (glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter), or oligodendrocyte-selective (myelin basic protein promoter) we generated glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic oligoastrocytoma, respectively. Importantly, the glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic oligoastrocytoma tumors were distinguishable at both the cellular and molecular level. Furthermore, proneural basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, Ngn2 (NEUROG2) or NeuroD1, were expressed along with HRasV12 and AKT in neocortical radial glia, leading to the formation of highly lethal ATRT like tumors. This study establishes a unique model in which determinants of CNS tumor diversity can be parsed out and reveals that both mutation and expression of neurogenic bHLH transcription factors contribute to CNS tumor diversity.A novel CNS tumor model reveals that oncogenic events occurring in disparate cell types and/or molecular contexts lead to different tumor types; these findings shed light on the sources of brain tumor heterogeneity.
|c-Myc-dependent transcriptional regulation of cell cycle and nucleosomal histones during oligodendrocyte differentiation. |
Magri, L; Gacias, M; Wu, M; Swiss, VA; Janssen, WG; Casaccia, P
Neuroscience 276 72-86 2014
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) have the ability to divide or to growth arrest and differentiate into myelinating oligodendrocytes in the developing brain. Due to their high number and the persistence of their proliferative capacity in the adult brain, OPCs are being studied as potential targets for myelin repair and also as a potential source of brain tumors. This study addresses the molecular mechanisms regulating the transcriptional changes occurring at the critical transition between proliferation and cell cycle exit in cultured OPCs. Using bioinformatic analysis of existing datasets, we identified c-Myc as a key transcriptional regulator of this transition and confirmed direct binding of this transcription factor to identified target genes using chromatin immunoprecipitation. The expression of c-Myc was elevated in proliferating OPCs, where it also bound to the promoter of genes involved in cell cycle regulation (i.e. Cdc2) or chromosome organization (i.e. H2afz). Silencing of c-Myc was associated with decreased histone acetylation at target gene promoters and consequent decrease of gene transcripts. c-Myc silencing also induced a global increase of repressive histone methylation and premature peripheral nuclear chromatin compaction while promoting the progression towards differentiation. We conclude that c-Myc is an important modulator of the transition between proliferation and differentiation of OPCs, although its decrease is not sufficient to induce progression into a myelinating phenotype.
|Capillary pericytes regulate cerebral blood flow in health and disease. |
Hall, CN; Reynell, C; Gesslein, B; Hamilton, NB; Mishra, A; Sutherland, BA; O'Farrell, FM; Buchan, AM; Lauritzen, M; Attwell, D
Nature 508 55-60 2014
Increases in brain blood flow, evoked by neuronal activity, power neural computation and form the basis of BOLD (blood-oxygen-level-dependent) functional imaging. Whether blood flow is controlled solely by arteriole smooth muscle, or also by capillary pericytes, is controversial. We demonstrate that neuronal activity and the neurotransmitter glutamate evoke the release of messengers that dilate capillaries by actively relaxing pericytes. Dilation is mediated by prostaglandin E2, but requires nitric oxide release to suppress vasoconstricting 20-HETE synthesis. In vivo, when sensory input increases blood flow, capillaries dilate before arterioles and are estimated to produce 84% of the blood flow increase. In pathology, ischaemia evokes capillary constriction by pericytes. We show that this is followed by pericyte death in rigor, which may irreversibly constrict capillaries and damage the blood-brain barrier. Thus, pericytes are major regulators of cerebral blood flow and initiators of functional imaging signals. Prevention of pericyte constriction and death may reduce the long-lasting blood flow decrease that damages neurons after stroke.
|Localization of NG2 immunoreactive neuroglia cells in the rat locus coeruleus and their plasticity in response to stress. |
Seifi, M; Corteen, NL; van der Want, JJ; Metzger, F; Swinny, JD
Frontiers in neuroanatomy 8 31 2014
The locus coeruleus (LC) nucleus modulates adaptive behavioral responses to stress and dysregulation of LC neuronal activity is implicated in stress-induced mental illnesses. The LC is composed primarily of noradrenergic neurons together with various glial populations. A neuroglia cell-type largely unexplored within the LC is the NG2 cell. NG2 cells serve primarily as oligodendrocyte precursor cells throughout the brain. However, some NG2 cells are in synaptic contact with neurons suggesting a role in information processing. The aim of this study was to neurochemically and anatomically characterize NG2 cells within the rat LC. Furthermore, since NG2 cells have been shown to proliferate in response to traumatic brain injury, we investigated whether such NG2 cells plasticity also occurs in response to emotive insults such as stress. Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy revealed that NG2 cells were enriched within the pontine region occupied by the LC. Close inspection revealed that a sub-population of NG2 cells were located within unique indentations of LC noradrenergic somata and were immunoreactive for the neuronal marker NeuN whilst NG2 cell processes formed close appositions with clusters immunoreactive for the inhibitory synaptic marker proteins gephyrin and the GABA-A receptor alpha3-subunit, on noradrenergic dendrites. In addition, LC NG2 cell processes were decorated with vesicular glutamate transporter 2 immunoreactive puncta. Finally, 10 days of repeated restraint stress significantly increased the density of NG2 cells within the LC. The study demonstrates that NG2 IR cells are integral components of the LC cellular network and they exhibit plasticity as a result of emotive challenges.
|Progressive dysfunction of the retinal pigment epithelium and retina due to increased VEGF-A levels. |
Ablonczy, Z; Dahrouj, M; Marneros, AG
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 28 2369-79 2014
Patients with nonexudative ("dry") age-related macular degeneration (AMD) frequently also develop neovascular ("wet") AMD, suggesting a common pathomechanism. Increased vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in neovascular AMD, while its role in nonexudative AMD that manifests with progressive retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptor degeneration is not well defined. Mice with overall increased VEGF-A levels develop progressive morphological features of both forms of AMD, suggesting that an increase in VEGF-A has a direct age-dependent adverse effect on RPE and photoreceptor function independently of its CNV-promoting proangiogenic effect. Here we provide evidence for this hypothesis and show that morphological RPE abnormalities and retinal thinning in mice with increased VEGF-A levels correlate with progressive age-dependent attenuation of visual function with abnormal electroretinograms and reduced retinal rhodopsin levels. Retinoid profiling revealed a progressive reduction of 11-cis and all-trans retinal in the retinas of these mice, consistent with an impaired retinoid transport between the RPE and photoreceptors. These findings suggest that increased VEGF-A leads to an age-dependent RPE and retinal dysfunction that occurs also at sites where no CNV lesions form. The data support a central role of increased VEGF-A not only in the pathogenesis of neovascular but also of nonexudative AMD.
|Analysis of Mll1 deficiency identifies neurogenic transcriptional modules and Brn4 as a factor for direct astrocyte-to-neuron reprogramming. |
Potts, MB; Siu, JJ; Price, JD; Salinas, RD; Cho, MJ; Ramos, AD; Hahn, J; Margeta, M; Oldham, MC; Lim, DA
Neurosurgery 75 472-82; discussion 482 2014
Mixed lineage leukemia-1 (Mll1) epigenetically regulates gene expression patterns that specify cellular identity in both embryonic development and adult stem cell populations. In the adult mouse brain, multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs) in the subventricular zone generate new neurons throughout life, and Mll1 is required for this postnatal neurogenesis but not for glial cell differentiation. Analysis of Mll1-dependent transcription may identify neurogenic genes useful for the direct reprogramming of astrocytes into neurons.To identify Mll1-dependent transcriptional modules and to determine whether genes in the neurogenic modules can be used to directly reprogram astrocytes into neurons.We performed gene coexpression module analysis on microarray data from differentiating wild-type and Mll1-deleted subventricular zone NSCs. Key developmental regulators belonging to the neurogenic modules were overexpressed in Mll1-deleted cells and cultured cortical astrocytes, and cell phenotypes were analyzed by immunocytochemistry and electrophysiology.Transcriptional modules that correspond to neurogenesis were identified in wild-type NSCs. Modules related to astrocytes and oligodendrocytes were enriched in Mll1-deleted NSCs, consistent with their gliogenic potential. Overexpression of genes selected from the neurogenic modules enhanced the production of neurons from Mll1-deleted cells, and overexpression of Brn4 (Pou3f4) in nonneurogenic cortical astroglia induced their transdifferentiation into electrophysiologically active neurons.Our results demonstrate that Mll1 is required for the expression of neurogenic but not gliogenic transcriptional modules in a multipotent NSC population and further indicate that specific Mll1-dependent genes may be useful for direct reprogramming strategies.
|The Schlemm's canal is a VEGF-C/VEGFR-3-responsive lymphatic-like vessel. |
Aspelund, A; Tammela, T; Antila, S; Nurmi, H; Leppänen, VM; Zarkada, G; Stanczuk, L; Francois, M; Mäkinen, T; Saharinen, P; Immonen, I; Alitalo, K
The Journal of clinical investigation 124 3975-86 2014
In glaucoma, aqueous outflow into the Schlemm's canal (SC) is obstructed. Despite striking structural and functional similarities with the lymphatic vascular system, it is unknown whether the SC is a blood or lymphatic vessel. Here, we demonstrated the expression of lymphatic endothelial cell markers by the SC in murine and zebrafish models as well as in human eye tissue. The initial stages of SC development involved induction of the transcription factor PROX1 and the lymphangiogenic receptor tyrosine kinase VEGFR-3 in venous endothelial cells in postnatal mice. Using gene deletion and function-blocking antibodies in mice, we determined that the lymphangiogenic growth factor VEGF-C and its receptor, VEGFR-3, are essential for SC development. Delivery of VEGF-C into the adult eye resulted in sprouting, proliferation, and growth of SC endothelial cells, whereas VEGF-A obliterated the aqueous outflow system. Furthermore, a single injection of recombinant VEGF-C induced SC growth and was associated with trend toward a sustained decrease in intraocular pressure in adult mice. These results reveal the evolutionary conservation of the lymphatic-like phenotype of the SC, implicate VEGF-C and VEGFR-3 as critical regulators of SC lymphangiogenesis, and provide a basis for further studies on therapeutic manipulation of the SC with VEGF-C in glaucoma treatment.
|Pten loss in Olig2 expressing neural progenitor cells and oligodendrocytes leads to interneuron dysplasia and leukodystrophy. |
Maire, CL; Ramkissoon, S; Hayashi, M; Haidar, S; Ramkissoon, L; DiTomaso, E; Ligon, KL
Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio) 32 313-26 2014
Therapeutic modulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/PTEN signaling is currently being explored for multiple neurological indications including brain tumors and seizure disorders associated with cortical malformations. The effects of PI3K/PTEN signaling are highly cell context dependent but the function of this pathway in specific subsets of neural stem/progenitor cells generating oligodendroglial lineage cells has not been fully studied. To address this, we created Olig2-cre:Pten(fl/fl) mice that showed a unique pattern of Pten loss and PI3K activation in Olig2-lineage cells. Olig2-cre:Pten(fl/fl) animals progressively developed central nervous system white matter hypermyelination by 3 weeks of age leading to later onset leukodystrophy, chronic neurodegeneration, and death by 9 months. In contrast, during immediate postnatal development, oligodendroglia were unaffected but abnormal and accelerated differentiation of lateral subventricular zone stem cells produced calretinin-positive interneuron dysplasia. Neural stem cells isolated from Olig2-cre:Pten(fl/fl) mice also exhibited accelerated differentiation and proliferation into calretinin-positive interneurons and oligodendrocytes indicating such effects are cell autonomous. Opposition of the pathway by treatment of human primary neural progenitor cells (NPCs) with the PI3K inhibitor, NVP-BKM120, blocked in vitro differentiation of neurons and oligodendroglia indicating PI3K/PTEN effects on NPCs can be bidirectional. In summary, our results suggest Pten is a developmental rheostat regulating interneuron and oligodendroglial differentiation and support testing of PI3K modulating drugs as treatment for developmental and myelination disorders. However, such agents may need to be administered at ages that minimize potential effects on early stem/progenitor cell development.
|Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) and IGF-II analogs with enhanced insulin receptor-a binding affinity promote neural stem cell expansion. |
Ziegler, AN; Chidambaram, S; Forbes, BE; Wood, TL; Levison, SW
The Journal of biological chemistry 289 4626-33 2014
The objective of this study was to employ genetically engineered IGF-II analogs to establish which receptor(s) mediate the stemness promoting actions of IGF-II on mouse subventricular zone neural precursors. Neural precursors from the subventricular zone were propagated in vitro in culture medium supplemented with IGF-II analogs. Cell growth and identity were analyzed using sphere generation and further analyzed by flow cytometry. F19A, an analog of IGF-II that does not bind the IGF-2R, stimulated an increase in the proportion of neural stem cells (NSCs) while decreasing the proportion of the later stage progenitors at a lower concentration than IGF-II. V43M, which binds to the IGF-2R with high affinity but which has low binding affinity to the IGF-1R and to the A isoform of the insulin receptor (IR-A) failed to promote NSC growth. The positive effects of F19A on NSC growth were unaltered by the addition of a functional blocking antibody to the IGF-1R. Altogether, these data lead to the conclusion that IGF-II promotes stemness of NSCs via the IR-A and not through activation of either the IGF-1R or the IGF-2R.
|Central nervous system pathology progresses independently of KC and CXCR2 in globoid-cell leukodystrophy. |
Reddy, AS; Patel, JR; Vogler, C; Klein, RS; Sands, MS
PloS one 8 e64647 2014
Globoid-cell Leukodystrophy (GLD; Krabbe's disease) is a rapidly progressing inherited demyelinating disease caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme Galactosylceramidase (GALC). Deficiency of GALC leads to altered catabolism of galactosylceramide and the cytotoxic lipid, galactosylsphingosine (psychosine). This leads to a rapidly progressive fatal disease with spasticity, cognitive disability and seizures. The murine model of GLD (Twitcher; GALC-/-) lacks the same enzyme and has similar clinical features. The deficiency of GALC leads to oligodendrocyte death, profound neuroinflammation, and the influx of activated macrophages into the CNS. We showed previously that keratinocyte chemoattractant factor (KC) is highly elevated in the CNS of untreated Twitcher mice and significantly decreases after receiving a relatively effective therapy (bone marrow transplantation combined with gene therapy). The action of KC is mediated through the CXCR2 receptor and is a potent chemoattractant for macrophages and microglia. KC is also involved in oligodendrocyte migration and proliferation. Based on the commonalities between the disease presentation and the functions of KC, we hypothesized that KC and/or CXCR2 contribute to the pathogenesis of GLD. Interestingly, the course of the disease is not significantly altered in KC- or CXCR2-deficient Twitcher mice. There is also no alteration in inflammation or demyelination patterns in these mice. Furthermore, transplantation of CXCR2-deficient bone marrow does not alter the progression of the disease as it does in other models of demyelination. This study highlights the role of multiple redundant cytokines and growth factors in the pathogenesis of GLD.
|Human glial chimeric mice reveal astrocytic dependence of JC virus infection. |
Kondo, Y; Windrem, MS; Zou, L; Chandler-Militello, D; Schanz, SJ; Auvergne, RM; Betstadt, SJ; Harrington, AR; Johnson, M; Kazarov, A; Gorelik, L; Goldman, SA
The Journal of clinical investigation 124 5323-36 2014
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease triggered by infection with the human gliotropic JC virus (JCV). Due to the human-selective nature of the virus, there are no animal models available to investigate JCV pathogenesis. To address this issue, we developed mice with humanized white matter by engrafting human glial progenitor cells (GPCs) into neonatal immunodeficient and myelin-deficient mice. Intracerebral delivery of JCV resulted in infection and subsequent demyelination of these chimeric mice. Human GPCs and astrocytes were infected more readily than oligodendrocytes, and viral replication was noted primarily in human astrocytes and GPCs rather than oligodendrocytes, which instead expressed early viral T antigens and exhibited apoptotic death. Engraftment of human GPCs in normally myelinated and immunodeficient mice resulted in humanized white matter that was chimeric for human astrocytes and GPCs. JCV effectively propagated in these mice, which indicates that astroglial infection is sufficient for JCV spread. Sequencing revealed progressive mutation of the JCV capsid protein VP1 after infection, suggesting that PML may evolve with active infection. These results indicate that the principal CNS targets for JCV infection are astrocytes and GPCs and that infection is associated with progressive mutation, while demyelination is a secondary occurrence, following T antigen-triggered oligodendroglial apoptosis. More broadly, this study provides a model by which to further assess the biology and treatment of human-specific gliotropic viruses.
|A competitive advantage by neonatally engrafted human glial progenitors yields mice whose brains are chimeric for human glia. |
Windrem, MS; Schanz, SJ; Morrow, C; Munir, J; Chandler-Militello, D; Wang, S; Goldman, SA
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 16153-61 2014
Neonatally transplanted human glial progenitor cells (hGPCs) densely engraft and myelinate the hypomyelinated shiverer mouse. We found that, in hGPC-xenografted mice, the human donor cells continue to expand throughout the forebrain, systematically replacing the host murine glia. The differentiation of the donor cells is influenced by the host environment, such that more donor cells differentiated as oligodendrocytes in the hypomyelinated shiverer brain than in myelin wild-types, in which hGPCs were more likely to remain as progenitors. Yet in each recipient, both the number and relative proportion of mouse GPCs fell as a function of time, concomitant with the mitotic expansion and spread of donor hGPCs. By a year after neonatal xenograft, the forebrain GPC populations of implanted mice were largely, and often entirely, of human origin. Thus, neonatally implanted hGPCs outcompeted and ultimately replaced the host population of mouse GPCs, ultimately generating mice with a humanized glial progenitor population. These human glial chimeric mice should permit us to define the specific contributions of glia to a broad variety of neurological disorders, using human cells in vivo.
|Perineuronal and perisynaptic extracellular matrix in the human spinal cord. |
Jäger, C, et al.
Neuroscience, 238: 168-84 (2013) 2013
Extracellular matrix (ECM) forms an active interface around neurons of the central nervous system (CNS). Whilst the components, chemical heterogeneity and cellular recruitment of this intercellular assembly in various parts of the brain have been discussed in detail, the spinal cord received limited attention in this context. This is in sharp contrast to its clinical relevance since the overall role of ECM especially that of its chondroitin sulphate-based proteoglycan components (CSPGs) was repeatedly addressed in neuropathology, regeneration, CNS repair and therapy models. Based on two post-mortem human specimen, this study gives the first and detailed description of major ECM components of the human spinal cord. Immunohistochemical investigations were restricted to the systematic mapping of aggrecan, brevican, proteoglycan link-protein as well as tenascin-R and hyaluronan containing matrices in the whole cranio-caudal dimension of the human spinal cord. Other proteoglycans like versican, neurocan and NG2 were exemplarily investigated in restricted areas. We show the overall presence of tenascin-R and hyaluronan in both white and grey matters whereas aggrecan, proteoglycan link-protein and brevican were restricted to the grey matter. In the grey matter, the ECM formed aggrecan-based perineuronal nets in the ventral and lateral horns but established single perisynaptic assemblies, axonal coats (ACs), containing link-protein and brevican in all regions except of the Lissauer's zone. Intersegmental differences were reflected in the appearance of segment-specific nuclei but not in overall matrix distribution pattern or chemical heterogeneity. Perineuronal nets were typically associated with long-range projection neurons including cholinergic ventral horn motorneurons or dorsal spinocerebellar tract neurons of the Clarke-Stilling nuclei. Multiple immunolabelling revealed that nociceptive afferents were devoid of individual matrix assemblies unlike glycinergic or GABAergic synapses. The detailed description of ECM distribution in the human spinal cord shall support clinical approaches in injury and regenerative therapy.
|Lack of Cyp1b1 promotes the proliferative and migratory phenotype of perivascular supporting cells. |
Palenski, TL; Sorenson, CM; Jefcoate, CR; Sheibani, N
Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology 93 646-62 2013
Perivascular supporting cells, including pericytes and smooth muscle cells (PC/SMC), have an integral role during angiogenesis and control vascular remodeling, maturation, and stabilization of neoteric vessels. We recently showed that a Cyp1B1 deficiency in mice results in the attenuation of angiogenesis in vivo and the pro-angiogenic activity of endothelial cells in vitro. However, the contribution of PC/SMC, and more specifically the cell autonomous effects of Cyp1B1 in these processes, needs further investigation. Here we demonstrate that PC constitutively expressed Cyp1B1, and that a deficiency in Cyp1B1 was associated with enhanced proliferation, and decreased apoptosis. Mechanistically, the lack of Cyp1B1 was associated with increased oxidative stress and sustained NF-κB activation, which was reversed by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. These changes were also concomitant with alterations in PC migration, adhesion, and expression of various extracellular matrix proteins, including thrombospondin-2. Cyp1B1-deficient PC also expressed decreased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor. Together, our results suggest an important role for Cyp1B1 expression in the regulation of PC proliferation, migration, and survival through modulation of the intracellular oxidative state and NF-κB expression and/or activity. Thus, a lack of Cyp1B1 in PC may have a significant role in vascular dysfunction and integrity, contributing to the attenuation of angiogenesis.
|hESC-derived Olig2(+) progenitors generate a subtype of astroglia with protective effects against ischaemic brain injury. |
Jiang, Peng, et al.
Nat Commun, 4: 2196 (2013) 2013
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have been differentiated to astroglia, but the utilization of hPSC-derived astroglia as cell therapy for neurological diseases has not been well studied. Astroglia are heterogeneous, and not all astroglia are equivalent in promoting neural repair. A prerequisite for cell therapy is to derive defined cell populations with superior therapeutic effects. Here we use an Olig2-GFP human embryonic stem cell (hESC) reporter to demonstrate that hESC-derived Olig2(+) progenitors generate a subtype of previously uncharacterized astroglia (Olig2PC-Astros). These Olig2PC-Astros differ substantially from astroglia differentiated from Olig2-negative hESC-derived neural progenitor cells (NPC-Astros), particularly in their neuroprotective properties. When grafted into brains subjected to global ischaemia, Olig2PC-Astros exhibit superior neuroprotective effects and improved behavioural outcome compared to NPC-Astros. Thus, this new paradigm of human astroglial differentiation is useful for studying the heterogeneity of human astroglia, and the unique Olig2PC-Astros may constitute a new cell therapy for treating cerebral ischaemia and other neurological diseases.
|Modulation of vascular cell function by bim expression. |
Morrison, ME; Palenski, TL; Jamali, N; Sheibani, N; Sorenson, CM
International journal of cell biology 2013 297537 2013
Apoptosis of vascular cells, including pericytes and endothelial cells, contributes to disease pathogenesis in which vascular rarefaction plays a central role. Bim is a proapoptotic protein that modulates not only apoptosis but also cellular functions such as migration and extracellular matrix (ECM) protein expression. Endothelial cells and pericytes each make a unique contribution to vascular formation and function although the details require further delineation. Here we set out to determine the cell autonomous impact of Bim expression on retinal endothelial cell and pericyte function using cells prepared from Bim deficient (Bim(-/-)) mice. Bim(-/-) endothelial cells displayed an increased production of ECM proteins, proliferation, migration, adhesion, and VEGF expression but, a decreased eNOS expression and nitric oxide production. In contrast, pericyte proliferation decreased in the absence of Bim while migration, adhesion, and VEGF expression were increased. In addition, we demonstrated that the coculturing of either wild-type or Bim(-/-) endothelial cells with Bim(-/-) pericytes diminished their capillary morphogenesis. Thus, our data further emphasizes the importance of vascular cell autonomous regulatory mechanisms in modulation of vascular function.
|Neonatal hyperglycemia inhibits angiogenesis and induces inflammation and neuronal degeneration in the retina. |
Kermorvant-Duchemin, E; Pinel, AC; Lavalette, S; Lenne, D; Raoul, W; Calippe, B; Behar-Cohen, F; Sahel, JA; Guillonneau, X; Sennlaub, F
PloS one 8 e79545 2013
Recent evidence suggests that transient hyperglycemia in extremely low birth weight infants is strongly associated with the occurrence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). We propose a new model of Neonatal Hyperglycemia-induced Retinopathy (NHIR) that mimics many aspects of retinopathy of prematurity. Hyperglycemia was induced in newborn rat pups by injection of streptozocine (STZ) at post natal day one (P1). At various time points, animals were assessed for vascular abnormalities, neuronal cell death and accumulation and activation of microglial cells. We here report that streptozotocin induced a rapid and sustained increase of glycemia from P2/3 to P6 without affecting rat pups gain weight or necessitating insulin treatment. Retinal vascular area was significantly reduced in P6 hyperglycemic animals compared to control animals. Hyperglycemia was associated with (i) CCL2 chemokine induction at P6, (ii) a significant recruitment of inflammatory macrophages and an increase in total number of Iba+ macrophages/microglia cells in the inner nuclear layer (INL), and (iii) excessive apoptosis in the INL. NHIR thereby reproduces several aspects of ischemic retinopathies, including ROP and diabetic retinopathies, and might be a useful model to decipher hyperglycemia-induced cellular and molecular mechanisms in the small rodent.
|Ephrin-B2 controls PDGFRβ internalization and signaling. |
Nakayama, A; Nakayama, M; Turner, CJ; Höing, S; Lepore, JJ; Adams, RH
Genes & development 27 2576-89 2013
B-class ephrins, ligands for EphB receptor tyrosine kinases, are critical regulators of growth and patterning processes in many organs and species. In the endothelium of the developing vasculature, ephrin-B2 controls endothelial sprouting and proliferation, which has been linked to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor endocytosis and signaling. Ephrin-B2 also has essential roles in supporting mural cells (namely, pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells [VSMCs]), but the underlying mechanism is not understood. Here, we show that ephrin-B2 controls platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) distribution in the VSMC plasma membrane, endocytosis, and signaling in a fashion that is highly distinct from its role in the endothelium. Absence of ephrin-B2 in cultured VSMCs led to the redistribution of PDGFRβ from caveolin-positive to clathrin-associated membrane fractions, enhanced PDGF-B-induced PDGFRβ internalization, and augmented downstream mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation but impaired Tiam1-Rac1 signaling and proliferation. Accordingly, mutant mice lacking ephrin-B2 expression in vascular smooth muscle developed vessel wall defects and aortic aneurysms, which were associated with impaired Tiam1 expression and excessive activation of MAP kinase and JNK. Our results establish that ephrin-B2 is an important regulator of PDGFRβ endocytosis and thereby acts as a molecular switch controlling the downstream signaling activity of this receptor in mural cells.
|Deficiency for endoglin in tumor vasculature weakens the endothelial barrier to metastatic dissemination. |
Anderberg, C; Cunha, SI; Zhai, Z; Cortez, E; Pardali, E; Johnson, JR; Franco, M; Páez-Ribes, M; Cordiner, R; Fuxe, J; Johansson, BR; Goumans, MJ; Casanovas, O; ten Dijke, P; Arthur, HM; Pietras, K
The Journal of experimental medicine 210 563-79 2013
Therapy-induced resistance remains a significant hurdle to achieve long-lasting responses and cures in cancer patients. We investigated the long-term consequences of genetically impaired angiogenesis by engineering multiple tumor models deprived of endoglin, a co-receptor for TGF-β in endothelial cells actively engaged in angiogenesis. Tumors from endoglin-deficient mice adapted to the weakened angiogenic response, and refractoriness to diminished endoglin signaling was accompanied by increased metastatic capability. Mechanistic studies in multiple mouse models of cancer revealed that deficiency for endoglin resulted in a tumor vasculature that displayed hallmarks of endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition, a process of previously unknown significance in cancer biology, but shown by us to be associated with a reduced capacity of the vasculature to avert tumor cell intra- and extravasation. Nevertheless, tumors deprived of endoglin exhibited a delayed onset of resistance to anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) agents, illustrating the therapeutic utility of combinatorial targeting of multiple angiogenic pathways for the treatment of cancer.
|Adenomatous polyposis coli regulates oligodendroglial development. |
Lang, J; Maeda, Y; Bannerman, P; Xu, J; Horiuchi, M; Pleasure, D; Guo, F
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 3113-30 2013
The expression of the gut tumor suppressor gene adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) and its role in the oligodendroglial lineage are poorly understood. We found that immunoreactive APC is transiently induced in the oligodendroglial lineage during both normal myelination and remyelination following toxin-induced, genetic, or autoimmune demyelination murine models. Using the Cre/loxP system to conditionally ablate APC from the oligodendroglial lineage, we determined that APC enhances proliferation of oligodendroglial progenitor cells (OPCs) and is essential for oligodendrocyte differentiation in a cell-autonomous manner. Biallelic Apc disruption caused translocation of β-catenin into the nucleus and upregulated β-catenin-mediated Wnt signaling in early postnatal but not adult oligodendroglial lineage cells. The results of conditional ablation of Apc or Ctnnb1 (the gene encoding β-catenin) and of simultaneous conditional ablation of Apc and Ctnnb1 revealed that β-catenin is dispensable for postnatal oligodendroglial differentiation, that Apc one-allele deficiency is not sufficient to dysregulate β-catenin-mediated Wnt signaling in oligodendroglial lineage cells, and that APC regulates oligodendrocyte differentiation through β-catenin-independent, as well as β-catenin-dependent, mechanisms. Gene ontology analysis of microarray data suggested that the β-catenin-independent mechanism involves APC regulation of the cytoskeleton, a result compatible with established APC functions in neural precursors and with our observation that Apc-deleted OPCs develop fewer, shorter processes in vivo. Together, our data support the hypothesis that APC regulates oligodendrocyte differentiation through both β-catenin-dependent and additional β-catenin-independent mechanisms.
|Nf1 loss and Ras hyperactivation in oligodendrocytes induce NOS-driven defects in myelin and vasculature. |
Mayes, DA; Rizvi, TA; Titus-Mitchell, H; Oberst, R; Ciraolo, GM; Vorhees, CV; Robinson, AP; Miller, SD; Cancelas, JA; Stemmer-Rachamimov, AO; Ratner, N
Cell reports 4 1197-212 2013
Patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and Costello syndrome Rasopathy have behavioral deficits. In NF1 patients, these may correlate with white matter enlargement and aberrant myelin. To model these features, we induced Nf1 loss or HRas hyperactivation in mouse oligodendrocytes. Enlarged brain white matter tracts correlated with myelin decompaction, downregulation of claudin-11, and mislocalization of connexin-32. Surprisingly, non-cell-autonomous defects in perivascular astrocytes and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) developed, implicating a soluble mediator. Nitric oxide (NO) can disrupt tight junctions and gap junctions, and NO and NO synthases (NOS1-NOS3) were upregulated in mutant white matter. Treating mice with the NOS inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester or the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine corrected cellular phenotypes. CNP-HRasG12V mice also displayed locomotor hyperactivity, which could be rescued by antioxidant treatment. We conclude that Nf1/Ras regulates oligodendrocyte NOS and that dysregulated NO signaling in oligodendrocytes can alter the surrounding vasculature. The data suggest that antioxidants may improve some behavioral deficits in Rasopathy patients.
|Evidence for NG2-glia derived, adult-born functional neurons in the hypothalamus. |
Robins, SC; Trudel, E; Rotondi, O; Liu, X; Djogo, T; Kryzskaya, D; Bourque, CW; Kokoeva, MV
PloS one 8 e78236 2013
Accumulating evidence suggests that the adult murine hypothalamus, a control site of several fundamental homeostatic processes, has neurogenic capacity. Correspondingly, the adult hypothalamus exhibits considerable cell proliferation that is ongoing even in the absence of external stimuli, and some of the newborn cells have been shown to mature into cells that express neuronal fate markers. However, the identity and characteristics of proliferating cells within the hypothalamic parenchyma have yet to be thoroughly investigated. Here we show that a subset of NG2-glia distributed throughout the mediobasal hypothalamus are proliferative and express the stem cell marker Sox2. We tracked the constitutive differentiation of hypothalamic NG2-glia by employing genetic fate mapping based on inducible Cre recombinase expression under the control of the NG2 promoter, demonstrating that adult hypothalamic NG2-glia give rise to substantial numbers of APC+ oligodendrocytes and a smaller population of HuC/D+ or NeuN+ neurons. Labelling with the cell proliferation marker BrdU confirmed that some NG2-derived neurons have proliferated shortly before differentiation. Furthermore, patch-clamp electrophysiology revealed that some NG2-derived cells display an immature neuronal phenotype and appear to receive synaptic input indicative of their electrical integration in local hypothalamic circuits. Together, our studies show that hypothalamic NG2-glia are able to take on neuronal fates and mature into functional neurons, indicating that NG2-glia contribute to the neurogenic capacity of the adult hypothalamus.
|Cyclin dependent kinase 5 is required for the normal development of oligodendrocytes and myelin formation. |
Yang, Y; Wang, H; Zhang, J; Luo, F; Herrup, K; Bibb, JA; Lu, R; Miller, RH
Developmental biology 378 94-106 2013
The development of oligodendrocytes, the myelinating cells of the vertebrate CNS, is regulated by a cohort of growth factors and transcription factors. Less is known about the signaling pathways that integrate extracellular signals with intracellular transcriptional regulators to control oligodendrocyte development. Cyclin dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and its co-activators play critical roles in the regulation of neuronal differentiation, cortical lamination, neuronal cell migration and axon outgrowth. Here we demonstrate a previously unrecognized function of Cdk5 in regulating oligodendrocyte maturation and myelination. During late embryonic development Cdk5 null animals displayed a reduction in the number of MBP+ cells in the spinal cord, but no difference in the number of OPCs. To determine whether the reduction of oligodendrocytes reflected a cell-intrinsic loss of Cdk5, it was selectively deleted from Olig1+ oligodendrocyte lineage cells. In Olig1(Cre/+); Cdk5(fl/fl) conditional mutants, reduced levels of expression of MBP and PLP mRNA were observed throughout the CNS and ultrastructural analyses demonstrated a significant reduction in the proportion of myelinated axons in the optic nerve and spinal cord. Pharmacological inhibition or RNAi knockdown of Cdk5 in vitro resulted in the reduction in oligodendrocyte maturation, but had no effect on OPC cell proliferation. Conversely, over-expression of Cdk5 promoted oligodendrocyte maturation and enhanced process outgrowth. Consistent with this data, Cdk5(-/-) oligodendrocytes developed significantly fewer primary processes and branches than control cells. Together, these findings suggest that Cdk5 function as a signaling integrator to regulate oligodendrocyte maturation and myelination.
|The embryonic mouse hindbrain as a qualitative and quantitative model for studying the molecular and cellular mechanisms of angiogenesis. |
Fantin, A; Vieira, JM; Plein, A; Maden, CH; Ruhrberg, C
Nature protocols 8 418-29 2013
The mouse embryo hindbrain is a robust and adaptable model for studying sprouting angiogenesis. It permits the spatiotemporal analysis of organ vascularization in normal mice and in mouse strains with genetic mutations that result in late embryonic or perinatal lethality. Unlike postnatal models such as retinal angiogenesis or Matrigel implants, there is no requirement for the breeding of conditional knockout mice. The unique architecture of the hindbrain vasculature allows whole-mount immunolabeling of blood vessels and high-resolution imaging, as well as easy quantification of angiogenic sprouting, network density and vessel caliber. The hindbrain model also permits the visualization of ligand binding to blood vessels in situ and the analysis of blood vessel growth within a natural multicellular microenvironment in which endothelial cells (ECs) interact with non-ECs to refine the 3D organ architecture. The entire procedure, from embryo isolation to imaging and through to results analysis, takes approximately 4 d.
|Inhibition of astroglial NF-κB enhances oligodendrogenesis following spinal cord injury. |
Bracchi-Ricard, V; Lambertsen, KL; Ricard, J; Nathanson, L; Karmally, S; Johnstone, J; Ellman, DG; Frydel, B; McTigue, DM; Bethea, JR
Journal of neuroinflammation 10 92 2013
Astrocytes are taking the center stage in neurotrauma and neurological diseases as they appear to play a dominant role in the inflammatory processes associated with these conditions. Previously, we reported that inhibiting NF-κB activation in astrocytes, using a transgenic mouse model (GFAP-IκBα-dn mice), results in improved functional recovery, increased white matter preservation and axonal sparing following spinal cord injury (SCI). In the present study, we sought to determine whether this improvement, due to inhibiting NF-κB activation in astrocytes, could be the result of enhanced oligodendrogenesis in our transgenic mice.To assess oligodendrogenesis in GFAP-IκBα-dn compared to wild-type (WT) littermate mice following SCI, we used bromodeoxyuridine labeling along with cell-specific immuno-histochemistry, confocal microscopy and quantitative cell counts. To further gain insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms leading to increased white matter, we performed a microarray analysis in naïve and 3 days, 3 and 6 weeks following SCI in GFAP-IκBα-dn and WT littermate mice.Inhibition of astroglial NF-κB in GFAP-IκBα-dn mice resulted in enhanced oligodendrogenesis 6 weeks following SCI and was associated with increased levels of myelin proteolipid protein compared to spinal cord injured WT mice. The microarray data showed a large number of differentially expressed genes involved in inflammatory and immune response between WT and transgenic mice. We did not find any difference in the number of microglia/leukocytes infiltrating the spinal cord but did find differences in their level of expression of toll-like receptor 4. We also found increased expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 on oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and mature oligodendrocytes in the transgenic mice. Finally TNF receptor 2 levels were significantly higher in the transgenic mice compared to WT following injury.These studies suggest that one of the beneficial roles of blocking NF-κB in astrocytes is to promote oligodendrogenesis through alteration of the inflammatory environment.
|Transgenic overexpression of Sox17 promotes oligodendrocyte development and attenuates demyelination. |
Ming, X; Chew, LJ; Gallo, V
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 12528-42 2013
We have previously demonstrated that Sox17 regulates cell cycle exit and differentiation in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Here we investigated its function in white matter (WM) development and adult injury with a newly generated transgenic mouse overexpressing Sox17 in the oligodendrocyte lineage under the CNPase promoter. Sox17 overexpression in CNP-Sox17 mice sequentially promoted postnatal oligodendrogenesis, increasing NG2 progenitor cells from postnatal day (P) 15, then O4+ and CC1+ cells at P30 and P120, respectively. Total Olig2+ oligodendrocyte lineage cells first decreased between P8 and P22 through Sox17-mediated increase in apoptotic cell death, and thereafter significantly exceeded WT levels from P30 when cell death had ceased. CNP-Sox17 mice showed increased Gli2 protein levels and Gli2+ cells in WM, indicating that Sox17 promotes the generation of oligodendrocyte lineage cells through Hedgehog signaling. Sox17 overexpression prevented cell loss after lysolecithin-induced demyelination by increasing Olig2+ and CC1+ cells in response to injury. Furthermore, Sox17 overexpression abolished the injury-induced increase in TCF7L2/TCF4+ cells, and protected oligodendrocytes from apoptosis by preventing decreases in Gli2 and Bcl-2 expression that were observed in WT lesions. Our study thus reveals a biphasic effect of Sox17 overexpression on cell survival and oligodendrocyte formation in the developing WM, and that its potentiation of oligodendrocyte survival in the adult confers resistance to injury and myelin loss. This study demonstrates that overexpression of this transcription factor might be a viable protective strategy to mitigate the consequences of demyelination in the adult WM.
|Inhibition of the p110α isoform of PI 3-kinase stimulates nonfunctional tumor angiogenesis. |
Soler, A; Serra, H; Pearce, W; Angulo, A; Guillermet-Guibert, J; Friedman, LS; Viñals, F; Gerhardt, H; Casanovas, O; Graupera, M; Vanhaesebroeck, B
The Journal of experimental medicine 210 1937-45 2013
Understanding the direct, tumor cell-intrinsic effects of PI 3-kinase (PI3K) has been a key focus of research to date. Here, we report that cancer cell-extrinsic PI3K activity, mediated by the p110α isoform of PI3K, contributes in an unexpected way to tumor angiogenesis. In syngeneic mouse models, inactivation of stromal p110α led to increased vascular density, reduced vessel size, and altered pericyte coverage. This increased vascularity lacked functionality, correlating with enhanced tumor hypoxia and necrosis, and reduced tumor growth. The role of p110α in tumor angiogenesis is multifactorial, and includes regulation of proliferation and DLL4 expression in endothelial cells. p110α in the tumor stroma is thus a regulator of vessel formation, with p110α inactivation giving rise to nonfunctional angiogenesis, which can stunt tumor growth. This type of vascular aberration differs from vascular endothelial growth factor-centered antiangiogenesis therapies, which mainly lead to vascular pruning. Inhibition of p110α may thus offer a new antiangiogenic therapeutic opportunity in cancer.
|Prion replication elicits cytopathic changes in differentiated neurosphere cultures. |
Iwamaru, Y; Takenouchi, T; Imamura, M; Shimizu, Y; Miyazawa, K; Mohri, S; Yokoyama, T; Kitani, H
Journal of virology 87 8745-55 2013
The molecular mechanisms of prion-induced cytotoxicity remain largely obscure. Currently, only a few cell culture models have exhibited the cytopathic changes associated with prion infection. In this study, we introduced a cell culture model based on differentiated neurosphere cultures isolated from the brains of neonatal prion protein (PrP)-null mice and transgenic mice expressing murine PrP (dNP0 and dNP20 cultures). Upon exposure to mouse Chandler prions, dNP20 cultures supported the de novo formation of abnormal PrP and the resulting infectivity, as assessed by bioassays. Furthermore, this culture was susceptible to various prion strains, including mouse-adapted scrapie, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome prions. Importantly, a subset of the cells in the infected culture that was mainly composed of astrocyte lineage cells consistently displayed late-occurring, progressive signs of cytotoxicity as evidenced by morphological alterations, decreased cell viability, and increased lactate dehydrogenase release. These signs of cytotoxicity were not observed in infected dNP0 cultures, suggesting the requirement of endogenous PrP expression for prion-induced cytotoxicity. Degenerated cells positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein accumulated abnormal PrP and exhibited features of apoptotic death as assessed by active caspase-3 and terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase nick-end staining. Furthermore, caspase inhibition provided partial protection from prion-mediated cell death. These results suggest that differentiated neurosphere cultures can provide an in vitro bioassay for mouse prions and permit the study of the molecular basis for prion-induced cytotoxicity at the cellular level.
|Pericytes derived from adipose-derived stem cells protect against retinal vasculopathy. |
Mendel, TA; Clabough, EB; Kao, DS; Demidova-Rice, TN; Durham, JT; Zotter, BC; Seaman, SA; Cronk, SM; Rakoczy, EP; Katz, AJ; Herman, IM; Peirce, SM; Yates, PA
PloS one 8 e65691 2013
Retinal vasculopathies, including diabetic retinopathy (DR), threaten the vision of over 100 million people. Retinal pericytes are critical for microvascular control, supporting retinal endothelial cells via direct contact and paracrine mechanisms. With pericyte death or loss, endothelial dysfunction ensues, resulting in hypoxic insult, pathologic angiogenesis, and ultimately blindness. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) differentiate into pericytes, suggesting they may be useful as a protective and regenerative cellular therapy for retinal vascular disease. In this study, we examine the ability of ASCs to differentiate into pericytes that can stabilize retinal vessels in multiple pre-clinical models of retinal vasculopathy.We found that ASCs express pericyte-specific markers in vitro. When injected intravitreally into the murine eye subjected to oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), ASCs were capable of migrating to and integrating with the retinal vasculature. Integrated ASCs maintained marker expression and pericyte-like morphology in vivo for at least 2 months. ASCs injected after OIR vessel destabilization and ablation enhanced vessel regrowth (16% reduction in avascular area). ASCs injected intravitreally before OIR vessel destabilization prevented retinal capillary dropout (53% reduction). Treatment of ASCs with transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1) enhanced hASC pericyte function, in a manner similar to native retinal pericytes, with increased marker expression of smooth muscle actin, cellular contractility, endothelial stabilization, and microvascular protection in OIR. Finally, injected ASCs prevented capillary loss in the diabetic retinopathic Akimba mouse (79% reduction 2 months after injection).ASC-derived pericytes can integrate with retinal vasculature, adopting both pericyte morphology and marker expression, and provide functional vascular protection in multiple murine models of retinal vasculopathy. The pericyte phenotype demonstrated by ASCs is enhanced with TGF-β1 treatment, as seen with native retinal pericytes. ASCs may represent an innovative cellular therapy for protection against and repair of DR and other retinal vascular diseases.
|Macrophages are essential for the early wound healing response and the formation of a fibrovascular scar. |
He, L; Marneros, AG
The American journal of pathology 182 2407-17 2013
After wounding, multiple cell types interact to form a fibrovascular scar; the formation and cellular origins of these scars are incompletely understood. We used a laser-injury wound model of choroidal neovascularization in the eye to determine the spatiotemporal cellular events that lead to formation of a fibrovascular scar. After laser injury, F4/80(+) myeloid cells infiltrate the wound site and induce smooth muscle actin (SMA) expression in adjacent retinal pigment epithelial cells, with subsequent formation of a SMA(+)NG2(+) myofibroblastic scaffold, into which endothelial cells then infiltrate to form a fibrovascular lesion. Cells of the fibrovascular scaffold express the proangiogenic factor IL-1β strongly, whereas retinal pigment epithelial cells are the main source of VEGF-A. Subsequent choroidal neovascularization is limited to the area demarcated by this myofibroblastic scaffold and occurs independently of epithelial- or myeloid-derived VEGF-A. The SMA(+)NG2(+) myofibroblastic cells, F4/80(+) macrophages, and adjacent epithelial cells actively proliferate in the early phase of the wound healing response. Cell-lineage tracing experiments suggest that the SMA(+)NG2(+) myofibroblastic scaffold originates from choroidal pericyte-like cells. Targeted ablation of macrophages inhibits the formation of this fibrovascular scaffold, and expression analysis reveals that these macrophages are Arg1(+)YM1(+)F4/80(+) alternatively activated M2-like macrophages, which do not require IL-4/STAT6 or IL-10 signaling for their activation. Thus, macrophages are essential for the early wound healing response and the formation of a fibrovascular scar.
|Dissecting the role of human embryonic stem cell-derived mesenchymal cells in human umbilical vein endothelial cell network stabilization in three-dimensional environments. |
Boyd, NL; Nunes, SS; Krishnan, L; Jokinen, JD; Ramakrishnan, VM; Bugg, AR; Hoying, JB
Tissue engineering. Part A 19 211-23 2013
The microvasculature is principally composed of two cell types: endothelium and mural support cells. Multiple sources are available for human endothelial cells (ECs) but sources for human microvascular mural cells (MCs) are limited. We derived multipotent mesenchymal progenitor cells from human embryonic stem cells (hES-MC) that can function as an MC and stabilize human EC networks in three-dimensional (3D) collagen-fibronectin culture by paracrine mechanisms. Here, we have investigated the basis for hES-MC-mediated stabilization and identified the pleiotropic growth factor hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) as a putative hES-MC-derived regulator of EC network stabilization in 3D in vitro culture. Pharmacological inhibition of the HGF receptor (Met) (1 μm SU11274) inhibits EC network formation in the presence of hES-MC. hES-MC produce and release HGF while human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) do not. When HUVEC are cultured alone the networks collapse, but in the presence of recombinant human HGF or conditioned media from human HGF-transduced cells significantly more networks persist. In addition, HUVEC transduced to constitutively express human HGF also form stable networks by autocrine mechanisms. By enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the coculture media were enriched in both angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang2), but at significantly different levels (Ang1=159±15 pg/mL vs. Ang2=30,867±2685 pg/mL) contributed by hES-MC and HUVEC, respectively. Although the coculture cells formed stabile network architectures, their morphology suggests the assembly of an immature plexus. When HUVEC and hES-MC were implanted subcutaneously in immune compromised Rag1 mice, hES-MC increased their contact with HUVEC along the axis of the vessel. This data suggests that HUVEC and hES-MC form an immature plexus mediated in part by HGF and angiopoietins that is capable of maturation under the correct environmental conditions (e.g., in vivo). Therefore, hES-MC can function as microvascular MCs and may be a useful cell source for testing EC-MC interactions.
|Macrophage depletion impairs corneal wound healing after autologous transplantation in mice. |
Li, S; Li, B; Jiang, H; Wang, Y; Qu, M; Duan, H; Zhou, Q; Shi, W
PloS one 8 e61799 2013
Macrophages have been shown to play a critical role in the wound healing process. In the present study, the role of macrophages in wound healing after autologous corneal transplantation was investigated by depleting local infiltrated macrophages.Autologous corneal transplantation model was used to induce wound repair in Balb/c mice. Macrophages were depleted by sub-conjunctival injections of clodronate-containing liposomes (Cl2MDP-LIP). The presence of CD11b(+) F4/80(+) macrophages, α-smooth muscle actin(+) (α-SMA(+)) myofibroblasts, CD31(+) vascular endothelial cells and NG2 (+) pericytes was examined by immunohistochemical and corneal whole-mount staining 14 days after penetrating keratoplasty. Peritoneal macrophages were isolated from Balb/c mice and transfused into conjunctiva to examine the recovery role of macrophages depletion on wound healing after autologous corneal transplantation.Sub-conjunctival Cl2MDP-LIP injection significantly depleted the corneal resident phagocytes and infiltrated macrophages into corneal stroma. Compared with the mice injected with PBS-liposome, the Cl2MDP-LIP-injected mice showed few inflammatory cells, irregularly distributed extracellular matrix, ingrowth of corneal epithelium into stroma, and even the detachment of donor cornea from recipient. Moreover, the number of macrophages, myofibroblasts, endothelial cells and pericytes was also decreased in the junction area between the donor and recipient cornea in macrophage-depleted mice. Peritoneal macrophages transfusion recovered the defect of corneal wound healing caused by macrophages depletion.Macrophage depletion significantly impairs wound healing after autologous corneal transplantation through at least partially impacting on angiogenesis and wound closure.
|Early vessel destabilization mediated by Angiopoietin-2 and subsequent vessel maturation via Angiopoietin-1 induce functional neovasculature after ischemia. |
Qin, D; Trenkwalder, T; Lee, S; Chillo, O; Deindl, E; Kupatt, C; Hinkel, R
PloS one 8 e61831 2013
We assessed whether Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2), a Tie2 ligand and partial antagonist of Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1), is required for early vessel destabilization during postischemic angiogenesis, when combined with vascular growth factors.In vitro, matrigel co-cultures assessed endothelial-cell tube formation and pericyte recruitment after stimulation of VEGF-A, Apelin (APLN), Ang1 with or without Ang2. In a murine hindlimb ischemia model, adeno-associated virus (rAAV, 3×10(12) virusparticles) transduction of VEGF-A, APLN and Ang1 with or without Ang2 (continuous or early expression d0-3) was performed intramuscularly (d-14). Femoral artery ligation was performed at d0, followed by laser doppler perfusion meassurements (LDI) 7 and 14. At d7 (early timepoint) and d14 (late timepoint), histological analysis of capillary/muscle fiber ratio (CMF-R, PECAM-1) and pericyte/capillary ratio (PC-R, NG2) was performed.In vitro, VEGF-A, APLN and Ang1 induced ring formation, but only APLN and Ang1 recruited pericytes. Ang2 did not affect tube formation by APLN, but reduced pericyte recruitment after APLN or Ang1 overexpression. In vivo, rAAV.VEGF-A did not alter LDI-perfusion at d14, consistent with an impaired PC-R despite a rise in CMF-R. rAAV.APLN improved perfusion at d14, with or without continuous Ang2, increasing CMF-R and PC-R. rAAV.Ang1 improved perfusion at d14, when combined with rAAV.Ang2 (d0-3), accompanied by an increased CMF-R and PC-R.The combination of early vessel destabilization (Ang2 d0-3) and continuous Ang1 overexpression improves hindlimb perfusion, pointing to the importance of early vessel destabilization and subsequent vessel maturation for enhanced therapeutic neovascularization.
|Identification of a clonally expanding haematopoietic compartment in bone marrow. |
Wang, L; Benedito, R; Bixel, MG; Zeuschner, D; Stehling, M; Sävendahl, L; Haigh, JJ; Snippert, H; Clevers, H; Breier, G; Kiefer, F; Adams, RH
The EMBO journal 32 219-30 2013
In mammals, postnatal haematopoiesis occurs in the bone marrow (BM) and involves specialized microenvironments controlling haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) behaviour and, in particular, stem cell dormancy and self-renewal. While these processes have been linked to a number of different stromal cell types and signalling pathways, it is currently unclear whether BM has a homogenous architecture devoid of structural and functional partitions. Here, we show with genetic labelling techniques, high-resolution imaging and functional experiments in mice that the periphery of the adult BM cavity harbours previously unrecognized compartments with distinct properties. These units, which we have termed hemospheres, were composed of endothelial, haematopoietic and mesenchymal cells, were enriched in CD150+ CD48- putative HSCs, and enabled rapid haematopoietic cell proliferation and clonal expansion. Inducible gene targeting of the receptor tyrosine kinase VEGFR2 in endothelial cells disrupted hemospheres and, concomitantly, reduced the number of CD150+ CD48- cells. Our results identify a previously unrecognized, vessel-associated BM compartment with a specific localization and properties distinct from the marrow cavity.
|Myelin repair and functional recovery mediated by neural cell transplantation in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. |
Bai, L; Hecker, J; Kerstetter, A; Miller, RH
Neuroscience bulletin 29 239-50 2013
Cellular therapies are becoming a major focus for the treatment of demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), therefore it is important to identify the most effective cell types that promote myelin repair. Several components contribute to the relative benefits of specific cell types including the overall efficacy of the cell therapy, the reproducibility of treatment, the mechanisms of action of distinct cell types and the ease of isolation and generation of therapeutic populations. A range of distinct cell populations promote functional recovery in animal models of MS including neural stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells derived from different tissues. Each of these cell populations has advantages and disadvantages and likely works through distinct mechanisms. The relevance of such mechanisms to myelin repair in the adult central nervous system is unclear since the therapeutic cells are generally derived from developing animals. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of a population of neural cells from the adult spinal cord that are characterized by the expression of the cell surface glycoprotein NG2. In functional studies, injection of adult NG2(+) cells into mice with ongoing MOG35-55-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) enhanced remyelination in the CNS while the number of CD3(+) T cells in areas of spinal cord demyelination was reduced approximately three-fold. In vivo studies indicated that in EAE, NG2(+) cells stimulated endogenous repair while in vitro they responded to signals in areas of induced inflammation by differentiating into oligodendrocytes. These results suggested that adult NG2(+) cells represent a useful cell population for promoting neural repair in a variety of different conditions including demyelinating diseases such as MS.
|Autophagy is involved in oligodendroglial precursor-mediated clearance of amyloid peptide. |
Li, W; Tang, Y; Fan, Z; Meng, Y; Yang, G; Luo, J; Ke, ZJ
Molecular neurodegeneration 8 27 2013
Accumulation of β-amyloid peptides is an important hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Tremendous efforts have been directed to elucidate the mechanisms of β-amyloid peptides degradation and develop strategies to remove β-amyloid accumulation. In this study, we demonstrated that a subpopulation of oligodendroglial precursor cells, also called NG2 cells, were a new cell type that can clear β-amyloid peptides in the AD transgene mice and in NG2 cell line.NG2 cells were recruited and clustered around the amyloid plaque in the APPswe/PS1dE9 mice, which is Alzheimer's disease mouse model. In vitro, NG2 cell line and primary NG2 cells engulfed β-amyloid peptides through the mechanisms of endocytosis in a time dependent manner. Endocytosis is divided into pinocytosis and phagocytosis. Aβ(42) internalization by NG2 cells was mediated by actin-dependent macropinocytosis. The presence of β-amyloid peptides stimulated the autophagic pathway in NG2 cells. Once inside the cells, the β-amyloid peptides in NG2 cells were transported to lysosomes and degraded by autophagy.Our findings suggest that NG2 cells are a new cell type that can clear β-amyloid peptides through endocytosis and autophagy.
|Characterization of cardiac-resident progenitor cells expressing high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity. |
Roehrich, ME; Spicher, A; Milano, G; Vassalli, G
BioMed research international 2013 503047 2013
High aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity has been associated with stem and progenitor cells in various tissues. Human cord blood and bone marrow ALDH-bright (ALDH(br)) cells have displayed angiogenic activity in preclinical studies and have been shown to be safe in clinical trials in patients with ischemic cardiovascular disease. The presence of ALDH(br) cells in the heart has not been evaluated so far. We have characterized ALDH(br) cells isolated from mouse hearts. One percent of nonmyocytic cells from neonatal and adult hearts were ALDH(br). ALDH(very-br) cells were more frequent in neonatal hearts than adult. ALDH(br) cells were more frequent in atria than ventricles. Expression of ALDH1A1 isozyme transcripts was highest in ALDH(very-br) cells, intermediate in ALDH(br) cells, and lowest in ALDH(dim) cells. ALDH1A2 expression was highest in ALDH(very-br) cells, intermediate in ALDH(dim) cells, and lowest in ALDH(br) cells. ALDH1A3 and ALDH2 expression was detectable in ALDH(very-br) and ALDH(br) cells, unlike ALDH(dim) cells, albeit at lower levels compared with ALDH1A1 and ALDH1A2. Freshly isolated ALDH(br) cells were enriched for cells expressing stem cell antigen-1, CD34, CD90, CD44, and CD106. ALDH(br) cells, unlike ALDH(dim) cells, could be grown in culture for more than 40 passages. They expressed sarcomeric α -actinin and could be differentiated along multiple mesenchymal lineages. However, the proportion of ALDH(br) cells declined with cell passage. In conclusion, the cardiac-derived ALDH(br) population is enriched for progenitor cells that exhibit mesenchymal progenitor-like characteristics and can be expanded in culture. The regenerative potential of cardiac-derived ALDH(br) cells remains to be evaluated.
|Expansion of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells following SIRT1 inactivation in the adult brain. |
Rafalski, VA; Ho, PP; Brett, JO; Ucar, D; Dugas, JC; Pollina, EA; Chow, LM; Ibrahim, A; Baker, SJ; Barres, BA; Steinman, L; Brunet, A
Nature cell biology 15 614-24 2013
Oligodendrocytes-the myelin-forming cells of the central nervous system-can be regenerated during adulthood. In adults, new oligodendrocytes originate from oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), but also from neural stem cells (NSCs). Although several factors supporting oligodendrocyte production have been characterized, the mechanisms underlying the generation of adult oligodendrocytes are largely unknown. Here we show that genetic inactivation of SIRT1, a protein deacetylase implicated in energy metabolism, increases the production of new OPCs in the adult mouse brain, in part by acting in NSCs. New OPCs produced following SIRT1 inactivation differentiate normally, generating fully myelinating oligodendrocytes. Remarkably, SIRT1 inactivation ameliorates remyelination and delays paralysis in mouse models of demyelinating injuries. SIRT1 inactivation leads to the upregulation of genes involved in cell metabolism and growth factor signalling, in particular PDGF receptor α (PDGFRα). Oligodendrocyte expansion following SIRT1 inactivation is mediated at least in part by AKT and p38 MAPK-signalling molecules downstream of PDGFRα. The identification of drug-targetable enzymes that regulate oligodendrocyte regeneration in adults could facilitate the development of therapies for demyelinating injuries and diseases, such as multiple sclerosis.
|Plasticity of Schwann cells and pericytes in response to islet injury in mice. |
Tang, SC; Chiu, YC; Hsu, CT; Peng, SJ; Fu, YY
Diabetologia 56 2424-34 2013
Islet Schwann (glial) cells and pericytes are the microorgan's accessory cells positioned at the external and internal boundaries facing the exocrine pancreas and endothelium, respectively, adjacent to the endocrine cells. Plasticity of glial cells and pericytes is shown in the glial scar formation after injury to the central nervous system. It remains unclear whether similar reactive cellular responses occur in insulitis. We applied three-dimensional (3D) histology to perform qualitative and quantitative analyses of the islet Schwann cell network and pericytes in normal, streptozotocin-injected (positive control of gliosis) and NOD mouse models.Vessel painting paired with immunostaining of mouse pancreatic tissue was used to reveal the islet Schwann cells and pericytes and their association with vasculature. Transparent islet specimens were prepared by optical clearing to facilitate 3D confocal microscopy for panoramic visualisation of the tissue networks.In-depth microscopy showed that the islet Schwann cell network extends from the peri-islet domain into the core. One week after streptozotocin injection, we observed intra-islet perivascular gliosis and an increase in pericyte density. In early/moderate insulitis in the NOD mice, perilesional gliosis occurred at the front of the lymphocytic infiltration with atypical islet Schwann cell morphologies, including excessive branching and perivascular gliosis. Meanwhile, pericytes aggregated on the walls of the feeding arteriole at the peri- and intralesional domains with a marked increase in surface marker density.The reactive cellular responses demonstrate plasticity and suggest a stop-gap mechanism consisting of the Schwann cells and pericytes in association with the islet lesion and vasculature when injury occurs.
|Alternating current electric fields of varying frequencies: effects on proliferation and differentiation of porcine neural progenitor cells. |
Lim, JH; McCullen, SD; Piedrahita, JA; Loboa, EG; Olby, NJ
Cellular reprogramming 15 405-12 2013
Application of sinusoidal electric fields (EFs) has been observed to affect cellular processes, including alignment, proliferation, and differentiation. In the present study, we applied low-frequency alternating current (AC) EFs to porcine neural progenitor cells (pNPCs) and investigated the effects on cell patterning, proliferation, and differentiation. pNPCs were grown directly on interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) localizing the EFs to a region accessible visually for fluorescence-based assays. Cultures of pNPCs were exposed to EFs (1 V/cm) of 1 Hz, 10 Hz, and 50 Hz for 3, 7, and 14 days and compared to control cultures. Immunocytochemistry was performed to evaluate the expression of neural markers. pNPCs grew uniformly with no evidence of alignment to the EFs and no change in cell numbers when compared with controls. Nestin expression was shown in all groups at 3 and 7 days, but not at 14 days. NG2 expression was low in all groups. Co-expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and TUJ1 was significantly higher in the cultures exposed to 10- and 50-Hz EFs than the controls. In summary, sinusoidal AC EFs via IDEs did not alter the alignment and proliferation of pNPCs, but higher frequency stimulation appeared to delay differentiation into mature astrocytes.
|Local overexpression of interleukin-11 in the central nervous system limits demyelination and enhances remyelination. |
Maheshwari, A; Janssens, K; Bogie, J; Van Den Haute, C; Struys, T; Lambrichts, I; Baekelandt, V; Stinissen, P; Hendriks, JJ; Slaets, H; Hellings, N
Mediators of inflammation 2013 685317 2013
Demyelination is one of the pathological hallmarks of multiple sclerosis (MS). To date, no therapy is available which directly potentiates endogenous remyelination. Interleukin-11 (IL-11), a member of the gp130 family of cytokines, is upregulated in MS lesions. Systemic IL-11 treatment was shown to ameliorate clinical symptoms in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. IL-11 modulates immune cells and protects oligodendrocytes in vitro. In this study, the cuprizone-induced demyelination mouse model was used to elucidate effects of IL-11 on de- and remyelination, independent of the immune response. Prophylactic-lentiviral- (LV-) mediated overexpression of IL-11 in mouse brain significantly limited acute demyelination, which was accompanied with the preservation of CC1(+) mature oligodendrocytes (OLs) and a decrease in microglial activation (Mac-2(+)). We further demonstrated that IL-11 directly reduces myelin phagocytosis in vitro. When IL-11 expressing LV was therapeutically applied in animals with extensive demyelination, a significant enhancement of remyelination was observed as demonstrated by Luxol Fast Blue staining and electron microscopy imaging. Our results indicate that IL-11 promotes maturation of NG2(+) OPCs into myelinating CC1(+) OLs and may thus explain the enhanced remyelination. Overall, we demonstrate that IL-11 is of therapeutic interest for MS and other demyelinating diseases by limiting demyelination and promoting remyelination.
|Differential regulation of proliferation and neuronal differentiation in adult rat spinal cord neural stem/progenitors by ERK1/2, Akt, and PLCγ. |
Chan, WS; Sideris, A; Sutachan, JJ; Montoya G, JV; Blanck, TJ; Recio-Pinto, E
Frontiers in molecular neuroscience 6 23 2013
Proliferation of endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) has been identified in both normal and injured adult mammalian spinal cord. Yet the signaling mechanisms underlying the regulation of adult spinal cord NSPCs proliferation and commitment toward a neuronal lineage remain undefined. In this study, the role of three growth factor-mediated signaling pathways in proliferation and neuronal differentiation was examined. Adult spinal cord NSPCs were enriched in the presence of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). We observed an increase in the number of cells expressing the microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) over time, indicating neuronal differentiation in the culture. Inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase 1 and 2/ERK 1 and 2 (MEK/ERK1/2) or the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathways suppressed active proliferation in adult spinal cord NSPC cultures; whereas neuronal differentiation was negatively affected only when the ERK1/2 pathway was inhibited. Inhibition of the phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ) pathway did not affect proliferation or neuronal differentiation. Finally, we demonstrated that the blockade of either the ERK1/2 or PLCγ signaling pathways reduced neurite branching of MAP2+ cells derived from the NSPC cultures. Many of the MAP2+ cells expressed synaptophysin and had a glutamatergic phenotype, indicating that over time adult spinal cord NSPCs had differentiated into mostly glutamatergic neurons. Our work provides new information regarding the contribution of these pathways to the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of NSPCs derived from adult spinal cord cultures, and emphasizes that the contribution of these pathways is dependent on the origin of the NSPCs.
|PDGF is required for remyelination-promoting IgM stimulation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cell proliferation. |
Watzlawik, JO; Warrington, AE; Rodriguez, M
PloS one 8 e55149 2013
Promotion of remyelination is a major goal in treating demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). The recombinant human monoclonal IgM, rHIgM22, targets myelin and oligodendrocytes (OLs) and promotes remyelination in animal models of MS. It is unclear whether rHIgM22-mediated stimulation of lesion repair is due to promotion of oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) proliferation and survival, OPC differentiation into myelinating OLs or protection of mature OLs. It is also unknown whether astrocytes or microglia play a functional role in IgM-mediated lesion repair.We assessed the effect of rHIgM22 on cell proliferation in mixed CNS glial and OPC cultures by tritiated-thymidine uptake and by double-label immunocytochemistry using the proliferation marker, Ki-67. Antibody-mediated signaling events, OPC differentiation and OPC survival were investigated and quantified by Western blots.rHIgM22 stimulates OPC proliferation in mixed glial cultures but not in purified OPCs. There is no proliferative response in astrocytes or microglia. rHIgM22 activates PDGFαR in OPCs in mixed glial cultures. Blocking PDGFR-kinase inhibits rHIgM22-mediated OPC proliferation in mixed glia. We confirm in isolated OPCs that rHIgM22-mediated anti-apoptotic signaling and inhibition of OPC differentiation requires PDGF and FGF-2. We observed no IgM-mediated effect in mature OLs in the absence of PDGF and FGF-2.Stimulation of OPC proliferation by rHIgM22 depends on co-stimulatory astrocytic and/or microglial factors. We demonstrate that rHIgM22-mediated activation of PDGFαR is required for stimulation of OPC proliferation. We propose that rHIgM22 lowers the PDGF threshold required for OPC proliferation and protection, which can result in remyelination of CNS lesions.
|Implication of perturbed axoglial apparatus in early pediatric multiple sclerosis. |
Ajit Singh Dhaunchak,Christopher Becker,Howard Schulman,Omar De Faria,Sathyanath Rajasekharan,Brenda Banwell,David R Colman,Amit Bar-Or,
Annals of neurology 71 2012
Cerebrospinal fluid samples collected from children during initial presentation of central nervous system inflammation, who may or may not subsequently be diagnosed as having multiple sclerosis (MS), were subjected to large-scale proteomics screening. Unexpectedly, major compact myelin membrane proteins typically implicated in MS were not detected. However, multiple molecules that localize to the node of Ranvier and the surrounding axoglial apparatus membrane were implicated, indicating perturbed axon-glial interactions in those children destined for diagnosis of MS.
|Differential drug class-specific metastatic effects following treatment with a panel of angiogenesis inhibitors. |
Alicia S Chung,Marcin Kowanetz,Xiumin Wu,Guanglei Zhuang,Hai Ngu,David Finkle,Laszlo Komuves,Franklin Peale,Napoleone Ferrara
The Journal of pathology 227 2012
Inhibiting angiogenesis has become an important therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment but, like other current targeted therapies, benefits experienced for late-stage cancers can be curtailed by inherent refractoriness or by acquired drug resistance, requiring a need for better mechanistic understanding of such effects. Numerous preclinical studies have demonstrated that VEGF pathway inhibitors suppress primary tumour growth and metastasis. However, it has been recently reported that short-term VEGF and VEGFR inhibition can paradoxically accelerate tumour invasiveness and metastasis in certain models. Here we comprehensively compare the effects of both antibody and small molecule receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitors targeting the VEGF-VEGFR pathway, using short-term therapy in various mouse models of metastasis. Our findings demonstrate that antibody inhibition of VEGF pathway molecules does not promote metastasis, in contrast to selected small molecule RTK inhibitors at elevated-therapeutic drug dosages. In particular, a multi-targeted RTK inhibitor, sunitinib, which most profoundly potentiated metastasis, also increased lung vascular permeability and promoted tumour cell extravasation. Mechanistically, sunitinib, but not anti-VEGF treatment, attenuated endothelial barrier function in culture and caused a global inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphorylation, including molecules important for maintaining endothelial cell-cell junctions. Together these findings indicate that, rather than a specific consequence of inhibiting the VEGF signalling pathway, pharmacological inhibitors of the VEGF pathway can have dose- and drug class-dependent side-effects on the host vasculature. These findings also advocate for the continued identification of mechanisms of resistance to anti-angiogenics and for therapy development to overcome it. Copyright © 2012 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
|Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cells give rise to type-1 and type-2 astrocytes in vitro. |
Chen, Chen, et al.
Neurosci. Lett., 523: 180-5 (2012) 2012
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in primary culture can give rise to mature oligodendrocytes and type-2, but not type-1 astrocytes depending on the culture conditions. The OPCs thus are called oligodendrocyte-type-2 astrocyte (O2-A) progenitor cells. Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) have been efficiently differentiated into OPCs; however, the fate plasticity of mESC-derived OPCs is not well characterized. In the present study, using GFP-Olig2 mESC line, we showed that the Olig2(+)/GFP(+)/A2B5(+)/NG2(+) OPCs derived from GFP-Olig2 mESCs can mature into oligodendrocytes when co-cultured with mESC-derived neurons. Interestingly, when induced to astrocytic differentiation by bone morphogenetic protein-4, these mESC-derived OPCs can not only generate type-2 astrocytes, but also type-1 astrocytes. These results challenge the dogma that OPCs in culture can only generate type-2, but not type-1 astrocytes, and support the in vivo finding that during perinatal development, OPCs can give rise to a subset of type-1 astrocytes.
|Alterations in sulfated chondroitin glycosaminoglycans following controlled cortical impact injury in mice. |
Yi, JH; Katagiri, Y; Susarla, B; Figge, D; Symes, AJ; Geller, HM
The Journal of comparative neurology 520 3295-313 2012
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) play a pivotal role in many neuronal growth mechanisms including axon guidance and the modulation of repair processes following injury to the spinal cord or brain. Many actions of CSPGs in the central nervous system (CNS) are governed by the specific sulfation pattern on the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains attached to CSPG core proteins. To elucidate the role of CSPGs and sulfated GAG chains following traumatic brain injury (TBI), controlled cortical impact injury of mild to moderate severity was performed over the left sensory motor cortex in mice. Using immunoblotting and immunostaining, we found that TBI resulted in an increase in the CSPGs neurocan and NG2 expression in a tight band surrounding the injury core, which overlapped with the presence of 4-sulfated CS GAGs but not with 6-sulfated GAGs. This increase was observed as early as 7 days post injury (dpi), and persisted for up to 28 dpi. Labeling with markers against microglia/macrophages, NG2+ cells, fibroblasts, and astrocytes showed that these cells were all localized in the area, suggesting multiple origins of chondroitin-4-sulfate increase. TBI also caused a decrease in the expression of aggrecan and phosphacan in the pericontusional cortex with a concomitant reduction in the number of perineuronal nets. In summary, we describe a dual response in CSPGs whereby they may be actively involved in complex repair processes following TBI.
|Chondroitinase and growth factors enhance activation and oligodendrocyte differentiation of endogenous neural precursor cells after spinal cord injury. |
Karimi-Abdolrezaee, S; Schut, D; Wang, J; Fehlings, MG
PloS one 7 e37589 2012
The adult spinal cord harbours a population of multipotent neural precursor cells (NPCs) with the ability to replace oligodendrocytes. However, despite this capacity, proliferation and endogenous remyelination is severely limited after spinal cord injury (SCI). In the post-traumatic microenvironment following SCI, endogenous spinal NPCs mainly differentiate into astrocytes which could contribute to astrogliosis that exacerbate the outcomes of SCI. These findings emphasize a key role for the post-SCI niche in modulating the behaviour of spinal NPCs after SCI. We recently reported that chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) in the glial scar restrict the outcomes of NPC transplantation in SCI by reducing the survival, migration and integration of engrafted NPCs within the injured spinal cord. These inhibitory effects were attenuated by administration of chondroitinase (ChABC) prior to NPC transplantation. Here, in a rat model of compressive SCI, we show that perturbing CSPGs by ChABC in combination with sustained infusion of growth factors (EGF, bFGF and PDGF-AA) optimize the activation and oligodendroglial differentiation of spinal NPCs after injury. Four days following SCI, we intrathecally delivered ChABC and/or GFs for seven days. We performed BrdU incorporation to label proliferating cells during the treatment period after SCI. This strategy increased the proliferation of spinal NPCs, reduced the generation of new astrocytes and promoted their differentiation along an oligodendroglial lineage, a prerequisite for remyelination. Furthermore, ChABC and GF treatments enhanced the response of non-neural cells by increasing the generation of new vascular endothelial cells and decreasing the number of proliferating macrophages/microglia after SCI. In conclusions, our data strongly suggest that optimization of the behaviour of endogenous spinal NPCs after SCI is critical not only to promote endogenous oligodendrocyte replacement, but also to reverse the otherwise detrimental effects of their activation into astrocytes which could negatively influence the repair process after SCI.
|TGF-β and αvβ6 integrin act in a common pathway to suppress pancreatic cancer progression. |
Hezel, AF; Deshpande, V; Zimmerman, SM; Contino, G; Alagesan, B; O'Dell, MR; Rivera, LB; Harper, J; Lonning, S; Brekken, RA; Bardeesy, N
Cancer research 72 4840-5 2012
The TGF-β pathway is under active consideration as a cancer drug target based on its capacity to promote cancer cell invasion and to create a protumorigenic microenvironment. However, the clinical application of TGF-β inhibitors remains uncertain as genetic studies show a tumor suppressor function of TGF-β in pancreatic cancer and other epithelial malignancies. Here, we used genetically engineered mouse models to investigate the therapeutic impact of global TGF-β inhibition in pancreatic cancer in relation to tumor stage, genetic profile, and concurrent chemotherapy. We found that αvβ6 integrin acted as a key upstream activator of TGF-β in evolving pancreatic cancers. In addition, TGF-β or αvβ6 blockade increased tumor cell proliferation and accelerated both early and later disease stages. These effects were dependent on the presence of Smad4, a central mediator of TGF-β signaling. Therefore, our findings indicate that αvβ6 and TGF-β act in a common tumor suppressor pathway whose pharmacologic inactivation promotes pancreatic cancer progression.
|Intracerebral transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells ameliorates tissue plasminogen activator-induced brain damage after cerebral ischemia in mice detected by in vivo and ex vivo optical imaging. |
Ning Liu,Kentaro Deguchi,Toru Yamashita,Wentao Liu,Yoshio Ikeda,Koji Abe
Journal of neuroscience research 90 2012
Detection and protection of the neurovascular unit (NVU) are essential for treatment of acute stroke patients, especially the use of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). In the present study, we conducted in vivo and ex vivo optical imaging for detecting activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and evaluated the protective effect of intracerebral transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) obtained from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic (Tg) mice on the NVU in tPA-mediated brain damage after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) in mice. Compared with the tMCAO group, the tMCAO plus BMSC group showed significant reductions of in vivo and ex vivo fluorescent signals for MMPs at 48 hr after tMCAO, with a partial colocalization of BMSC-GFP signals. Intracerebrally transplanted BMSCs ameliorated MMP-9 activation by immunohistochemistry and Western blot with differentiation into microglial and astroglial cells. Double-immunofluorescence study revealed improved NVU disruption in the tMCAO plus BMSC group. The present study suggests that intracerebral BMSC transplantation reduced MMP activation and subsequent NVU disruption caused by tPA after tMCAO and that this MMP activation and BMSC effect were detectable with in vivo and ex vivo optical imaging.
|Accumulating microglia phagocytose injured neurons in hippocampal slice cultures: involvement of p38 MAP kinase. |
Katayama, T; Kobayashi, H; Okamura, T; Yamasaki-Katayama, Y; Kibayashi, T; Kimura, H; Ohsawa, K; Kohsaka, S; Minami, M
PloS one 7 e40813 2012
In this study, microglial migration and phagocytosis were examined in mouse organotypic hippocampal slice cultures, which were treated with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) to selectively injure neuronal cells. Microglial cells were visualized by the expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein. Daily observation revealed microglial accumulation in the pyramidal cell layer, which peaked 5 to 6 days after NMDA treatment. Time-lapse imaging showed that microglia migrated to the pyramidal cell layer from adjacent and/or remote areas. There was no difference in the number of proliferating microglia between control and NMDA-treated slices in both the pyramidal cell layer and stratum radiatum, suggesting that microglial accumulation in the injured areas is mainly due to microglial migration, not to proliferation. Time-lapse imaging also showed that the injured neurons, which were visualized by propidium iodide (PI), disappeared just after being surrounded by microglia. Daily observation revealed that the intensity of PI fluorescence gradually attenuated, and this attenuation was suppressed by pretreatment with clodronate, a microglia toxin. These findings suggest that accumulating microglia phagocytosed injured neurons, and that PI fluorescence could be a useful indicator for microglial phagocytosis. Using this advantage to examine microglial phagocytosis in living slice cultures, we investigated the involvements of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases in microglial accumulation and phagocytosis. p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB203580, but not MAP kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitor PD98059 or c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor SP600125, suppressed the attenuation of PI fluorescence. On the other hand, microglial accumulation in the injured areas was not inhibited by any of these inhibitors. These data suggest that p38 MAP kinase plays an important role in microglial phagocytosis of injured neurons.
|The unfolded protein response in models of human mutant G93A amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. |
T Prell,J Lautenschläger,O W Witte,M T Carri,J Grosskreutz
The European journal of neuroscience 35 2012
Recent studies indicate that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in the pathogenesis of familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). ER stress occurs when the ER-mitochondria calcium cycle (ERMCC) is disturbed and misfolded proteins accumulate in the ER. To cope with ER stress, the cell engages the unfolded protein response (UPR). While activation of the UPR has been shown in some ALS models and tissues, ER stress elements have not been studied directly in motor neurons. Here we investigated the expression of XBP1 and ATF6? and phosphorylation of eIF2?, and their modulation, in mutated SOD1(G93A) NSC34 and animal model of ALS. Expression of XBP1 and ATF6? mRNA and protein was enhanced in SOD1(G93A) NSC34 cells. Activation of ATF6? and XBP1 and phosphorylation of eIF2? were detectable in mutated SOD1(G93A) motor but not in wild-type motor neurons. Treatment with the ER stressor thapsigargin enhanced phosphorylation of eIF2? and activated proteolysis of ATF6? and splicing of XBP1 in NSC34 and motor neurons in a time-dependent manner. The present study thus provides direct evidence of activated UPR in motor neurons which overexpress human pathogenic mutant SOD1(G93A) , providing evidence that ER stress plays a major role in ALS.
|Self-renewal and differentiation of reactive astrocyte-derived neural stem/progenitor cells isolated from the cortical peri-infarct area after stroke. |
Shimada, IS; LeComte, MD; Granger, JC; Quinlan, NJ; Spees, JL
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 32 7926-40 2012
In response to stroke, subpopulations of cortical reactive astrocytes proliferate and express proteins commonly associated with neural stem/progenitor cells such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and Nestin. To examine the stem cell-related properties of cortical reactive astrocytes after injury, we generated GFAP-CreER(TM);tdRFP mice to permanently label reactive astrocytes. We isolated cells from the cortical peri-infarct area 3 d after stroke, and cultured them in neural stem cell medium containing epidermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. We observed tdRFP-positive neural spheres in culture, suggestive of tdRFP-positive reactive astrocyte-derived neural stem/progenitor cells (Rad-NSCs). Cultured Rad-NSCs self-renewed and differentiated into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Pharmacological inhibition and conditional knock-out mouse studies showed that Presenilin 1 and Notch 1 controlled neural sphere formation by Rad-NSCs after stroke. To examine the self-renewal and differentiation potential of Rad-NSCs in vivo, Rad-NSCs were transplanted into embryonic, neonatal, and adult mouse brains. Transplanted Rad-NSCs were observed to persist in the subventricular zone and secondary Rad-NSCs were isolated from the host brain 28 d after transplantation. In contrast with neurogenic postnatal day 4 NSCs and adult NSCs from the subventricular zone, transplanted Rad-NSCs differentiated into astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, but not neurons, demonstrating that Rad-NSCs had restricted differentiation in vivo. Our results indicate that Rad-NSCs are unlikely to be suitable for neuronal replacement in the absence of genetic or epigenetic modification.
|Unconjugated Bilirubin Restricts Oligodendrocyte Differentiation and Axonal Myelination. |
Barateiro, Andreia, et al.
Mol. Neurobiol., (2012) 2012
High levels of serum unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) in newborns are associated with axonal damage and glial reactivity that may contribute to subsequent neurologic injury and encephalopathy (kernicterus). Impairments in myelination and white matter damage were observed at autopsy in kernicteric infants. We have recently reported that UCB reduces oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) survival in a pure OPC in vitro proliferative culture. Here, we hypothesized that neonatal hyperbilirubinemia may also impair oligodendrocyte (OL) maturation and myelination. We used an experimental model of hyperbilirubinemia that has been shown to mimic the pathophysiological conditions leading to brain dysfunction by unbound (free) UCB. Using primary cultures of OL, we demonstrated that UCB delays cell differentiation by increasing the OPC number and reducing the number of mature OL. This finding was combined with a downregulation of Olig1 mRNA levels and upregulation of Olig2 mRNA levels. Addition of UCB, prior to or during differentiation, impaired OL morphological maturation, extension of processes and cell diameter. Both conditions reduced active guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound Rac1 fraction. In myelinating co-cultures of dorsal root ganglia neurons and OL, UCB treatment prior to the onset of myelination decreased oligodendroglial differentiation and the number of myelinating OL, also observed when UCB was added after the onset of myelination. In both circumstances, UCB decreased the number of myelin internodes per OL, as well as the myelin internode length. Our studies demonstrate that increased concentrations of UCB compromise myelinogenesis, thereby elucidating a potential deleterious consequence of elevated UCB.
|Minocycline-preconditioned neural stem cells enhance neuroprotection after ischemic stroke in rats. |
Sakata, H; Niizuma, K; Yoshioka, H; Kim, GS; Jung, JE; Katsu, M; Narasimhan, P; Maier, CM; Nishiyama, Y; Chan, PH
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 32 3462-73 2012
Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) offers a novel therapeutic strategy for stroke; however, massive grafted cell death following transplantation, possibly due to a hostile host brain environment, lessens the effectiveness of this approach. Here, we have investigated whether reprogramming NSCs with minocycline, a broadly used antibiotic also known to possess cytoprotective properties, enhances survival of grafted cells and promotes neuroprotection in ischemic stroke. NSCs harvested from the subventricular zone of fetal rats were preconditioned with minocycline in vitro and transplanted into rat brains 6 h after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Histological and behavioral tests were examined from days 0-28 after stroke. For in vitro experiments, NSCs were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation. Cell viability and antioxidant gene expression were analyzed. Minocycline preconditioning protected the grafted NSCs from ischemic reperfusion injury via upregulation of Nrf2 and Nrf2-regulated antioxidant genes. Additionally, preconditioning with minocycline induced the NSCs to release paracrine factors, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor. Moreover, transplantation of the minocycline-preconditioned NSCs significantly attenuated infarct size and improved neurological performance, compared with non-preconditioned NSCs. Minocycline-induced neuroprotection was abolished by transfecting the NSCs with Nrf2-small interfering RNA before transplantation. Thus, preconditioning with minocycline, which reprograms NSCs to tolerate oxidative stress after ischemic reperfusion injury and express higher levels of paracrine factors through Nrf2 up-regulation, is a simple and safe approach to enhance the effectiveness of transplantation therapy in ischemic stroke.
|ER Stress, Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Calpain/JNK Activation are Involved in Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cell Death by Unconjugated Bilirubin. |
Barateiro, Andreia, et al.
Neuromolecular Med., 14: 285-302 (2012) 2012
Research on the mechanisms of bilirubin-induced neurological dysfunction focuses mainly on neuronal death, astrocyte-mediated events and microglia activation. Although myelin damage by unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) has been documented in neonatal kernicterus cases, the events leading to myelination impairment were never explored. This condition may occur by reduced oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) number, or failure of OPC to differentiate in myelinating oligodendrocytes. We have shown that UCB elicits an inflammatory response, glutamate release and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in neurons and glial cells, biomolecules with toxic properties on OPC. Hence, we propose to examine whether UCB determines OPC demise and, if so, which signaling pathways are involved. Our results show that OPC display increased apoptosis and necrosis-like cell death upon UCB exposure, mediated by early signals of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress [e.g. upregulation of glucose-regulated protein (GRP)78, inositol-requiring enzyme (IRE)-1α and activation transcription factor (ATF)-6, as well as activation of caspase-2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)], followed by mitochondrial dysfunction (e.g. loss of mitochondria membrane potential and caspase-9 activation). The later calpain activation points to intracellular Ca(2+) overload and intervention of both ER and mitochondria. Downstream production of ROS may derive from mitochondria damage and secondary injuries, possibly determining the second cycle of GRP78, IRE-1α, caspase-2 and JNK activation. Moreover, inhibition of caspases, calpains and oxidative stress, by using specific inhibitors, prevented UCB-induced OPC death. UCB did not induce the release of cytokines or glutamate by OPC. These results indicate that UCB by reducing OPC survival, through a cascade of programmed intracellular events triggered by ER stress and mitochondria dysfunction, can compromise myelinogenesis.
|Vascular normalization by loss of Siah2 results in increased chemotherapeutic efficacy. |
Wong, CS; Sceneay, J; House, CM; Halse, HM; Liu, MC; George, J; Hunnam, TC; Parker, BS; Haviv, I; Ronai, Z; Cullinane, C; Bowtell, DD; Möller, A
Cancer research 72 1694-704 2012
Tumor hypoxia is associated with resistance to antiangiogenic therapy and poor prognosis. The Siah E3 ubiquitin ligases regulate the hypoxic response pathway by modulating the turnover of the master proangiogenic transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α). In this study, we show that genetic deficiency in the Siah family member Siah2 results in vascular normalization and delayed tumor growth in an established transgenic model of aggressive breast cancer. Tumors arising in a Siah2(-/-) genetic background showed increased perfusion and pericyte-associated vasculature, similar to that occurring with antiangiogenic therapy. In support of the role of Siah2 in regulating levels of Hif-1α, expression of angiogenic factors was decreased in Siah2(-/-) tumors. Blood vessel normalization in Siah2(-/-) tumors resulted in an increased response to chemotherapy and prolonged survival. Together, our findings offer a preclinical proof of concept that targeting Siah2 is sufficient to attenuate Hif-1α-mediated angiogenesis and hypoxia signaling, thereby improving responses to chemotherapy.
|GGF2 (Nrg1-?3) treatment enhances NG2(+) cell response and improves functional recovery after spinal cord injury. |
Matthew T Whittaker,Laila J Zai,Hyun Joon Lee,Ahdeah Pajoohesh-Ganji,Junfang Wu,April Sharp,Ransom Wyse,Jean R Wrathall
Glia 60 2012
The adult spinal cord contains a pool of endogenous glial precursor cells, which spontaneously respond to spinal cord injury (SCI) with increased proliferation. These include oligodendrocyte precursor cells that express the NG2 proteoglycan and can differentiate into mature oligodendrocytes. Thus, a potential approach for SCI treatment is to enhance the proliferation and differentiation of these cells to yield more functional mature glia and improve remyelination of surviving axons. We previously reported that soluble glial growth factor 2 (GGF2)- and basic fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2)-stimulated growth of NG2(+) cells purified from injured spinal cord in primary culture. This study examines the effects of systemic administration of GGF2 and/or FGF2 after standardized contusive SCI in vivo in both rat and mouse models. In Sprague-Dawley rats, 1 week of GGF2 administration, beginning 24 h after injury, enhanced NG2(+) cell proliferation, oligodendrogenesis, chronic white matter at the injury epicenter, and recovery of hind limb function. In 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase-enhanced green fluorescent protein mice, GGF2 treatment resulted in increased oligodendrogenesis and improved functional recovery, as well as elevated expression of the stem cell transcription factor Sox2 by oligodendrocyte lineage cells. Although oligodendrocyte number was increased chronically after SCI in GGF2-treated mice, no evidence of increased white matter was detected. However, GGF2 treatment significantly increased levels of P0 protein-containing peripheral myelin, produced by Schwann cells that infiltrate the injured spinal cord. Our results suggest that GGF2 may have therapeutic potential for SCI by enhancing endogenous recovery processes in a clinically relevant time frame.
|Galactolipid deficiency in the early pathogenesis of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis model Cln8mnd : implications to delayed myelination and oligodendrocyte maturation. |
M Kuronen,M Hermansson,O Manninen,I Zech,M Talvitie,T Laitinen,O Gröhn,P Somerharju,M Eckhardt,J D Cooper,A-E Lehesjoki,U Lahtinen,O Kopra
Neuropathology and applied neurobiology 38 2012
CLN8 deficiency underlies one of a group of devastating childhood neurodegenerative disorders, the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses. The function of the CLN8 protein is currently unknown, but a role in lipid metabolism has been proposed. In human CLN8 diseased brains, alterations in lipid composition have been detected. To further investigate the connection of CLN8 to lipid metabolism, we characterized the lipid composition of early symptomatic Cln8-deficient mouse (Cln8(mnd)) brains.
|Whole-mount confocal microscopy for vascular branching morphogenesis. |
Yoh-Suke Mukouyama,Jennifer James,Joseph Nam,Yutaka Uchida
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 843 2012
We introduce a whole-mount immunohistochemistry method for analyzing intricate vascular network formation in mouse embryonic tissues. Laser scanning confocal microscopy with multiple labeling allows for robust imaging of blood and lymphatic vessel branching morphogenesis with excellent resolution.
|Third trimester amniotic fluid cells with the capacity to develop neural phenotypes and with heterogeneity among sub-populations. |
Daniele Bottai,Daniela Cigognini,Emanuela Nicora,Monica Moro,Maria Grazia Grimoldi,Raffaella Adami,Sergio Abrignani,Anna Maria Marconi,Anna Maria Di Giulio,Alfredo Gorio
Restorative neurology and neuroscience 30 2012
Our aim was the search for new sources of cells potentially useful for central nervous system regenerative medicine. Extra-embryonic tissues are promising sources of pluripotent stem cells. Among these, human second-trimester amniotic fluid (AF) contains cell populations exhibiting self-renewal capacity, multipotency and the expression of embryonic cell markers.
|Vascular disruption in combination with mTOR inhibition in renal cell carcinoma. |
Ellis, L; Shah, P; Hammers, H; Lehet, K; Sotomayor, P; Azabdaftari, G; Seshadri, M; Pili, R
Molecular cancer therapeutics 11 383-92 2012
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is an angiogenesis-dependent and hypoxia-driven malignancy. As a result, there has been an increased interest in the use of antiangiogenic agents for the management of RCC in patients. However, the activity of tumor-vascular disrupting agents (tumor-VDA) has not been extensively examined against RCC. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of the tumor-VDA ASA404 (DMXAA, 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid, or vadimezan) in combination with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus (RAD001) against RCC. In vitro studies were carried out using human umbilical vein endothelial cells and in vivo studies using orthotopic RENCA tumors and immunohistochemical patient tumor-derived RCC xenografts. MRI was used to characterize the vascular response of orthotopic RENCA xenografts to combination treatment. Therapeutic efficacy was determined by tumor growth measurements and histopathologic evaluation. ASA404/everolimus combination resulted in enhanced inhibition of endothelial cell sprouting in the 3-dimensional spheroid assay. MRI of orthotopic RENCA xenografts revealed an early increase in permeability 4 hours posttreatment with ASA404, but not with everolimus. Twenty-four hours after treatment, a significant reduction in blood volume was observed with combination treatment. Correlative CD31/NG2 staining of tumor sections confirmed marked vascular damage following combination therapy. Histologic sections showed extensive necrosis and a reduction in the viable rim following combination treatment compared with VDA treatment alone. These results show the potential of combining tumor-VDAs with mTOR inhibitors in RCC. Further investigation into this novel combination strategy is warranted.
|Alterations in chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan expression occur both at and far from the site of spinal contusion injury. |
Andrews, EM; Richards, RJ; Yin, FQ; Viapiano, MS; Jakeman, LB
Experimental neurology 235 174-87 2012
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) present an inhibitory barrier to axonal growth and plasticity after trauma to the central nervous system. These extracellular and membrane bound molecules are altered after spinal cord injuries, but the magnitude, time course, and patterns of expression following contusion injury have not been fully described. Western blots and immunohistochemistry were combined to assess the expression of four classically inhibitory CSPGs, aggrecan, neurocan, brevican and NG2, at the lesion site and in distal segments of cervical and thoracic spinal cord at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days following a severe mid-thoracic spinal contusion. Total neurocan and the full-length (250 kDa) isoform were strongly upregulated both at the lesion epicenter and in cervical and lumbar segments. In contrast, aggrecan and brevican were sharply reduced at the injury site and were unchanged in distal segments. Total NG2 protein was unchanged across the injury site, while NG2+ profiles were distributed throughout the lesion site by 14 days post-injury (dpi). Far from the lesion, NG2 expression was increased at lumbar, but not cervical spinal cord levels. To determine if the robust increase in neurocan at the distal spinal cord levels corresponded to regions of increased astrogliosis, neurocan and GFAP immunoreactivity were measured in gray and white matter regions of the spinal enlargements. GFAP antibodies revealed a transient increase in reactive astrocyte staining in cervical and lumbar cord, peaking at 14 dpi. In contrast, neurocan immunoreactivity was specifically elevated in the cervical dorsal columns and in the lumbar ventral horn and remained high through 28 dpi. The long lasting increase of neurocan in gray matter regions at distal levels of the spinal cord may contribute to the restriction of plasticity in the chronic phase after SCI. Thus, therapies targeted at altering this CSPG both at and far from the lesion site may represent a reasonable addition to combined strategies to improve recovery after SCI.
|Overexpression of factor inhibiting HIF-1 enhances vessel maturation and tumor growth via platelet-derived growth factor-C. |
Aleksandar Kuzmanov,Ben Wielockx,Maryam Rezaei,Antje Kettelhake,Georg Breier
International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer 131 2012
Recent studies have revealed that the maturation state of vessels in tumors, in addition to vascularity, is a critical determinant of tumor growth. The role of oxygen-dependent signaling pathways in hypoxia-stimulated angiogenesis is well established, however, little is known about their impact on vessel maturation in tumors. Here, we have studied the function of the cellular oxygen sensor, factor inhibiting HIF-1 (FIH), which controls the activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1. FIH silencing in mouse LM8 osteosarcoma stimulated angiogenesis but did not influence tumor growth. In contrast, FIH overexpression led to increased pericyte coverage of the tumor vasculature, reduced vessel leakiness and enhanced tumor growth. Vessel maturation was paralleled by up-regulation of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-C in tumors and expression of PDGF receptor-α on pericytes. Ablation of PDGF-C in FIH-overexpressing tumor cells reduced pericyte coverage and tumor growth. Our data suggest that FIH-mediated PDGF-C induction in LM8 osteosarcoma stimulates the recruitment of PDGFR-α positive pericytes to the tumor vasculature, leading to vessel maturation and enhanced tumor growth.
|The astrocytic lineage marker calmodulin-regulated spectrin-associated protein 1 (Camsap1): phenotypic heterogeneity of newly born Camsap1-expressing cells in injured mouse brain. |
Nozomu Yoshioka,Hiroaki Asou,Shin-Ichi Hisanaga,Hitoshi Kawano
The Journal of comparative neurology 520 2012
Calmodulin-regulated spectrin-associated protein 1 (Camsap1) has been recognized as a new marker for astrocytic lineage cells and is expressed on mature astrocytes in the adult brain (Yamamoto et al.  J. Neurosci. Res. 87:503–513). In the present study, we found that newly born Camsap1-expressing cells exhibited regional heterogeneity in an early phase after stab injury of the mouse brain. In the surrounding area of the lesion site, Camsap1 was expressed on quiescent astrocytes. At 3 days after injury, Camsap1 immunoreactivity was upregulated on glial fibrillary acidic protein-immunoreactive (GFAP-ir) astrocytes. Some of these astrocytes incorporated bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) together with re-expression of the embryonic cytoskeleton protein nestin. In the neighboring region of the lesion cavity, Camsap1 was expressed on GFAP-negative cells. At 3 days after injury, GFAP-ir astrocytes were absent around the lesion cavity. At this stage, NG2-ir cells immunopositive for Camsap1 and immunonegative for GFAP were distributed in border of the lesion cavity. By 10 days, Camsap1 immunoreactivity was exclusively detected on GFAP-ir reactive astrocytes devoid of NG2 immunoreactivity. BrdU pulse-chase labeling assay suggested the differentiation of Camsap1+/NG2+ cells into Camsap1+/GFAP+ astrocytes. In the subependymal zone of the lateral ventricle, Camsap1-ir cells increased after injury. Camsap1 immunoreactivity was distributed on ependymal and subependymal cells bearing various astrocyte markers, and BrdU incorporation was enhanced on such Camsap1-ir cells after injury. These results suggest that newly born reactive astrocytes are derived from heterogeneous Camsap1-expressing cells in the injured brain.
|Protection of retinal ganglion cells and retinal vasculature by Lycium barbarum polysaccharides in a mouse model of acute ocular hypertension. |
Mi, XS; Feng, Q; Lo, AC; Chang, RC; Lin, B; Chung, SK; So, KF
PloS one 7 e45469 2012
Acute ocular hypertension (AOH) is a condition found in acute glaucoma. The purpose of this study is to investigate the protective effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) and its protective mechanisms in the AOH insult. LBP has been shown to exhibit neuroprotective effect in the chronic ocular hypertension (COH) experiments. AOH mouse model was induced in unilateral eye for one hour by introducing 90 mmHg ocular pressure. The animal was fed with LBP solution (1 mg/kg) or vehicle daily from 7 days before the AOH insult till sacrifice at either day 4 or day 7 post insult. The neuroprotective effects of LBP on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and blood-retinal-barrier (BRB) were evaluated. In control AOH retina, loss of RGCs, thinning of IRL thickness, increased IgG leakage, broken tight junctions, and decreased density of retinal blood vessels were observed. However, in LBP-treated AOH retina, there was less loss of RGCs with thinning of IRL thickness, IgG leakage, more continued structure of tight junctions associated with higher level of occludin protein and the recovery of the blood vessel density when compared with vehicle-treated AOH retina. Moreover, we found that LBP provides neuroprotection by down-regulating RAGE, ET-1, Aβ and AGE in the retina, as well as their related signaling pathways, which was related to inhibiting vascular damages and the neuronal degeneration in AOH insults. The present study suggests that LBP could prevent damage to RGCs from AOH-induced ischemic injury; furthermore, through its effects on blood vessel protection, LBP would also be a potential treatment for vascular-related retinopathy.
|Leukemia inhibitory factor is essential for subventricular zone neural stem cell and progenitor homeostasis as revealed by a novel flow cytometric analysis. |
Buono, KD; Vadlamuri, D; Gan, Q; Levison, SW
Developmental neuroscience 34 449-62 2012
Stem cells rely on extracellular signals produced by the niche, which dictate their ability to self-renew, expand and differentiate. It is essential to have sensitive and reproducible methods of either quantifying or isolating these stem cells and progenitors to understand their intrinsic properties and how extrinsic signals regulate their development. However, stem cells are difficult to distinguish from multipotential progenitors, which may look and act like them. Here we define a 4-color flow cytometry panel using CD133, LeX, CD140a, NG2 to define a neural stem cell (NSC) as well as 4 classes of multipotential progenitors and 3 classes of bipotential progenitors, several of which have not been described previously. We performed gain and loss of function studies for leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and showed a depletion of NSCs, a subset of multipotential neural precursors and immature oligodendrocytes in LIF null mice. Gain of function studies showed that LIF increased the abundance of these precursors. Our studies also show that these NPs have differential requirements for LIF and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and for epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) for their propagation in vitro. Surprisingly, the related cytokine, CNTF, was less potent than LIF in increasing the NSCs and more potent than LIF in increasing the PDGF responsive multipotential precursors. Finally, we show that LIF increases the expression of the core transcription factors: Klf4, Fbx15, Nanog, Sox2 and c-Myc. Altogether our FACS (fluorescence-activated cell sorter) analyses reveal that the neonatal subventricular zone is far more heterogeneous than previously suspected and our studies provide new insights into the signals and mechanisms that regulate their self-renewal and proliferation.
|LINGO-1, a transmembrane signaling protein, inhibits oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination through intercellular self-interactions. |
Jepson, S; Vought, B; Gross, CH; Gan, L; Austen, D; Frantz, JD; Zwahlen, J; Lowe, D; Markland, W; Krauss, R
The Journal of biological chemistry 287 22184-95 2012
Overcoming remyelination failure is a major goal of new therapies for demyelinating diseases like multiple sclerosis. LINGO-1, a key negative regulator of myelination, is a transmembrane signaling protein expressed in both neurons and oligodendrocytes. In neurons, LINGO-1 is an integral component of the Nogo receptor complex, which inhibits axonal growth via RhoA. Because the only ligand-binding subunit of this complex, the Nogo receptor, is absent in oligodendrocytes, the extracellular signals that inhibit myelination through a LINGO-1-mediated mechanism are unknown. Here we show that LINGO-1 inhibits oligodendrocyte terminal differentiation through intercellular interactions and is capable of a self-association in trans. Consistent with previous reports, overexpression of full-length LINGO-1 inhibited differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). Unexpectedly, treatment with a soluble recombinant LINGO-1 ectodomain also had an inhibitory effect on OPCs and decreased myelinated axonal segments in cocultures with neurons from dorsal root ganglia. We demonstrated LINGO-1-mediated inhibition of OPCs through intercellular signaling by using a surface-bound LINGO-1 construct expressed ectopically in astrocytes. Further investigation showed that the soluble LINGO-1 ectodomain can interact with itself in trans by binding to CHO cells expressing full-length LINGO-1. Finally, we observed that soluble LINGO-1 could activate RhoA in OPCs. We propose that LINGO-1 acts as both a ligand and a receptor and that the mechanism by which it negatively regulates OPC differentiation and myelination is mediated by a homophilic intercellular interaction. Disruption of this protein-protein interaction could lead to a decrease of LINGO-1 inhibition and an increase in myelination.
|Targeting oncogenic serine/threonine-protein kinase BRAF in cancer cells inhibits angiogenesis and abrogates hypoxia. |
Bottos, A; Martini, M; Di Nicolantonio, F; Comunanza, V; Maione, F; Minassi, A; Appendino, G; Bussolino, F; Bardelli, A
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109 E353-9 2012
Carcinomas are comprised of transformed epithelial cells that are supported in their growth by a dedicated neovasculature. How the genetic milieu of the epithelial compartment influences tumor angiogenesis is largely unexplored. Drugs targeted to mutant cancer genes may act not only on tumor cells but also, directly or indirectly, on the surrounding stroma. We investigated the role of the BRAF(V600E) oncogene in tumor/vessel crosstalk and analyzed the effect of the BRAF inhibitor PLX4720 on tumor angiogenesis. Knock-in of the BRAF(V600E) allele into the genome of human epithelial cells triggered their angiogenic response. In cancer cells harboring oncogenic BRAF, the inhibitor PLX4720 switches off the ERK pathway and inhibits the expression of proangiogenic molecules. In tumor xenografts harboring the BRAF(V600E), PLX4720 extensively modifies the vascular network causing abrogation of hypoxia. Overall, our results provide a functional link between oncogenic BRAF and angiogenesis. Furthermore, they indicate how the tumor vasculature can be "indirectly" besieged through targeting of a genetic lesion to which the cancer cells are addicted.
|Impaired adult myelination in the prefrontal cortex of socially isolated mice. |
Liu, J; Dietz, K; DeLoyht, JM; Pedre, X; Kelkar, D; Kaur, J; Vialou, V; Lobo, MK; Dietz, DM; Nestler, EJ; Dupree, J; Casaccia, P
Nature neuroscience 15 1621-3 2012
Protracted social isolation of adult mice induced behavioral, transcriptional and ultrastructural changes in oligodendrocytes of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and impaired adult myelination. Social re-integration was sufficient to normalize behavioral and transcriptional changes. Short periods of isolation affected chromatin and myelin, but did not induce behavioral changes. Thus, myelinating oligodendrocytes in the adult PFC respond to social interaction with chromatin changes, suggesting that myelination acts as a form of adult plasticity.
|Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type z negatively regulates oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination. |
Kuboyama, K; Fujikawa, A; Masumura, M; Suzuki, R; Matsumoto, M; Noda, M
PloS one 7 e48797 2012
Fyn tyrosine kinase-mediated down-regulation of Rho activity through activation of p190RhoGAP is crucial for oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination. Therefore, the loss of function of its counterpart protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) may enhance myelination during development and remyelination in demyelinating diseases. To test this hypothesis, we investigated whether Ptprz, a receptor-like PTP (RPTP) expressed abuntantly in oligodendrocyte lineage cells, is involved in this process, because we recently revealed that p190RhoGAP is a physiological substrate for Ptprz.We found an early onset of the expression of myelin basic protein (MBP), a major protein of the myelin sheath, and early initiation of myelination in vivo during development of the Ptprz-deficient mouse, as compared with the wild-type. In addition, oligodendrocytes appeared earlier in primary cultures from Ptprz-deficient mice than wild-type mice. Furthermore, adult Ptprz-deficient mice were less susceptible to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced by active immunization with myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) peptide than were wild-type mice. After EAE was induced, the tyrosine phosphorylation of p190RhoGAP increased significantly, and the EAE-induced loss of MBP was markedly suppressed in the white matter of the spinal cord in Ptprz-deficient mice. Here, the number of T-cells and macrophages/microglia infiltrating into the spinal cord did not differ between the two genotypes after MOG immunization. All these findings strongly support the validity of our hypothesis.Ptprz plays a negative role in oligodendrocyte differentiation in early central nervous system (CNS) development and remyelination in demyelinating CNS diseases, through the dephosphorylation of substrates such as p190RhoGAP.
|Platelet-derived growth factor C deficiency in C57BL/6 mice leads to abnormal cerebral vascularization, loss of neuroependymal integrity, and ventricular abnormalities. |
Fredriksson, L; Nilsson, I; Su, EJ; Andrae, J; Ding, H; Betsholtz, C; Eriksson, U; Lawrence, DA
The American journal of pathology 180 1136-44 2012
Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) and their tyrosine kinase receptors (PDGFRs) are known to play important roles during development of the lungs, central nervous system (CNS), and skeleton and in several diseases. PDGF-C is a ligand for the tyrosine kinase receptor PDGFRα. Mutations in the gene encoding PDGF-C have been linked to clefts of the lip and/or palate in humans, and ablation of PDGF-C in 129/Sv background mice results in death during the perinatal period. In this study, we report that ablation of PDGF-C in C57BL/6 mice results in a milder phenotype than in 129/Sv mice, and we present a phenotypic characterization of PDGF-C deficiency in the adult murine CNS. Multiple congenital defects were observed in the CNS of PDGF-C-null C57BL/6 mice, including cerebral vascular abnormalities with abnormal vascular smooth muscle cell coverage. In vivo imaging of mice deficient in PDGF-C also revealed cerebral ventricular abnormalities, such as asymmetry of the lateral ventricles and hypoplasia of the septum, reminiscent of cavum septum pellucidum in humans. We further noted that PDGF-C-deficient mice displayed a distorted ependymal lining of the lateral ventricles, and we found evidence of misplaced neurons in the ventricular lining. We conclude that PDGF-C plays a critical role in the development of normal cerebral ventricles and neuroependymal integrity as well as in normal cerebral vascularization.
|Myelin gene regulatory factor is required for maintenance of myelin and mature oligodendrocyte identity in the adult CNS. |
Koenning, M; Jackson, S; Hay, CM; Faux, C; Kilpatrick, TJ; Willingham, M; Emery, B
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 32 12528-42 2012
Although the transcription factors required for the generation of oligodendrocytes and CNS myelination during development have been relatively well established, it is not known whether continued expression of the same factors is required for the maintenance of myelin in the adult. Here, we use an inducible conditional knock-out strategy to investigate whether continued oligodendrocyte expression of the recently identified transcription factor myelin gene regulatory factor (MRF) is required to maintain the integrity of myelin in the adult CNS. Genetic ablation of MRF in mature oligodendrocytes within the adult CNS resulted in a delayed but severe CNS demyelination, with clinical symptoms beginning at 5 weeks and peaking at 8 weeks after ablation of MRF. This demyelination was accompanied by microglial/macrophage infiltration and axonal damage. Transcripts for myelin genes, such as proteolipid protein, MAG, MBP, and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, were rapidly downregulated after ablation of MRF, indicating an ongoing requirement for MRF in the expression of these genes. Subsequently, a proportion of the recombined oligodendrocytes undergo apoptosis over a period of weeks. Surviving oligodendrocytes gradually lose the expression of mature markers such as CC1 antigen and their association with myelin, without reexpressing oligodendrocyte progenitor markers or reentering the cell cycle. These results demonstrate that ongoing expression of MRF within the adult CNS is critical to maintain mature oligodendrocyte identity and the integrity of CNS myelin.
|Olig1 function is required for remyelination potential of transplanted neural progenitor cells in a model of viral-induced demyelination. |
Whitman, LM; Blanc, CA; Schaumburg, CS; Rowitch, DH; Lane, TE
Experimental neurology 235 380-7 2012
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) resulting in cumulative neurologic deficits associated with progressive myelin loss. We have previously shown that transplantation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) into mice persistently infected with the JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV) results in enhanced differentiation into oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) that is associated with remyelination and axonal sparing. The current study examines the contributions of the transcription factor Olig1 on NPC differentiation and remyelination. Under defined conditions, NPCs preferentially differentiate into oligodendroglia whereas NPCs isolated from Olig1-deficient (Olig1-/-) mice exhibit enhanced differentiation into astrocytes. Transplantation of Olig1-/- and Olig1+/+ NPCs into JHMV-infected mice resulted in similar cell survival, proliferation, and selective migration to areas of demyelination. However, only recipients of wild type NPCs exhibited extensive remyelination compared to mice receiving Olig1-/- NPCs. In vivo characterization of NPCs revealed that Olig1+/+ NPCs preferentially differentiated into NG2-positive OPCs and formed processes expressing myelin basic protein that encircled axons. In contrast, the majority of transplanted Olig1-/- NPCs differentiated into GFAP-positive cells consistent with the astrocyte lineage. These results indicate that exogenous NPCs contribute to improved clinical and histological outcome and this is associated with remyelination by this donor population. Further, these findings reveal that Olig1function is required for the remyelination potential of NPCs after transplant, through specification and/or maintenance of oligodendroglial identity.
|Coxsackievirus preferentially replicates and induces cytopathic effects in undifferentiated neural progenitor cells. |
Tsueng, G; Tabor-Godwin, JM; Gopal, A; Ruller, CM; Deline, S; An, N; Frausto, RF; Milner, R; Crocker, SJ; Whitton, JL; Feuer, R
Journal of virology 85 5718-32 2011
Enteroviruses, including coxsackieviruses, exhibit significant tropism for the central nervous system, and these viruses are commonly associated with viral meningitis and encephalitis. Previously, we described the ability of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) to infect proliferating neuronal progenitor cells located in the neonatal subventricular zone and persist in the adult murine central nervous system (CNS). Here, we demonstrate that cultured murine neurospheres, which comprise neural stem cells and their progeny at different stages of development, were highly susceptible to CVB3 infection. Neurospheres, or neural progenitor and stem cells (NPSCs), isolated from neonatal C57BL/6 mice, supported high levels of infectious virus production and high viral protein expression levels following infection with a recombinant CVB3 expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) protein. Similarly, NPSCs isolated from neonatal actin-promoter-GFP transgenic mice (actin-GFP NPSCs) were highly susceptible to infection with a recombinant CVB3 expressing DsRed (Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein). Both nestin-positive and NG2(+) progenitor cells within neurospheres were shown to preferentially express high levels of viral protein as soon as 24 h postinfection (p.i.). By day 3 p.i., viral protein expression and viral titers increased dramatically in NPSCs with resultant cytopathic effects (CPE) and eventual cell death. In contrast, reduced viral replication, lower levels of CPE, and diminished viral protein expression levels were observed in NPSCs differentiated for 5 or 16 days in the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS). Despite the presence of CPE and high levels of cell death following early CVB3 infection, surviving neurospheres were readily observed and continued to express detectable levels of viral protein as long as 37 days after initial infection. Also, CVB3 infection of actin-GFP NPSCs increased the percentage of cells expressing neuronal class III β-tubulin following their differentiation in the presence of FBS. These results suggest that neural stem cells may be preferentially targeted by CVB3 and that neurogenic regions of the CNS may support persistent viral replication in the surviving host. In addition, normal progenitor cell differentiation may be altered in the host following infection.
|Transient expression of iron transport proteins in the capillary of the developing rat brain. |
Yang WM, Jung KJ, Lee MO, Lee YS, Lee YH, Nakagawa S, Niwa M, Cho SS, Kim DW.
Cellular and molecular neurobiology 31 93-9 2011
Iron is essential for normal brain function and its uptake in the developing rat brain peaks during the first two weeks after birth, prior to the formation of the blood–brain barrier (BBB). The first step of iron transport from the blood to the brain is transferrin receptor (TfR)-mediated endocytosis in the capillary endothelial cells. However, the subsequent step from the endothelium into interstitium has not been fully described. The goal of this study was to examine the expression of iron transport proteins by immunodetection and RT–PCR in the developing rat brain. Tf and TfR are transiently expressed in perivascular NG2+ cells of the capillary wall during the early postnatal weeks in the rat brain. However, MTP-1 and hephaestin were expressed in endothelial cells, but not in the NG2+ perivascular cells. Immunoblot analysis for these iron transfer proteins in the developing brain generally confirmed the immunochemical findings. Furthermore, the expression of Tf and TfR in the blood vessels precedes its expression in oligodendrocytes, the main iron-storing cells in the vertebrate brain. RT–PCR analysis for the primary culture of endothelial cells and pericytes revealed that Tf and TfR were highly expressed in the pericytes while MTP-1 and hephaestin were expressed in the endothelial cells. The specific expression of Tf and TfR in brain perivascular cells and MTP-1 and hephaestin in endothelial cells suggest the possibility that trafficking of elemental iron through perivascular cells may be instrumental in the distribution of iron in the developing central nervous system.
|Identification of subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB) receptors whose signaling, in association with SubAB-induced BiP cleavage, is responsible for apoptosis in HeLa cells. |
Yahiro, K; Satoh, M; Morinaga, N; Tsutsuki, H; Ogura, K; Nagasawa, S; Nomura, F; Moss, J; Noda, M
Infection and immunity 79 617-27 2011
Subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB), which is produced by certain strains of Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC), causes the 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78/BiP) cleavage, followed by induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, leading to caspase-dependent apoptosis via mitochondrial membrane damage by Bax/Bak activation. The purpose of the present study was to identify SubAB receptors responsible for HeLa cell death. Four proteins, NG2, α2β1 integrin (ITG), L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM), and hepatocyte growth factor receptor (Met), were identified to be SubAB-binding proteins by immunoprecipitation and purification, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. SubAB-induced Bax conformational change, Bax/Bak complex formation, caspase activation, and cell death were decreased in β1 ITG, NG2, and L1CAM small interfering RNA-transfected cells, but unexpectedly, BiP cleavage was still observed. Pretreatment of cells with a function-blocking β1 ITG antibody (monoclonal antibody [MAb] P5D2) enhanced SubAB-induced caspase activation; MAb P5D2 alone had no effect on caspase activation. Furthermore, we found that SubAB induced focal adhesion kinase fragmentation, which was mediated by a proteasome-dependent pathway, and caspase activation was suppressed in the presence of proteasome inhibitor. Thus, β1 ITG serves as a SubAB-binding protein and may interact with SubAB-signaling pathways, leading to cell death. Our results raise the possibility that although BiP cleavage is necessary for SubAB-induced apoptotic cell death, signaling pathways associated with functional SubAB receptors may be required for activation of SubAB-dependent apoptotic pathways.
|Small molecule inhibitor of type I transforming growth factor-? receptor kinase ameliorates the inhibitory milieu in injured brain and promotes regeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic axons. |
Nozomu Yoshioka,Junko Kimura-Kuroda,Taro Saito,Koki Kawamura,Shin-ichi Hisanaga,Hitoshi Kawano
Journal of neuroscience research 89 2011
Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?), a multifunctional cytokine, plays a crucial role in wound healing in the damaged central nervous system. To examine effects of the TGF-? signaling inhibition on formation of scar tissue and axonal regeneration, the small molecule inhibitor of type I TGF-? receptor kinase LY-364947 was continuously infused in the lesion site of mouse brain after a unilateral transection of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. At 2 weeks after injury, the fibrotic scar comprising extracellular matrix molecules including fibronectin, type IV collagen, and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans was formed in the lesion center, and reactive astrocytes were increased around the fibrotic scar. In the brain injured and infused with LY-364947, fibrotic scar formation was suppressed and decreased numbers of reactive astrocytes occupied the lesion site. Although leukocytes and serum IgG were observed within the fibrotic scar in the injured brain, they were almost absent in the injured and LY-364947-treated brain. At 2 weeks after injury, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive fibers barely extended beyond the fibrotic scar in the injured brain, but numerous TH-immunoreactive fibers regenerated over the lesion site in the LY-364947-treated brain. These results indicate that inhibition of TGF-? signaling suppresses formation of the fibrotic scar and creates a permissive environment for axonal regeneration.
|Connexin37 and Connexin43 deficiencies in mice disrupt lymphatic valve development and result in lymphatic disorders including lymphedema and chylothorax. |
Kanady, JD; Dellinger, MT; Munger, SJ; Witte, MH; Simon, AM
Developmental biology 354 253-66 2011
Intraluminal valves are required for the proper function of lymphatic collecting vessels and large lymphatic trunks like the thoracic duct. Despite recent progress in the study of lymphvasculogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, the molecular mechanisms controlling the morphogenesis of lymphatic valves remain poorly understood. Here, we report that gap junction proteins, or connexins (Cxs), are required for lymphatic valvulogenesis. Cx37 and Cx43 are expressed early in mouse lymphatic development in the jugular lymph sacs, and later in development these Cxs become enriched and differentially expressed by lymphatic endothelial cells on the upstream and downstream sides of the valves. Specific deficiencies of Cx37 and Cx43 alone or in combination result in defective valve formation in lymphatic collecting vessels, lymphedema, and chylothorax. We also show that Cx37 regulates jugular lymph sac size and that both Cx37 and Cx43 are required for normal thoracic duct development, including valve formation. Another Cx family member, Cx47, whose human analog is mutated in some families with lymphedema, is also highly enriched in a subset of endothelial cells in lymphatic valves. Mechanistically, we present data from Foxc2-/- embryos suggesting that Cx37 may be a target of regulation by Foxc2, a transcription factor that is mutated in human lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome. These results show that at least three Cxs are expressed in the developing lymphatic vasculature and, when defective, are associated with clinically manifest lymphatic disorders in mice and man.
|SPARC promotes pericyte recruitment via inhibition of endoglin-dependent TGF-β1 activity. |
Rivera, LB; Brekken, RA
The Journal of cell biology 193 1305-19 2011
Pericytes migrate to nascent vessels and promote vessel stability. Recently, we reported that secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC)-deficient mice exhibited decreased pericyte-associated vessels in an orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer, suggesting that SPARC influences pericyte behavior. In this paper, we report that SPARC promotes pericyte migration by regulating the function of endoglin, a TGF-β1 accessory receptor. Primary SPARC-deficient pericytes exhibited increased basal TGF-β1 activity and decreased cell migration, an effect blocked by inhibiting TGF-β1. Furthermore, TGF-β-mediated inhibition of pericyte migration was dependent on endoglin and αV integrin. SPARC interacted directly with endoglin and reduced endoglin interaction with αV integrin. SPARC deficiency resulted in endoglin-mediated blockade of pericyte migration, aberrant association of endoglin in focal complexes, an increase in αV integrins present in endoglin immunoprecipitates, and enhanced αV integrin-mediated activation of TGF-β. These results demonstrate that SPARC promotes pericyte migration by diminishing TGF-β activity and identify a novel function for endoglin in controlling pericyte behavior.
|Differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells into functional oligodendrocytes. |
Czepiel M, Balasubramaniyan V, Schaafsma W, Stancic M, Mikkers H, Huisman C, Boddeke E, Copray S
Glia 59 882-92 2011
The technology to generate autologous pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) from almost any somatic cell type has brought various cell replacement therapies within clinical research. Besides the challenge to optimize iPS protocols to appropriate safety and GMP levels, procedures need to be developed to differentiate iPS cells into specific fully differentiated and functional cell types for implantation purposes. In this article, we describe a protocol to differentiate mouse iPS cells into oligodendrocytes with the aim to investigate the feasibility of IPS stem cell-based therapy for demyelinating disorders, such as multiple sclerosis. Our protocol results in the generation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) that can develop into mature, myelinating oligodendrocytes in-vitro (co-culture with DRG neurons) as well as in-vivo (after implantation in the demyelinated corpus callosum of cuprizone-treated mice). We report the importance of complete purification of the iPS-derived OPC suspension to prevent the contamination with teratoma-forming iPS cells. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
|Dual origin of mesenchymal stem cells contributing to organ growth and repair. |
Feng, J; Mantesso, A; De Bari, C; Nishiyama, A; Sharpe, PT
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108 6503-8 2011
In many adult tissues, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are closely associated with perivascular niches and coexpress many markers in common with pericytes. The ability of pericytes to act as MSCs, however, remains controversial. By using genetic lineage tracing, we show that some pericytes differentiate into specialized tooth mesenchyme-derived cells--odontoblasts--during tooth growth and in response to damage in vivo. As the pericyte-derived mesenchymal cell contribution to odontoblast differentiation does not account for all cell differentiation, we identify an additional source of cells with MSC-like properties that are stimulated to migrate toward areas of tissue damage and differentiate into odontoblasts. Thus, although pericytes are capable of acting as a source of MSCs and differentiating into cells of mesenchymal origin, they do so alongside other MSCs of a nonpericyte origin. This study identifies a dual origin of MSCs in a single tissue and suggests that the pericyte contribution to MSC-derived mesenchymal cells in any given tissue is variable and possibly dependent on the extent of the vascularity.
|Angiopoietin-1 is essential in mouse vasculature during development and in response to injury. |
Jeansson, M; Gawlik, A; Anderson, G; Li, C; Kerjaschki, D; Henkelman, M; Quaggin, SE
The Journal of clinical investigation 121 2278-89 2011
Angiopoietin-1/Tek signaling is a critical regulator of blood vessel development, with conventional knockout of angiopoietin-1 or Tek in mice being embryonically lethal due to vascular defects. In addition, angiopoietin-1 is thought to be required for the stability of mature vessels. Using a Cre-Lox conditional gene targeting approach, we have studied the role of angiopoietin-1 in embryonic and adult vasculature. We report here that angiopoietin-1 is critical for regulating both the number and diameter of developing vessels but is not required for pericyte recruitment. Cardiac-specific knockout of angiopoietin-1 reproduced the phenotype of the conventional knockout, demonstrating that the early vascular abnormalities arise from flow-dependent defects. Strikingly, deletion in the entire embryo after day E13.5 produced no immediate vascular phenotype. However, when combined with injury or microvascular stress, angiopoietin-1 deficiency resulted in profound organ damage, accelerated angiogenesis, and fibrosis. These findings redefine our understanding of the biological roles of angiopoietin-1: it is dispensable in quiescent vessels but has a powerful ability to modulate the vascular response after injury.Artículo Texto completo
|Evaluation of early and late effects into the acute spinal cord injury of an injectable functionalized self-assembling scaffold. |
Cigognini, D; Satta, A; Colleoni, B; Silva, D; Donegà, M; Antonini, S; Gelain, F
PloS one 6 e19782 2011
The complex physiopathological events occurring after spinal cord injury (SCI) make this devastating trauma still incurable. Self-assembling peptides (SAPs) are nanomaterials displaying some appealing properties for application in regenerative medicine because they mimic the structure of the extra-cellular matrix (ECM), are reabsorbable, allow biofunctionalizations and can be injected directly into the lesion. In this study we evaluated the putative neurorigenerative properties of RADA16-4G-BMHP1 SAP, proved to enhance in vitro neural stem cells survival and differentiation. This SAP (RADA16-I) has been functionalized with a bone marrow homing motif (BMHP1) and optimized via the insertion of a 4-glycine-spacer that ameliorates scaffold stability and exposure of the biomotifs. We injected the scaffold immediately after contusion in the rat spinal cord, then we evaluated the early effects by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and the late effects by histological analysis. Locomotor recovery over 8 weeks was assessed using Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) test. Gene expression analysis showed that at 7 days after lesion the functionalized SAP induced a general upregulation of GAP-43, trophic factors and ECM remodelling proteins, whereas 3 days after SCI no remarkable changes were observed. Hystological analysis revealed that 8 weeks after SCI our scaffold increased cellular infiltration, basement membrane deposition and axon regeneration/sprouting within the cyst. Moreover the functionalized SAP showed to be compatible with the surrounding nervous tissue and to at least partially fill the cavities. Finally SAP injection resulted in a statistically significant improvement of both hindlimbs' motor performance and forelimbs-hindlimbs coordination. Altogether, these results indicate that RADA16-4G-BMHP1 induced favourable reparative processes, such as matrix remodelling, and provided a physical and trophic support to nervous tissue ingrowth. Thus this biomaterial, eventually combined with cells and growth factors, may constitute a promising biomimetic scaffold for regenerative applications in the injured central nervous system.Artículo Texto completo
|Use of a mouse model of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors to find pericyte biomarkers of resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy. |
M Franco,M Pàez-Ribes,E Cortez,O Casanovas,K Pietras
Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme 43 2011
The successful introduction of rationally targeted agents into standard cancer care is a testimony of the vast knowledge base in tumor biology. However, in order to provide individually tailored therapy to patients and to identify small subsets of patients with a high likelihood to benefit from treatment, the identification of biomarkers for response or resistance to a particular therapeutic regimen is imperative. Herein, by the use of a genetically engineered mouse model of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, we have assessed the utility of pericyte characteristics in terms of differential marker expression to serve as surrogate markers for response or evasive resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy. We found that tumors refractory to therapy following long-term treatment with a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 blocking antibody contained blood vessels with a prolific investment of pericytes expressing ?-smooth muscle actin. Further analysis by simultaneous immunostaining for different pericyte markers led to the conclusion that the increased abundance of this particular subtype of blood vessels most likely occurred by co-option of vessels from the surrounding exocrine pancreas. Our findings may form the basis for retrospective analysis of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors from patients having undergone treatment with anti-angiogenic agents in order to validate the occurrence of pericytes expressing ?-smooth muscle actin as a biomarker for tumors refractory to therapy.
|Macroglial plasticity and the origins of reactive astroglia in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. |
Guo, F; Maeda, Y; Ma, J; Delgado, M; Sohn, J; Miers, L; Ko, EM; Bannerman, P; Xu, J; Wang, Y; Zhou, C; Takebayashi, H; Pleasure, D
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 31 11914-28 2011
Accumulations of hypertrophic, intensely glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive (GFAP(+)) astroglia, which also express immunoreactive nestin and vimentin, are prominent features of multiple sclerosis lesions. The issues of the cellular origin of hypertrophic GFAP(+)/vimentin(+)/nestin(+) "reactive" astroglia and also the plasticities and lineage relationships among three macroglial progenitor populations-oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), astrocytes and ependymal cells-during multiple sclerosis and other CNS diseases remain controversial. We used genetic fate-mappings with a battery of inducible Cre drivers (Olig2-Cre-ER(T2), GFAP-Cre-ER(T2), FoxJ1-Cre-ER(T2) and Nestin-Cre-ER(T2)) to explore these issues in adult mice with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The proliferative rate of spinal cord OPCs rose fivefold above control levels during EAE, and numbers of oligodendroglia increased as well, but astrogenesis from OPCs was rare. Spinal cord ependymal cells, previously reported to be multipotent, did not augment their low proliferative rate, nor give rise to astroglia or OPCs. Instead, the hypertrophic, vimentin(+)/nestin(+), reactive astroglia that accumulated in spinal cord in this multiple sclerosis model were derived by proliferation and phenotypic transformation of fibrous astroglia in white matter, and solely by phenotypic transformation of protoplasmic astroglia in gray matter. This comprehensive analysis of macroglial plasticity in EAE helps to clarify the origins of astrogliosis in CNS inflammatory demyelinative disorders.
|Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulator fingolimod (FTY720) does not promote remyelination in vivo. |
Yinghui Hu,Xinhua Lee,Benxiu Ji,Kevin Guckian,Daniel Apicco,R Blake Pepinsky,Robert H Miller,Sha Mi
Molecular and cellular neurosciences 48 2011
The sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulators have emerged as a new therapeutic opportunity paradigm for the treatment of immune-mediated demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). The S1P analog fingolimod (FTY720) has been shown to alleviate disease burden in immune-mediated animal models of MS, and has been approved for treatment in clinical trials in patients with MS in the United States. While the immunological effects of FTY720 are well established, there is controversy in the literature regarding the contribution of FTY720 on myelin repair. Here, we directly assessed the impact of FTY720 on myelin repair in cuprizone and lysolecithin (LPC) demyelination models that have a minimal immunological component. FTY720 failed to promote remyelination in either animal model. These studies suggest that while FTY720 may be effective at modulating the immunological attack in MS, it may benefit from an add-on therapy to enhance the myelin repair required for long-term functional restoration in MS.
|Matrix metalloproteinase-9 controls proliferation of NG2+ progenitor cells immediately after spinal cord injury. |
Liu, H; Shubayev, VI
Experimental neurology 231 236-46 2011
We have demonstrated that overcoming matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-mediated suppression of glial proliferation stimulates axonal regeneration in the peripheral nervous system. The regenerative capacity of the adult CNS in response to injury and demyelination depends on the ability of multipotent glial NG2+ progenitor cells to proliferate and mature, mainly into oligodendrocytes. Herein, we have established the important role of MMPs, specifically MMP-9, in regulation of NG2+ cell proliferation in injured spinal cord. Targeting transiently induced MMP-9 using acute MMP-9/2 inhibitor (SB-3CT) therapy for two days after T9-10 spinal cord dorsal hemisection produced a significant increase in mitosis (assessed by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation) of NG2+ cells but not GFAP+astrocytes and Iba-1+ microglia and/or macrophages. Acute MMP-9/2 blockade reduced the shedding of the NG2 proteoglycan and of the NR1 subunit of the N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, whose decline is believed to accompany NG2+ cell maturation into OLs. Increase in post-mitotic oligodendrocytes during remyelination and improved myelin neuropathology in the hemisected spinal cord were accompanied by locomotion and somatosensory recovery after acute MMP-9/2 inhibition. Collectively, these data establish a novel role for MMPs in regulation of NG2+ cell proliferation in the damaged CNS, and a long-term benefit of acute MMP-9 block after SCI.
|The opiate analgesic buprenorphine decreases proliferation of adult hippocampal neuroblasts and increases survival of their progeny. |
Pettit AS, Desroches R, Bennett SA
Although opiate drugs of abuse have been shown to decrease adult hippocampal neurogenesis, the impact of opiate analgesics has not been tested. North American regulatory boards governing the ethical treatment of experimental animals require the administration of analgesics, such as buprenorphine, following minor surgical interventions. Here, we show that two commonly used post-operative buprenorphine dosing regimes significantly inhibit the proliferation of doublecortin-positive neuroblasts but not other hippocampal stem and progenitor populations in adult mice. Buprenorphine, administered in schedules of three 0.05 mg/kg subcutaneous injections over a single day or seven 0.05 mg/kg injections over a 3-day period decreased the number of actively proliferating 5-iodo-2\'-deoxyuridine-labeled doublecortin-positive cells for up to 6 days after opiate withdrawal. The minimal (three injection), but not standard (seven injection), analgesic paradigm also reduced basal indices of hippocampal progenitor cell apoptosis and enhanced survival of newly born cells for up to 28 days. Taken together, these data provide the first evidence that the routine administration of opiate analgesics has transient but long-lasting effects on neurogenesis and further emphasize that analgesic dosage and schedule should be reported and considered when interpreting the magnitude of neural stem and progenitor cell activation in response to in vivo intervention.Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
|Pericytes promote endothelial cell survival through induction of autocrine VEGF-A signaling and Bcl-w expression. |
Franco, M; Roswall, P; Cortez, E; Hanahan, D; Pietras, K
Blood 118 2906-17 2011
Endothelial cells (ECs) in blood vessels under formation are stabilized by the recruitment of pericytes, both in normal tissues and during angiogenesis in pathologic situations, including neoplasia. In the tumor vasculature, besides supporting the functionality of blood flow, pericytes protect ECs from antiangiogenic therapies, and have thus been implicated in clinical resistance to vascular targeting drugs. However, the molecular nature of the crosstalk between pericytes and ECs is largely unchartered. Herein, we identified pericyte-induced survival signals in ECs by isolation of vascular fragments derived from tumors that had been genetically or pharmacologically engineered to be either pericyte-rich or pericyte-poor. Pericytes induced the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-w in tumor ECs both in vivo and in vitro, thereby conveying protection from cytotoxic damage. The pericyte-dependent survival signaling in ECs was consequential to enforcement of an autocrine loop involving VEGF-A expression in ECs. Through molecular and functional studies, we delineated a signal transduction pathway in ECs downstream of integrin α(v) involving activation of NF-κB as the initiating event of the protective crosstalk from pericytes. Our elucidation of pericyte-derived pro-survival signaling in tumor ECs has potentially important implications for clinical development of antiangiogenic drugs, and suggests new therapeutic targets for rational multitargeting of cancer.Artículo Texto completo
|The antiangiogenic 16K prolactin impairs functional tumor neovascularization by inhibiting vessel maturation. |
Nguyen, NQ; Castermans, K; Berndt, S; Herkenne, S; Tabruyn, SP; Blacher, S; Lion, M; Noel, A; Martial, JA; Struman, I
PloS one 6 e27318 2011
Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from existing vasculature, plays an essential role in tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. 16K hPRL, the antiangiogenic 16-kDa N-terminal fragment of human prolactin was shown to prevent tumor growth and metastasis by modifying tumor vessel morphology.Here we investigated the effect of 16K hPRL on tumor vessel maturation and on the related signaling pathways. We show that 16K hPRL treatment leads, in a murine B16-F10 tumor model, to a dysfunctional tumor vasculature with reduced pericyte coverage, and disruption of the PDGF-B/PDGFR-B, Ang/Tie2, and Delta/Notch pathways. In an aortic ring assay, 16K hPRL impairs endothelial cell and pericyte outgrowth from the vascular ring. In addition, 16K hPRL prevents pericyte migration to endothelial cells. This event was independent of a direct inhibitory effect of 16K hPRL on pericyte viability, proliferation, or migration. In endothelial cell-pericyte cocultures, we found 16K hPRL to disturb Notch signaling.Taken together, our data show that 16K hPRL impairs functional tumor neovascularization by inhibiting vessel maturation and for the first time that an endogenous antiangiogenic agent disturbs Notch signaling. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms of 16K hPRL action and highlight its potential for use in anticancer therapy.
|Derivation of Enriched Oligodendrocyte Cultures and OligodendrocyteNeuron Myelinating Co-cultures from Post-natal Murine Tissues. |
O'Meara RW, Ryan SD, Colognato H, Kothary R.
Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE 2011
Identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying OL development is not only critical to furthering our knowledge of OL biology, but also has implications for understanding the pathogenesis of demyelinating diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Cellular development is commonly studied with primary cell culture models. Primary cell culture facilitates the evaluation of a given cell type by providing a controlled environment, free of the extraneous variables that are present in vivo. While OL cultures derived from rats have provided a vast amount of insight into OL biology, similar efforts at establishing OL cultures from mice has been met with major obstacles. Developing methods to culture murine primary OLs is imperative in order to take advantage of the available transgenic mouse lines. Multiple methods for extraction of OPCs from rodent tissue have been described, ranging from neurosphere derivation, differential adhesion purification and immunopurification (1-3). While many methods offer success, most require extensive culture times and/or costly equipment/reagents. To circumvent this, purifying OPCs from murine tissue with an adaptation of the method originally described by McCarthy & de Vellis (2) is preferred. This method involves physically separating OPCs from a mixed glial culture derived from neonatal rodent cortices. The result is a purified OPC population that can be differentiated into an OL-enriched culture. This approach is appealing due to its relatively short culture time and the unnecessary requirement for growth factors or immunopanning antibodies. While exploring the mechanisms of OL development in a purified culture is informative, it does not provide the most physiologically relevant environment for assessing myelin sheath formation. Co-culturing OLs with neurons would lend insight into the molecular underpinnings regulating OL-mediated myelination of axons. For many OL/neuron co-culture studies, dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRGNs) have proven to be the neuron type of choice. They are ideal for co-culture with OLs due to their ease of extraction, minimal amount of contaminating cells, and formation of dense neurite beds. While studies using rat/mouse myelinating xenocultures have been published (4-6), a method for the derivation of such OL/DRGN myelinating co-cultures from post-natal murine tissue has not been described. Here we present detailed methods on how to effectively produce such cultures, along with examples of expected results. These methods are useful for addressing questions relevant to OL development/myelinating function, and are useful tools in the field of neuroscience.
|Misalignment of PLP/DM20 transmembrane domains determines protein misfolding in Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease. |
Dhaunchak, AS; Colman, DR; Nave, KA
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 31 14961-71 2011
A large number of genetic diseases have been associated with truncated or misfolded membrane proteins trapped in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In the ER, they activate the unfolded protein response, which can trigger cell death. Hence, a better understanding of protein misfolding features might help in developing novel therapies. Here, we have studied the molecular basis of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease, a leukodystrophy defined by mutations of the PLP1 gene and ER retention of two encoded tetraspan myelin proteins, PLP and DM20. In mouse oligodendroglial cells, mutant isoforms of PLP/DM20 with fewer than all four transmembrane (TM) domains are fully ER retained. Surprisingly, a truncated PLP with only two N-terminal TM domains shows normal cell-surface expression when coexpressed with a second truncated PLP harboring the two C-terminal TM domains. This striking ability to properly self-align the TM domains is disease relevant, as shown for the smaller splice isoform DM20. Here, the increased length of TM domain 3 allows for compensation of the effect of several PLP1 point mutations that impose a conformational constraint onto the adjacent extracellular loop region. We conclude that an important determinant in the quality control of polytopic membrane proteins is the free alignment of their TM domains.
|Rapid and robust generation of functional oligodendrocyte progenitor cells from epiblast stem cells. |
Najm, FJ; Zaremba, A; Caprariello, AV; Nayak, S; Freundt, EC; Scacheri, PC; Miller, RH; Tesar, PJ
Nature methods 8 957-62 2011
Myelin-related disorders such as multiple sclerosis and leukodystrophies, for which restoration of oligodendrocyte function would be an effective treatment, are poised to benefit greatly from stem cell biology. Progress in myelin repair has been constrained by difficulties in generating pure populations of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in sufficient quantities. Pluripotent stem cells theoretically provide an unlimited source of OPCs, but current differentiation strategies are poorly reproducible and generate heterogenous populations of cells. Here we provide a platform for the directed differentiation of pluripotent mouse epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) through defined developmental transitions into a pure population of highly expandable OPCs in 10 d. These OPCs robustly differentiate into myelinating oligodendrocytes in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrate that mouse pluripotent stem cells provide a pure population of myelinogenic oligodendrocytes and offer a tractable platform for defining the molecular regulation of oligodendrocyte development and drug screening.
|Multiple stromal populations contribute to pulmonary fibrosis without evidence for epithelial to mesenchymal transition. |
Rock, JR; Barkauskas, CE; Cronce, MJ; Xue, Y; Harris, JR; Liang, J; Noble, PW; Hogan, BL
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108 E1475-83 2011
There are currently few treatment options for pulmonary fibrosis. Innovations may come from a better understanding of the cellular origin of the characteristic fibrotic lesions. We have analyzed normal and fibrotic mouse and human lungs by confocal microscopy to define stromal cell populations with respect to several commonly used markers. In both species, we observed unexpected heterogeneity of stromal cells. These include numerous cells with molecular and morphological characteristics of pericytes, implicated as a source of myofibroblasts in other fibrotic tissues. We used mouse genetic tools to follow the fates of specific cell types in the bleomcyin-induced model of pulmonary fibrosis. Using inducible transgenic alleles to lineage trace pericyte-like cells in the alveolar interstitium, we show that this population proliferates in fibrotic regions. However, neither these cells nor their descendants express high levels of the myofibroblast marker alpha smooth muscle actin (Acta2, aSMA). We then used a Surfactant protein C-CreER(T2) knock-in allele to follow the fate of Type II alveolar cells (AEC2) in vivo. We find no evidence at the cellular or molecular level for epithelial to mesenchymal transition of labeled cells into myofibroblasts. Rather, bleomycin accelerates the previously reported conversion of AEC2 into AEC1 cells. Similarly, epithelial cells labeled with our Scgb1a1-CreER allele do not give rise to fibroblasts but generate both AEC2 and AEC1 cells in response to bleomycin-induced lung injury. Taken together, our results show a previously unappreciated heterogeneity of cell types proliferating in fibrotic lesions and exclude pericytes and two epithelial cell populations as the origin of myofibroblasts.
|SDF-1α induces PDGF-B expression and the differentiation of bone marrow cells into pericytes. |
Hamdan, R; Zhou, Z; Kleinerman, ES
Molecular cancer research : MCR 9 1462-70 2011
Platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF-B) and its receptor, PDGFR-β, play a critical role in pericyte maturation; however, the mechanisms by which PDGF-B is upregulated in the tumor microenvironment remain unclear. We previously showed that upregulating stromal-derived factor, SDF-1α, in VEGF(165)-inhibited Ewing's sarcoma tumors (TC/siVEGF(7-1)) induced PDGF-B mRNA expression, increased infiltration and differentiation of bone marrow cells (BMC) into pericytes and, rescued tumor growth. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which SDF-1α increased PDGF-B expression and the role of this pathway in BM-derived pericyte differentiation. We showed that SDF-1α induced expression of PDGF-B mRNA and protein both in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, inhibiting SDF-1α downregulated PDGF-B. We cloned the 2-kb pdgf-b promoter fragment and showed that SDF-1α activates PDGF-B via a transcriptional mechanism. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that the ELK-1 transcription factor binds to the pdgf-b promoter in response to SDF-1α. We confirmed the correlation between the SDF-1α/PDGF-B pathway and the differentiation of PDGFR-β+ BMCs into mature pericytes using an in vitro assay. These findings show that SDF-1α regulates PDGF-B expression and that this regulation plays a critical role in the differentiation of PDGFR-β+ BMCs into mature pericytes.
|In situ dividing and phagocytosing retinal microglia express nestin, vimentin, and NG2 in vivo. |
Wohl, SG; Schmeer, CW; Friese, T; Witte, OW; Isenmann, S
PloS one 6 e22408 2011
Following injury, microglia become activated with subsets expressing nestin as well as other neural markers. Moreover, cerebral microglia can give rise to neurons in vitro. In a previous study, we analysed the proliferation potential and nestin re-expression of retinal macroglial cells such as astrocytes and Müller cells after optic nerve (ON) lesion. However, we were unable to identify the majority of proliferative nestin(+) cells. Thus, the present study evaluates expression of nestin and other neural markers in quiescent and proliferating microglia in naïve retina and following ON transection in adult rats in vivo.For analysis of cell proliferation and cells fates, rats received BrdU injections. Microglia in retinal sections or isolated cells were characterized using immunofluorescence labeling with markers for microglia (e.g., Iba1, CD11b), cell proliferation, and neural cells (e.g., nestin, vimentin, NG2, GFAP, Doublecortin etc.). Cellular analyses were performed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. In the naïve adult rat retina, about 60% of resting ramified microglia expressed nestin. After ON transection, numbers of nestin(+) microglia peaked to a maximum at 7 days, primarily due to in situ cell proliferation of exclusively nestin(+) microglia. After 8 weeks, microglia numbers re-attained control levels, but 20% were still BrdU(+) and nestin(+), although no further local cell proliferation occurred. In addition, nestin(+) microglia co-expressed vimentin and NG2, but not GFAP or neuronal markers. Fourteen days after injury and following retrograde labeling of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) with Fluorogold (FG), nestin(+)NG2(+) microglia were positive for the dye indicating an active involvement of a proliferating cell population in phagocytosing apoptotic retinal neurons.The current study provides evidence that in adult rat retina, a specific resident population of microglia expresses proteins of immature neural cells that are involved in injury-induced cell proliferation and phagocytosis while transdifferentiation was not observed.
|An isolated cryptic peptide influences osteogenesis and bone remodeling in an adult mammalian model of digit amputation. |
Agrawal, V; Kelly, J; Tottey, S; Daly, KA; Johnson, SA; Siu, BF; Reing, J; Badylak, SF
Tissue engineering. Part A 17 3033-44 2011
Biologic scaffolds composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) have been used successfully in preclinical models and humans for constructive remodeling of functional, site-appropriate tissue after injury. The mechanisms underlying ECM-mediated constructive remodeling are not completely understood, but scaffold degradation and site-directed recruitment of progenitor cells are thought to play critical roles. Previous studies have identified a cryptic peptide derived from the C-terminal telopeptide of collagen IIIα that has chemotactic activity for progenitor cells. The present study characterized the osteogenic activity of the same peptide in vitro and in vivo in an adult murine model of digit amputation. The present study showed that the cryptic peptide increased calcium deposition, alkaline phosphatase activity, and osteogenic gene expression in human perivascular stem cells in vitro. Treatment with the cryptic peptide in a murine model of mid-second phalanx digit amputation led to the formation of a bone nodule at the site of amputation. In addition to potential therapeutic implications for the treatment of bone injuries and facilitation of reconstructive surgical procedures, cryptic peptides with the ability to alter stem cell recruitment and differentiation at a site of injury may serve as powerful new tools for influencing stem cell fate in the local injury microenvironment.
|Stimulation of adult oligodendrogenesis by myelin-specific T cells. |
Hvilsted Nielsen, H; Toft-Hansen, H; Lambertsen, KL; Owens, T; Finsen, B
The American journal of pathology 179 2028-41 2011
In multiple sclerosis (MS), myelin-specific T cells are normally associated with destruction of myelin and axonal damage. However, in acute MS plaque, remyelination occurs concurrent with T-cell infiltration, which raises the question of whether T cells might stimulate myelin repair. We investigated the effect of myelin-specific T cells on oligodendrocyte formation at sites of axonal damage in the mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus. Infiltrating T cells specific for myelin proteolipid protein stimulated proliferation of chondroitin sulfate NG2-expressing oligodendrocyte precursor cells early after induction via axonal transection, resulting in a 25% increase in the numbers of oligodendrocytes. In contrast, T cells specific for ovalbumin did not stimulate the formation of new oligodendrocytes. In addition, infiltration of myelin-specific T cells enhanced the sprouting response of calretinergic associational/commissural fibers within the dentate gyrus. These results have implications for the perception of MS pathogenesis because they show that infiltrating myelin-specific T cells can stimulate oligodendrogenesis in the adult central nervous system.
|Connective tissue fibroblasts and Tcf4 regulate myogenesis. |
Mathew, SJ; Hansen, JM; Merrell, AJ; Murphy, MM; Lawson, JA; Hutcheson, DA; Hansen, MS; Angus-Hill, M; Kardon, G
Development (Cambridge, England) 138 371-84 2011
Muscle and its connective tissue are intimately linked in the embryo and in the adult, suggesting that interactions between these tissues are crucial for their development. However, the study of muscle connective tissue has been hindered by the lack of molecular markers and genetic reagents to label connective tissue fibroblasts. Here, we show that the transcription factor Tcf4 (transcription factor 7-like 2; Tcf7l2) is strongly expressed in connective tissue fibroblasts and that Tcf4(GFPCre) mice allow genetic manipulation of these fibroblasts. Using this new reagent, we find that connective tissue fibroblasts critically regulate two aspects of myogenesis: muscle fiber type development and maturation. Fibroblasts promote (via Tcf4-dependent signals) slow myogenesis by stimulating the expression of slow myosin heavy chain. Also, fibroblasts promote the switch from fetal to adult muscle by repressing (via Tcf4-dependent signals) the expression of developmental embryonic myosin and promoting (via a Tcf4-independent mechanism) the formation of large multinucleate myofibers. In addition, our analysis of Tcf4 function unexpectedly reveals a novel mechanism of intrinsic regulation of muscle fiber type development. Unlike other intrinsic regulators of fiber type, low levels of Tcf4 in myogenic cells promote both slow and fast myogenesis, thereby promoting overall maturation of muscle fiber type. Thus, we have identified novel extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms regulating myogenesis. Most significantly, our data demonstrate for the first time that connective tissue is important not only for adult muscle structure and function, but is a vital component of the niche within which muscle progenitors reside and is a critical regulator of myogenesis.
|Genetic and pharmacological targeting of activin receptor-like kinase 1 impairs tumor growth and angiogenesis. |
Cunha, SI; Pardali, E; Thorikay, M; Anderberg, C; Hawinkels, L; Goumans, MJ; Seehra, J; Heldin, CH; ten Dijke, P; Pietras, K
The Journal of experimental medicine 207 85-100 2010
Members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) family have been genetically linked to vascular formation during embryogenesis. However, contradictory studies about the role of TGF-beta and other family members with reported vascular functions, such as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 9, in physiological and pathological angiogenesis make the need for mechanistic studies apparent. We demonstrate, by genetic and pharmacological means, that the TGF-beta and BMP9 receptor activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) 1 represents a new therapeutic target for tumor angiogenesis. Diminution of ALK1 gene dosage or systemic treatment with the ALK1-Fc fusion protein RAP-041 retarded tumor growth and progression by inhibition of angiogenesis in a transgenic mouse model of multistep tumorigenesis. Furthermore, RAP-041 significantly impaired the in vitro and in vivo angiogenic response toward vascular endothelial growth factor A and basic fibroblast growth factor. In seeking the mechanism for the observed effects, we uncovered an unexpected signaling synergy between TGF-beta and BMP9, through which the combined action of the two factors augmented the endothelial cell response to angiogenic stimuli. We delineate a decisive role for signaling by TGF-beta family members in tumor angiogenesis and offer mechanistic insight for the forthcoming clinical development of drugs blocking ALK1 in oncology.Artículo Texto completo
|Sustained delivery of sphingosine-1-phosphate using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-based microparticles stimulates Akt/ERK-eNOS mediated angiogenesis and vascular maturation restoring blood flow in ischemic limbs of mice. |
Qi X, Okamoto Y, Murakawa T, Wang F, Oyama O, Ohkawa R, Yoshioka K, Du W, Sugimoto N, Yatomi Y, Takuwa N, Takuwa Y
Eur J Pharmacol 634 121-31. Epub 2010 Mar 3. 2010
Therapeutic angiogenesis is a promising strategy for treating ischemia. The lysophospholipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) acts on vascular endothelial cells to stimulate migration and tube formation, and plays the critical role in developmental angiogenesis. We developed poly(lactic-co-glycolic-acid) (PLGA)-based S1P-containing microparticles (PLGA-S1P), which are biodegradable and continuously release S1P, and studied the effects of PLGA-S1P on neovascularization in murine ischemic hindlimbs. Intramuscular injections of PLGA-S1P stimulated blood flow in C57BL/6 mice dose-dependently, with repeated administrations at a 3-day interval, rather than a single bolus or 6-day interval, over 28 days conferring the optimal stimulating effect. In Balb/c mice that exhibit limb necrosis and dysfunction due to retarded blood flow recovery, injections of PLGA-S1P stimulated blood flow with alleviation of limb necrosis and dysfunction. PLGA-S1P alone did not induce edema in ischemic limbs, and rather blocked vascular endothelial growth factor-induced edema. PLGA-S1P not only increased the microvessel densities in ischemic muscle, but promoted coverage of vessels with smooth muscle cells and pericytes, thus stabilizing vessels. PLGA-S1P stimulated Akt and ERK with increased phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in ischemic muscle. The effects of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methylester, showed that PLGA-S1P-induced blood flow stimulation was partially dependent on nitric oxide. Injections of PLGA-S1P also increased the expression of angiogenic factors and the recruitment of CD45-, CD11b- and Gr-1-positive myeloid cells, which are implicated in post-ischemic angiogenesis, into ischemic muscle. These results indicate that PLGA-based, sustained local delivery of S1P is a potentially useful therapeutic modality for stimulating post-ischemic angiogenesis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
|Differing in vitro survival dependency of mouse and rat NG2+ oligodendroglial progenitor cells. |
Horiuchi M, Lindsten T, Pleasure D, Itoh T
J Neurosci Res 88 957-70. 2010
NG2 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan is a surface marker of oligodendroglial progenitor cells (OPCs) in various species. In contrast to well-studied rat OPCs, however, we found that purified mouse NG2 surface positive cells (NG2(+) cells) require additional activation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling for survival in a medium containing 30% B104 neuroblastoma conditioned medium supplemented with fibroblast growth factor-2 (B104CM+FGF2), whereas B104CM+FGF2 alone is sufficient for survival and selective proliferation of rat OPCs. After induction of in vitro differentiation, more than 90% of mouse NG2(+) cells became O4-positive, and a majority expressed myelin basic protein by 5 day of differentiation, which confirmed the identity of isolated mouse NG2(+) cells as OPCs. In comparison to rat OPCs, mouse OPCs in B104CM+FGF2 were less motile, and demonstrated lower basal phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and a higher incidence of apoptosis mediated by the intrinsic pathway. Transient up-regulation of cAMP-CREB signaling partially inhibited apoptosis of mouse OPCs independently of the ERK pathway. This study demonstrates a difference in trophic requirements between mouse and rat OPCs, with an essential role for cAMP signaling to preserve viability of mouse OPCs. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.Artículo Texto completo
|Embryonic stem cells promote motor recovery and affect inflammatory cell infiltration in spinal cord injured mice. |
Bottai D, Cigognini D, Madaschi L, Adami R, Nicora E, Menarini M, Di Giulio AM, Gorio A
Experimental neurology 2010
The purpose of this study was to determine the fate and the effects of undifferentiated embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in mice after contusive lesion of the spinal cord (SCI). Reproducible traumatic lesion to the cord was performed at T8 level by means of the Infinite Horizon Device, and was followed by intravenous injection of one million of undifferentiated ESCs through the tail vein within 2 h from the lesion. The ESCs-treated animals showed a significant improvement of the recovery of motor function 28 days after lesion, with an average score of 4.61+/-0.13 points of the Basso Mouse Scale (n=14), when compared to the average score of vehicle treated mice, 3.58+/-0.23 (n=10). The number of identified ESCs found at the lesion site was 0.6% of the injected cells at 1 week after transplantation, and further reduced to 0.04% at 1 month. It is, thus, apparent that the promoted hind-limb recovery cannot be correlated to a substitution of the lost tissue performed by the exogenous ESC. The extensive evaluation of production of several neuroprotective and inflammatory cytokines did not reveal any effect by ESC-treatment, but unexpectedly the number of invading macrophages and neutrophils was greatly reduced. This may explain the improved preservation of lesion site ventral myelin, at both 1 week (29+/-11%) and 1 month (106+/-14%) after injury. No teratoma formation was observed, although an inappropriate colonization of the sacral cord by differentiated nestin- and beta-tubulin III-positive ESCs was detected. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
|Soluble forms of VEGF receptor-1 and -2 promote vascular maturation via mural cell recruitment. |
Lorquet S, Berndt S, Blacher S, Gengoux E, Peulen O, Maquoi E, Noël A, Foidart JM, Munaut C, Péqueux C
FASEB J 2010
Two soluble forms of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors, sVEGFR-1 and sVEGFR-2, are physiologically released and overproduced in some pathologies. They are known to act as anti-VEGF agents. Here we report that these soluble receptors contribute to vessel maturation by mediating a dialogue between endothelial cells (ECs) and mural cells that leads to blood vessel stabilization. Through a multidisciplinary approach, we provide evidence that these soluble VEGF receptors promote mural cell migration through a paracrine mechanism involving interplay in ECs between VEGF/VEGFR-2 and sphingosine-1-phosphate type-1 (S1P)/S1P1 pathways that leads to endothelial nitric oxyde synthase (eNOS) activation. This new paradigm is supported by the finding that sVEGFR-1 and -2 perform the following actions: 1) induce an eNOS-dependent outgrowth of a mural cell network in an ex vivo model of angiogenesis, 2) increase the mural cell coverage of neovessels in vitro and in vivo, 3) promote mural cell migration toward ECs, and 4) stimulate endothelial S1P1 overproduction and eNOS activation that promote the migration and the recruitment of neighboring mural cells. These findings provide new insights into mechanisms regulating physiological and pathological angiogenesis and vessel stabilization.-Lorquet, S., Berndt, S., Blacher, S., Gengoux, E., Peulen, O., Maquoi, E., NoÃ«l, A., Foidart, J.-M., Munaut, C., PÃ©queux, C. Soluble forms of VEGF receptor-1 and -2 promote vascular maturation via mural cell recruitment.
|Hypoxia-ischemia induces an endogenous reparative response by local neural progenitors in the postnatal mouse telencephalon. |
Dizon, M; Szele, F; Kessler, JA
Developmental neuroscience 32 173-83 2010
Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia in the preterm neonate commonly results in white matter injury for which there is no specific therapy. The subventricular zone (SVZ) of the brain harbors neural stem cells and more committed progenitors including oligodendroglial progenitor cells that might serve as replacement cells for treating white matter injury. Data from rodent models suggest limited replacement of mature oligodendroglia by endogenous cells. Rare newly born mature oligodendrocytes have been reported within the striatum, corpus callosum and infarcted cortex 1 month following hypoxia-ischemia. Whether these oligodendrocytes arise in situ or emigrate from the SVZ is unknown. We used a postnatal day 9 mouse model of hypoxia-ischemia, BrdU labeling of mitotic cells, immunofluorescence and time-lapse multiphoton microscopy to determine whether hypoxia-ischemia increases production of oligodendroglial progenitors within the SVZ with emigration toward injured areas. Although cells of the oligodendroglial lineage increased in the brain ipsilateral to hypoxic-ischemic injury, they did not originate from the SVZ but rather arose within the striatum and cortex. Furthermore, they resulted from proliferation within the striatum but not within the cortex. Thus, an endogenous regenerative oligodendroglial response to postnatal hypoxia-ischemia occurs locally, with minimal long-distance contribution by cells of the SVZ.Artículo Texto completo
|Axonal plasticity elicits long-term changes in oligodendroglia and myelinated fibers. |
Drøjdahl N, Nielsen HH, Gardi JE, Wree A, Peterson AC, Nyengaard JR, Eyer J, Finsen B
Glia 58 29-42. 2010
Axons are linked to induction of myelination during development and to the maintenance of myelin and myelinated tracts in the adult CNS. Currently, it is unknown whether and how axonal plasticity in adult CNS impacts the myelinating cells and their precursors. In this article, we report that newly formed axonal sprouts are able to induce a protracted myelination response in adult CNS. We show that newly formed axonal sprouts, induced by lesion of the entorhino-hippocampal perforant pathway, have the ability to induce a myelination response in stratum radiatum and lucidum CA3. The lesion resulted in significant recruitment of newly formed myelinating cells, documented by incorporation of the proliferation marker bromodeoxyuridine into chondroitin sulphate NG2 expressing cells in stratum radiatum and lucidum CA3 early after lesion, and the occurrence of a 28% increase in the number of oligodendrocytes, of which some had incorporated bromodeoxyuridine, 9 weeks post-lesion. Additionally, a marked increase (41%) in myelinated fibres was detected in silver stained sections. Interestingly, these apparently new fibres achieved the same axon diameter as unlesioned mice but myelin thickness remained thinner than normal, suggesting that the sprouting axons in stratum radiatum and lucidum CA3 were not fully myelinated 9 weeks after lesion. Our combined results show that sprouting axons provide a strong stimulus to oligodendrocyte lineage cells to engage actively in the myelination processes in the adult CNS. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
|Angiopoietin-2 interferes with anti-VEGFR2-induced vessel normalization and survival benefit in mice bearing gliomas. |
Chae, SS; Kamoun, WS; Farrar, CT; Kirkpatrick, ND; Niemeyer, E; de Graaf, AM; Sorensen, AG; Munn, LL; Jain, RK; Fukumura, D
Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 16 3618-27 2010
In brain tumors, cerebral edema is a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Recent studies have shown that inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling induces transient vascular normalization and reduces cerebral edema, resulting in a modest survival benefit in glioblastoma patients. During anti-VEGF treatment, circulating levels of angiopoietin (Ang)-2 remained high after an initial minor reduction. It is not known, however, whether Ang-2 can modulate anti-VEGF treatment of glioblastoma. Here, we used an orthotopic glioma model to test the hypothesis that Ang-2 is an additional target for improving the efficacy of current anti-VEGF therapies in glioma patients.To recapitulate high levels of Ang-2 in glioblastoma patients during anti-VEGF treatment, Ang-2 was ectopically expressed in U87 glioma cells. Animal survival and tumor growth were assessed to determine the effects of Ang-2 and anti-VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) treatment. We also monitored morphologic and functional vascular changes using multiphoton laser scanning microscopy and immunohistochemistry.Ectopic expression of Ang-2 had no effect on vascular permeability, tumor growth, or survival, although it resulted in higher vascular density, with dilated vessels and reduced mural cell coverage. On the other hand, when combined with anti-VEGFR2 treatment, Ang-2 destabilized vessels without affecting vessel regression and compromised the survival benefit of VEGFR2 inhibition by increasing vascular permeability. VEGFR2 inhibition normalized tumor vasculature whereas ectopic expression of Ang-2 diminished the beneficial effects of VEGFR2 blockade by inhibiting vessel normalization.Cancer treatment regimens combining anti-VEGF and anti-Ang-2 agents may be an effective strategy to improve the efficacy of current anti-VEGF therapies.Artículo Texto completo
|A synthetic cannabinoid agonist promotes oligodendrogliogenesis during viral encephalitis in rats. |
Solbrig, MV; Fan, Y; Hermanowicz, N; Morgese, MG; Giuffrida, A
Experimental neurology 226 231-41 2010
Chronic CNS infection by several families of viruses can produce deficits in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatal function. Cannabinoid drugs have been long known for their anti-inflammatory properties and their ability to modulate adult neuro and gliogenesis. Therefore, we explored the effects of systemic administration of the cannabinoid agonist WIN55,212-2(WIN) on prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatal cytogenesis in a viral model of CNS injury and inflammation based on Borna Disease (BD) virus encephalitis. Active BrdU(+) progenitor populations were significantly decreased 1 week after BrdU labeling in BD rats [pless than 0.001 compared to uninfected (NL) controls] while less than 5% of BrdU(+) cells colabeled for BDV protein. Systemic WIN (1mg/kg i.p. twice daily×7 days) increased the survival of BrdU(+) cells in striatum (pless than 0.001) and PFC of BD rats, with differential regulation of labeled oligodendroglia precursors vs microglia/macrophages. WIN increased the percentage of BrdU(+) oligodendrocyte precursor cells and decreased BrdU(+) ED-1-labeled phagocytic cells, without producing pro- or antiviral effects. BDV infection decreased the levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) in striatum (pless than 0.05 compared to NL rats), whereas 2-AG levels were unchanged. Our findings indicate that: 1) viral infection is accompanied by alterations of AEA transmission in the striatum, but new cell protection by WIN appears independent of its effect on endocannabinoid levels; and 2) chronic WIN treatment alters the gliogenic cascades associated with CNS injury, promoting oligodendrocyte survival. Limiting reactive gliogenesis and macrophage activity in favor of oliogodendroglia development has significance for demyelinating diseases. Moreover, the ability of cannabinoids to promote the development of biologically supportive or symbiotic oligodendroglia may generalize to other microglia-driven neurodegenerative syndromes including NeuroAIDS and diseases of aging.Artículo Texto completo
|Improvement in disability after alemtuzumab treatment of multiple sclerosis is associated with neuroprotective autoimmunity. |
Jones JL, Anderson JM, Phuah CL, Fox EJ, Selmaj K, Margolin D, Lake SL, Palmer J, Thompson SJ, Wilkins A, Webber DJ, Compston DA, Coles AJ
Treatment of early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis with the lymphocyte-depleting humanized monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab (Campath [registered trade mark]) significantly reduced the risk of relapse and accumulation of disability compared with interferon beta-1a in a phase 2 trial [Coles et al., (Alemtuzumab vs. interferon beta-1a in early multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med 2008; 359: 1786-801)]. Patients treated with alemtuzumab experienced an improvement in disability at 6 months that was sustained for at least 3 years. In contrast, those treated with interferon beta-1a steadily accumulated disability. Here, by post hoc subgroup analyses of the CAMMS223 trial, we show that among participants with no clinical disease activity immediately before treatment, or any clinical or radiological disease activity on-trial, disability improved after alemtuzumab but not following interferon beta-1a. This suggests that disability improvement after alemtuzumab is not solely attributable to its anti-inflammatory effect. So we hypothesized that lymphocytes, reconstituting after alemtuzumab, permit or promote brain repair. Here we show that after alemtuzumab, and only when specifically stimulated with myelin basic protein, peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures produced increased concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, platelet-derived growth factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor. Analysis by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction of cell separations showed that the increased production of ciliary neurotrophic factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor after alemtuzumab is attributable to increased production by T cells. Media from these post-alemtuzumab peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures promoted survival of rat neurones and increased axonal length in vitro, effects that were partially reversed by neutralizing antibodies against brain-derived nerve growth factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor. This conditioned media also enhanced oligodendrocyte precursor cell survival, maturation and myelination. Taken together, the clinical analyses and laboratory findings support the interpretation that improvement in disability after alemtuzumab may result, in part, from neuroprotection associated with increased lymphocytic delivery of neurotrophins to the central nervous system.
|Cytochemical and cytological properties of perineuronal oligodendrocytes in the mouse cortex. |
Chihiro Takasaki,Miwako Yamasaki,Motokazu Uchigashima,Kohtarou Konno,Yuchio Yanagawa,Masahiko Watanabe
The European journal of neuroscience 32 2010
Neuronal cell bodies are associated with glial cells collectively referred to as perineuronal satellite cells. One such satellite cell is the perineuronal oligodendrocyte, which is unmyelinating oligodendrocytes attaching to large neurons in various neural regions. However, little is known about their cellular characteristics and function. In this study, we identified perineuronal oligodendrocytes as 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase-positive cells attaching to neuronal perikarya immunostained for microtubule-associated protein 2, and examined their cytochemical and cytological properties in the mouse cerebral cortex. 2',3'-Cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase-positive perineuronal oligodendrocytes were immunonegative to representative glial markers for astrocytes (brain-type lipid binding protein and glial fibrillary acidic protein), microglia (Iba-1) and NG2(+) glia. However, almost all perineuronal oligodendrocytes expressed glia-specific or glia-enriched metabolic enzymes, i.e. the creatine synthetic enzyme S-adenosylmethionine:guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase and L-serine biosynthetic enzyme 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. As to molecules participating in the glutamate-glutamine cycle, none of the perineuronal oligodendrocytes expressed the plasmalemmal glutamate transporters GLAST and GLT-1, although nearly half of the perineuronal oligodendrocytes were immunopositive for glutamine synthetase. Cytologically, perineuronal oligodendrocytes were mainly distributed in deep cortical layers (layers IV-VI), and attached directly and tightly to neuronal cell bodies, making a long concave impression to the contacting neurons. Interestingly, they attached more to glutamatergic principal neurons than to GABAergic interneurons, and this became evident at postnatal day 14, when the cerebral cortex develops and maturates. These cytochemical and cytological properties suggest that perineuronal oligodendrocytes are so differentiated as to fulfill metabolic support to the associating principal cortical neurons, rather than to regulate their synaptic transmission.
|NG2, a member of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans family mediates the inflammatory response of activated microglia. |
Q Gao, J Lu, Y Huo, N Baby, EA Ling, ST Dheen
Neuroscience 165 386-94 2010
Activation of microglial cells, the resident immune cells of the CNS causes neurotoxicity through the release of a wide array of inflammatory mediators including proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines and reactive oxygen species. In this study, we have investigated the expression of NG2 (also known as CSPG4), one of the members of transmembrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans family, in microglial cells and its role on inflammatory reaction of microglia by analyzing the expression of the proinflammation cytokines (interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)), chemokines (stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha and monocyte chemotactic protein-1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). NG2 expression was not detectable in microglial cells expressing OX-42 in the brains of 1-day old postnatal rat pups and adult rats; it was, however, induced in activated microglial cells in pups and adult rats injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In vitro analysis further confirmed that LPS induced the expression of NG2 in primary microglial cells and this was inhibited by dexamethasone. It has been well demonstrated that LPS induces the expression of iNOS and proinflammatory cytokines in microglia. However in this study, LPS did not induce the mRNA expression of iNOS and cytokines including IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha in microglial cells transfected with CSPG4 siRNA. On the contrary, mRNA expression of chemokines such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha) was significantly increased in LPS-activated microglial cells after CSPG4 siRNA transfection in comparison with the control. The above results indicate that NG2 mediates the induction of iNOS and inflammatory cytokine expression, but not the chemokine expression in activated microglia.
|In vivo intracellular recording suggests that gray matter astrocytes in mature cerebral cortex and hippocampus are electrophysiologically homogeneous. |
Mishima, T; Hirase, H
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 30 3093-100 2010
Previous anatomical and in vitro electrophysiology studies suggest that astrocytes are heterogeneous in physiology, morphology, and biochemical content. However, the extent to which this diversity applies to in vivo conditions is largely unknown. To characterize and classify the physiological and morphological properties of cerebral cortical and hippocampal astrocytes in the intact brain, we performed in vivo intracellular recordings from single astrocytes using anesthetized mature rats. Astrocytes were classified based on their glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity and cell body locations. We analyzed morphometric measures such as the occupied volume and polarity, as well as physiological characteristics such as the mean membrane potential. These measurements did not show obvious segregation into subpopulations, suggesting that gray matter astrocytes in the cortex and hippocampus are composed of a homogeneous population in mature animals. The membrane potential of astrocytes in both cortex and hippocampus fluctuated within a few millivolts in the presence of spontaneous network activity. These membrane potential fluctuations of an astrocyte showed a significant variability that depended on the local field potential state and cell body location. We attribute the variability of the membrane potential fluctuations to local potassium concentration changes due to neuronal activity.
|Widespread enzymatic correction of CNS tissues by a single intracerebral injection of therapeutic lentiviral vector in leukodystrophy mouse models. |
Lattanzi, A; Neri, M; Maderna, C; di Girolamo, I; Martino, S; Orlacchio, A; Amendola, M; Naldini, L; Gritti, A
Human molecular genetics 19 2208-27 2010
Leukodystrophies are rare diseases caused by defects in the genes coding for lysosomal enzymes that degrade several glycosphingolipids. Gene therapy for leukodystrophies requires efficient distribution of the missing enzymes in CNS tissues to prevent demyelination and neurodegeneration. In this work, we targeted the external capsule (EC), a white matter region enriched in neuronal projections, with the aim of obtaining maximal protein distribution from a single injection site. We used bidirectional (bd) lentiviral vectors (LV) (bdLV) to ensure coordinate expression of a therapeutic gene (beta-galactocerebrosidase, GALC; arylsulfatase A, ARSA) and of a reporter gene, thus monitoring simultaneously transgene distribution and enzyme reconstitution. A single EC injection of bdLV.GALC in early symptomatic twitcher mice (a murine model of globoid cell leukodystrophy) resulted in rapid and robust expression of a functional GALC protein in the telencephalon, cerebellum, brainstem and spinal cord. This led to global rescue of enzymatic activity, significant reduction of tissue storage and decrease of activated astroglia and microglia. Widespread protein distribution and complete metabolic correction were also observed after EC injection of bdLV.ARSA in a mouse model of metachromatic leukodystrophy. Our data indicated axonal transport, distribution through cerebrospinal fluid flow and cross-correction as the mechanisms contributing to widespread bioavailability of GALC and ARSA proteins in CNS tissues. LV-mediated gene delivery of lysosomal enzymes by targeting highly interconnected CNS regions is a potentially effective strategy that, combined with a treatment able to target the PNS and peripheral organs, may provide significant therapeutic benefit to patients affected by leukodystrophies.
|Dicer1 and miR-219 Are required for normal oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination. |
Dugas, JC; Cuellar, TL; Scholze, A; Ason, B; Ibrahim, A; Emery, B; Zamanian, JL; Foo, LC; McManus, MT; Barres, BA
Neuron 65 597-611 2010
To investigate the role of microRNAs in regulating oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation and myelination, we utilized transgenic mice in which microRNA processing was disrupted in OL precursor cells (OPCs) and OLs by targeted deletion of Dicer1. We found that inhibition of OPC-OL miRNA processing disrupts normal CNS myelination and that OPCs lacking mature miRNAs fail to differentiate normally in vitro. We identified three miRNAs (miR-219, miR-138, and miR-338) that are induced 10-100x during OL differentiation; the most strongly induced of these, miR-219, is necessary and sufficient to promote OL differentiation, and partially rescues OL differentiation defects caused by total miRNA loss. miR-219 directly represses the expression of PDGFRalpha, Sox6, FoxJ3, and ZFP238 proteins, all of which normally help to promote OPC proliferation. Together, these findings show that miR-219 plays a critical role in coupling differentiation to proliferation arrest in the OL lineage, enabling the rapid transition from proliferating OPCs to myelinating OLs.
|Mitochondrial protection attenuates inflammation-induced impairment of neurogenesis in vitro and in vivo. |
Voloboueva, LA; Lee, SW; Emery, JF; Palmer, TD; Giffard, RG
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 30 12242-51 2010
The impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis has been linked to the pathogenesis of neurological disorders from chronic neurodegenerative disease to the progressive cognitive impairment of children who receive brain irradiation. Numerous studies provide evidence that inflammation downregulates neurogenesis, with multiple factors contributing to this impairment. Although mitochondria are one of the primary targets of inflammatory injury, the role of mitochondrial function in the modulation of neurogenesis remains relatively unstudied. In this study, we used neurosphere-derived cells to show that immature doublecortin (Dcx)-positive neurons are uniquely sensitive to mitochondrial inhibition, demonstrating rapid loss of mitochondrial potential and cell viability compared with glial cells and more mature neurons. Mitochondrial inhibition for 24 h produced no significant changes in astrocyte or oligodendrocyte viability, but reduced viability of mature neurons by 30%, and reduced survival of Dcx(+) cells by 60%. We demonstrate that protection of mitochondrial function with mitochondrial metabolites or the mitochondrial chaperone mtHsp75/mortalin partially reverses the inflammation-associated impairment of neurogenesis in vitro and in irradiated mice in vivo. Our findings highlight mitochondrial mechanisms involved in neurogenesis and indicate mitochondria as a potential target for protective strategies to prevent the impairment of neurogenesis by inflammation.
|A common progenitor for retinal astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. |
Rompani, SB; Cepko, CL
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 30 4970-80 2010
Developing neural tissue undergoes a period of neurogenesis followed by a period of gliogenesis. The lineage relationships among glial cell types have not been defined for most areas of the nervous system. Here we use retroviruses to label clones of glial cells in the chick retina. We found that almost every clone had both astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. In addition, we discovered a novel glial cell type, with features intermediate between those of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, which we have named the diacyte. Diacytes also share a progenitor cell with both astrocytes and oligodendrocytes.
|Differential contribution to neuroendocrine tumorigenesis of parallel egfr signaling in cancer cells and pericytes. |
Nolan-Stevaux, O; Truitt, MC; Pahler, JC; Olson, P; Guinto, C; Lee, DC; Hanahan, D
Genes & cancer 1 125-41 2010
Factors associated with tumor sensitivity to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors in the context of wild-type EGFR remain elusive. This study investigates the mechanistic basis of responsiveness to EGFR inhibitors in the RIP1-Tag2 (RT2) mouse model of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumorigenesis (PNET). Upon treatment of RT2 mice with EGFR inhibitors, PNET tumors harboring wild-type, nonamplified alleles of Egfr grow at a markedly reduced rate and display a significant increase in tumor cell apoptosis, as well as reduced neovascularization. The authors identify Tgf-α and Hb-egf as key limiting mediators of separable pathological functions of Egfr in neuroendocrine tumor progression: Tgf-α mutant tumors present with an elevated apoptotic index, whereas Hb-egf mutant lesions exhibit decreased angiogenic switching and neovascularization. This study not only associates Tgf-α and Hb-egf expression with wild-type Egfr oncogenicity but also ascribes the proangiogenic activity of Egfr in this tumor model to a novel mesenchymal Hb-egf/Egfr signaling axis, whereby endothelial and pericyte-derived Hb-egf activates Egfr specifically in tumor-associated perivascular cells, leading to increased pericyte coverage of the tumor endothelium and enhanced angiogenesis.
|Bone marrow cell recruitment mediated by inducible nitric oxide synthase/stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha signaling repairs the acoustically damaged cochlear blood-labyrinth barrier. |
Dai, M; Yang, Y; Omelchenko, I; Nuttall, AL; Kachelmeier, A; Xiu, R; Shi, X
The American journal of pathology 177 3089-99 2010
Using a mouse model with noise-induced cochlear blood-labyrinth-barrier (CBLB) injury, we examined the effects of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) on the recruitment of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) to the CBLB after acoustic injury. Lethally irradiated C57BL/6J and B6.129P2-Nos2(tm1Lau)/J mice were transplanted with GFP(+)-BMDCs from C57Bl/6-Tg (UBC GFP) mice. Four weeks after transplantation, we assessed the population of GFP(+)-BMDCs in the CBLB. Only small numbers of GFP(+)-BMDCs were found to infiltrate the area of the CBLB in the control recipient mice. However, robust GFP(+)-BMDC migration occurred in the area of the CBLB within the injured cochlea during the first week following acoustic trauma, and further BMDC accumulation was seen by 2 weeks posttrauma. After 4 weeks, the BMDCs were integrated into vessels. Local iNOS from perivascular resident macrophages was found to be important for BMDC infiltration, since mice deficient in iNOS (Inos(-/-)) and mice with iNOS that had been inhibited by 1400W displayed reduced BMDC infiltration. Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) and its chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) were required for the iNOS-triggered recruitment. BMDC recruitment was significantly reduced by the inhibition of SDF-1α activity. Inhibition of the iNOS/SDF-1α signaling pathway reduced vascular repair as observed by reduced vascular density. Our study revealed an intrinsic signaling pathway of iNOS that mediates SDF-1α to promote GFP(+)-BMDC infiltration/targeting in cochlear vascular repair.
|Involvement of the Reck tumor suppressor protein in maternal and embryonic vascular remodeling in mice. |
Chandana, EP; Maeda, Y; Ueda, A; Kiyonari, H; Oshima, N; Yamamoto, M; Kondo, S; Oh, J; Takahashi, R; Yoshida, Y; Kawashima, S; Alexander, DB; Kitayama, H; Takahashi, C; Tabata, Y; Matsuzaki, T; Noda, M
BMC developmental biology 10 84 2010
Developmental angiogenesis proceeds through multiple morphogenetic events including sprouting, intussusception, and pruning. Mice lacking the membrane-anchored metalloproteinase regulator Reck die in utero around embryonic day 10.5 with halted vascular development; however, the mechanisms by which this phenotype arises remain unclear.We found that Reck is abundantly expressed in the cells associated with blood vessels undergoing angiogenesis or remodelling in the uteri of pregnant female mice. Some of the Reck-positive vessels show morphological features consistent with non-sprouting angiogenesis. Treatment with a vector expressing a small hairpin RNA against Reck severely disrupts the formation of blood vessels with a compact, round lumen. Similar defects were found in the vasculature of Reck-deficient or Reck conditional knockout embryos.Our findings implicate Reck in vascular remodeling, possibly through non-sprouting angiogenesis, in both maternal and embyonic tissues.
|Cellular source and amount of vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor in tumors determine response to angiogenesis inhibitors. |
Barbara Sennino, Frank Kuhnert, Sebastien P Tabruyn, Michael R Mancuso, Dana D Hu-Lowe, Calvin J Kuo, Donald M McDonald, Barbara Sennino, Frank Kuhnert, Sebastien P Tabruyn, Michael R Mancuso, Dana D Hu-Lowe, Calvin J Kuo, Donald M McDonald, Barbara Sennino, Frank Kuhnert, Sebastien P Tabruyn, Michael R Mancuso, Dana D Hu-Lowe, Calvin J Kuo, Donald M McDonald
Cancer research 69 4527-36 2009
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and their receptors are important targets in cancer therapy based on angiogenesis inhibition. However, it is unclear whether inhibition of VEGF and PDGF together is more effective than inhibition of either one alone. Here, we used two contrasting tumor models to compare the effects of inhibiting VEGF or PDGF alone, by adenovirally generated soluble receptors, to the effects of inhibiting both together. In RIP-Tag2 tumors, VEGF and PDGF inhibition together reduced tumor vascularity and abundance of pericytes. However, VEGF inhibition reduced tumor vascularity without decreasing pericyte density, and PDGF inhibition reduced pericytes without reducing tumor vascularity. By contrast, in Lewis lung carcinomas (LLC), inhibition of VEGF or PDGF reduced blood vessels and pericytes to the same extent as did inhibition of both together. Similar results were obtained using tyrosine kinase inhibitors AG-013736 and imatinib. In LLC, VEGF expression was largely restricted to pericytes and PDGF was largely restricted to endothelial cells, but, in RIP-Tag2 tumors, expression of both growth factors was more widespread and significantly greater than in LLC. These findings suggest that inhibition of PDGF in LLC reduced pericytes, and then tumor vessels regressed because pericytes were the main source of VEGF. The vasculature of RIP-Tag2 tumors, in which most VEGF is from tumor cells, was more resistant to PDGF inhibition. The findings emphasize the interdependence of pericytes and endothelial cells in tumors and the importance of tumor phenotype in determining the cellular effects of VEGF and PDGF inhibitors on tumor vessels. [Cancer Res 2009;69(10):4527-36].Artículo Texto completo
|Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor reduces angiogenesis and modulates immune cell infiltration of orthotopic breast cancer xenografts. |
Christina L Roland, Sean P Dineen, Kristi D Lynn, Laura A Sullivan, Michael T Dellinger, Leila Sadegh, James P Sullivan, David S Shames, Rolf A Brekken
Molecular cancer therapeutics 8 1761-71 2009
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a primary stimulant of angiogenesis and is a macrophage chemotactic protein. Inhibition of VEGF is beneficial in combination with chemotherapy for some breast cancer patients. However, the mechanism by which inhibition of VEGF affects tumor growth seems to involve more than its effect on endothelial cells. In general, increased immune cell infiltration into breast tumors confers a worse prognosis. We have shown previously that 2C3, a mouse monoclonal antibody that prevents VEGF from binding to VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), decreases tumor growth, angiogenesis, and macrophage infiltration into pancreatic tumors and therefore hypothesized that r84, a fully human IgG that phenocopies 2C3, would similarly affect breast tumor growth and immune cell infiltration. In this study, we show that anti-VEGF therapy with bevacizumab, 2C3, or r84 inhibits the growth of established orthotopic MDA-MB-231 breast tumors in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice, reduces tumor microvessel density, limits the infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages, but is associated with elevated numbers of tumor-associated neutrophils. In addition, we found that treatment with r84 reduced the number of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) double-positive cells in the tumor compared with tumors from control-treated animals. These results show that selective inhibition of VEGFR2 with an anti-VEGF antibody is sufficient for effective blockade of the protumorigenic activity of VEGF in breast cancer xenografts. These findings further define the complex molecular interactions in the tumor microenvironment and provide a translational tool that may be relevant to the treatment of breast cancer.
|Live imaging of remyelination after antibody-mediated demyelination in an ex-vivo model for immune mediated CNS damage. |
Melanie D Harrer, Hans-Christian von Büdingen, Luc Stoppini, Chantal Alliod, Sandrine Pouly, Katja Fischer, Norbert Goebels
Experimental neurology 216 431-8 2009
Mononuclear cell infiltrates, deposits of immunoglobulin and complement as well as demyelination and axonal damage are neuropathological hallmarks of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) lesions. An involvement of antibodies is further suggested by the presence of oligoclonal immunoglobulins in the cerebrospinal fluid of almost all MS patients. However, which mechanisms are most relevant for de- and remyelination and axonal loss in MS lesions is poorly understood. To characterize the regenerative abilities of demyelinated CNS tissue, we utilized murine organotypic cerebellar slice cultures expressing GFP in oligodendrocytes. The addition of a demyelinating monoclonal antibody specific for myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein and complement induced complete myelin destruction and oligodendrocyte loss, as demonstrated by confocal live imaging and staining for different myelin proteins. After removal of antibodies and complement we visualized the stages of remyelination, presumably originating from proliferating oligodendrocyte precursor cells and guided by morphologically intact appearing axons. Allowing for the detailed live imaging of de- and remyelination in an ex vivo situation closely resembling the three dimensional cytoarchitecture of the CNS, we provide a useful experimental system for the evaluation of new therapeutic strategies to enhance remyelination and repair in MS.
|Targeting a unique EGFR epitope with monoclonal antibody 806 activates NF-kappaB and initiates tumour vascular normalization. |
Gan HK, Lappas M, Cao DX, Cvrljevdic A, Scott AM, Johns TG
J Cell Mol Med 13 3993-4001. Epub 2009 May 11. 2009
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is often pathogenetically overexpressed or mutated in epithelial malignancies and glioma, have been modestly successful, with some approved for human use. MAb 806 was raised against de2-7EGFR (or EGFRvIII), a constitutively active mutation expressed in gliomas, but also recognizes a subset (<10%) of wild-type (wt) EGFR when it is activated by autocrine loop, overexpression or mutation. It does not bind inactive EGFR in normal tissues like liver. Glioma xenografts expressing the de2-7EGFR treated with mAb 806 show reduced receptor autophosphorylation, increased p27(KIP1) and reduced cell proliferation. Xenografts expressing the wtEGFR activated by overexpression or autocrine ligand are also inhibited by mAb 806, but the mechanism of inhibition has been difficult to elucidate, especially because mAb 806 does not prevent wtEGFR phosphorylation or downstream signalling in vitro. Thus, we examined the effects of mAb 806 on A431 xenograft angiogenesis. MAb 806 increases vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin-8 production by activating NF-kappaB and normalizes tumour vasculature. Pharmacological inhibition of NF-kappaB completely abrogated mAb 806 activity, demonstrating that NF-kappaB activation is necessary for its anti-tumour function in xenografts. Given the increase in VEGF, we combined mAb 806 with bevacizumab in vivo, resulting in additive activity.
|The expression of soluble guanylate cyclase in the vasculature of rat skeletal muscle. |
T Fukutani, S Iino, Y Nojyo
Archives of histology and cytology 72 117-26 2009
Nitric oxide (NO) has various roles in the skeletal musculature in both normal and pathological conditions. NO primarily activates soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and mediates subsequent intracellular signaling in target cells. We sought to identify the target cells of NO in the rat skeletal musculature, using subtypes of sGCalpha1 and sGCbeta1 antibodies. Immunohistochemistry revealed that both antibodies stained the same cells with round or oval shapes, having several long processes. The sGC-immunopositive cells co-expressed NG2 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, a marker of pericytes. The sGC-immunopositive cells were associated with capillaries and formed cellular networks with elongated cytoplasmic processes. sGCalpha1 and sGCbeta1 were not found in muscle sarcolemma that were stained by anti-dystrophin, or neuromuscular junctions, as detected by anti-synaptophysin. Based on these findings, we concluded that sGC immunoreactivity was specifically distributed in capillary pericytes. Pericytes in the skeletal musculature have been shown to be target cells of NO and are involved in the microvascular blood flow.
|Establishment and characterization of a human retinal pericyte line: a novel tool for the study of diabetic retinopathy. |
Berrone, Elena, et al.
Int. J. Mol. Med., 23: 373-8 (2009) 2009
Loss of pericytes from retinal microvessels is one of the key events in the natural history of diabetic retinopathy. Cultured human retinal pericytes would constitute an extremely useful tool for the study of the early events in the pathogenesis of this complication, but, due to legal and ethical issues, pericytes of animal origin have been mostly used so far for in vitro assays. We aimed at establishing an immortalized human retinal pericyte (HRP) line, as a species-specific model to investigate the pericyte-related aspects of diabetic retinopathy. Primary human retinal pericytes (WT-HRP) were immortalized through electroporation with a plasmid vector containing the Bmi-1 oncogene that induces telomerase activity, resulting in the establishment of a permanent pericyte line (Bmi-HRP), which showed telomerase activity and facilitated propagation. The immortalized cells were characterized for typical pericyte morphology and marker expression. Immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that Bmi-HRP maintain the same morphology and express the typical markers of wild-type pericytes. The response of the cell line to high glucose damaging stimulus was also evaluated, as senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity and cell proliferation and a clear negative effect of high glucose on Bmi-HRP proliferation and senescence, in line with the characteristic response of wild-type cells, was observed. The combination of infinite proliferation capability and stable differentiation potential makes our Bmi-HRP line a promising candidate model to study pathogenic mechanisms and therapeutic applications in diabetic retinopathy.
|Generation of functional neurons and glia from multipotent adult mouse germ-line stem cells. |
Streckfuss-Bömeke, Katrin, et al.
Stem Cell Res, 2: 139-54 (2009) 2009
Recently, we reported the successful establishment of multipotent adult germ-line stem cells (maGSCs) from cultured adult mouse spermatogonial stem cells. Similar to embryonic stem cells, maGSCs are able to self-renew and differentiate into derivatives of all three germ layers. These properties make maGSCs a potential cell source for the treatment of neural degenerative diseases. In this study, we describe the generation of maGSC-derived proliferating neural precursor cells using growth factor-mediated neural lineage induction. The neural precursors were positive for nestin and Sox1 and could be continuously expanded. Upon further differentiation, they formed functional neurons and glial cells, as demonstrated by expression of lineage-restricted genes and proteins and by electrophysiological properties. Characterization of maGSC-derived neurons revealed the generation of specific subtypes, including GABAergic, glutamatergic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic neurons. Electrophysiological analysis revealed passive and active membrane properties and postsynaptic currents, indicating their functional maturation. Functional networks formed at later stages of differentiation, as evidenced by synaptic transmission of spontaneous neuronal activity. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that maGSCs may be used as a new stem cell source for basic research and biomedical applications.
|Hyaline protoplasmic astrocytopathy of neocortex. |
ET Hedley-Whyte, JE Goldman, M Nedergaard, A Friedman, X Han, RE Schmidt, JM Powers
Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology 68 136-147 2009
Eosinophilic inclusions in the cytoplasm of protoplasmic astrocytes of the neocortex, usually in the clinical setting of epilepsy and/or psychomotor retardation, were first recognized and illustrated by Alois Alzheimer in 1910. Traditional special stains have failed to elucidate the specific nature of these inclusions. Ultrastructurally, the material was composed predominantly of highly electron-dense, non-membrane-bound, granular material distinct from Rosenthal fibers. Immunohistochemical examination has been informative but also sometimes inconsistent; it has recently been suggested that they may represent a filaminopathy (filamin A). We examined 5 cases with neocortical eosinophilic inclusions (3 autopsies, 2 surgical resections) using a standardized immunohistochemical protocol at a single institution. The specimens were immunostained with 32 antibodies to 30 potentially relevant proteins using several antigen retrieval protocols. We confirmed the presence of filamin A in these inclusions, but several additional proteins, particularly cytoglobin and glutamate transporter 1, were also identified. By electron microscopy in 2 cases, the granular fine structure of the inclusions was confirmed; mitochondria adjacent to, and perhaps within, the inclusions that contained many pleomorphic vesicular and membranous elements were also noted in 1 case. The pathophysiologic relevance of these proteins and the clinical significance of the hyaline inclusions are discussed.,
|Discovery of microvascular miRNAs using public gene expression data: miR-145 is expressed in pericytes and is a regulator of Fli1. |
Larsson, E; Fredlund Fuchs, P; Heldin, J; Barkefors, I; Bondjers, C; Genové, G; Arrondel, C; Gerwins, P; Kurschat, C; Schermer, B; Benzing, T; Harvey, SJ; Kreuger, J; Lindahl, P
Genome medicine 1 108 2009
A function for the microRNA (miRNA) pathway in vascular development and angiogenesis has been firmly established. miRNAs with selective expression in the vasculature are attractive as possible targets in miRNA-based therapies. However, little is known about the expression of miRNAs in microvessels in vivo. Here, we identified candidate microvascular-selective miRNAs by screening public miRNA expression datasets.Bioinformatics predictions of microvascular-selective expression were validated with real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR on purified microvascular fragments from mouse. Pericyte expression was shown with in situ hybridization on tissue sections. Target sites were identified with 3' UTR luciferase assays, and migration was tested in a microfluid chemotaxis chamber.miR-145, miR-126, miR-24, and miR-23a were selectively expressed in microvascular fragments isolated from a range of tissues. In situ hybridization and analysis of Pdgfb retention motif mutant mice demonstrated predominant expression of miR-145 in pericytes. We identified the Ets transcription factor Friend leukemia virus integration 1 (Fli1) as a miR-145 target, and showed that elevated levels of miR-145 reduced migration of microvascular cells in response to growth factor gradients in vitro.miR-126, miR-24 and miR-23a are selectively expressed in microvascular endothelial cells in vivo, whereas miR-145 is expressed in pericytes. miR-145 targets the hematopoietic transcription factor Fli1 and blocks migration in response to growth factor gradients. Our findings have implications for vascular disease and provide necessary information for future drug design against miRNAs with selective expression in the microvasculature.
|PDGF-C induces maturation of blood vessels in a model of glioblastoma and attenuates the response to anti-VEGF treatment. |
di Tomaso, E; London, N; Fuja, D; Logie, J; Tyrrell, JA; Kamoun, W; Munn, LL; Jain, RK
PloS one 4 e5123 2009
Recent clinical trials of VEGF inhibitors have shown promise in the treatment of recurrent glioblastomas (GBM). However, the survival benefit is usually short-lived as tumors escape anti-VEGF therapies. Here we tested the hypothesis that Platelet Derived Growth Factor-C (PDGF-C), an isoform of the PDGF family, affects GBM progression independent of VEGF pathway and hinders anti-VEGF therapy.We first showed that PDGF-C is present in human GBMs. Then, we overexpressed or downregulated PDGF-C in a human GBM cell line, U87MG, and grew them in cranial windows in nude mice to assess vessel structure and function using intravital microscopy. PDGF-C overexpressing tumors had smaller vessel diameters and lower vascular permeability compared to the parental or siRNA-transfected tumors. Furthermore, vessels in PDGF-C overexpressing tumors had more extensive coverage with NG2 positive perivascular cells and a thicker collagen IV basement membrane than the controls. Treatment with DC101, an anti-VEGFR-2 antibody, induced decreases in vessel density in the parental tumors, but had no effect on the PDGF-C overexpressing tumors.These results suggest that PDGF-C plays an important role in glioma vessel maturation and stabilization, and that it can attenuate the response to anti-VEGF therapy, potentially contributing to escape from vascular normalization.
|The morphology and spatial arrangement of astrocytes in the optic nerve head of the mouse. |
Sun, D; Lye-Barthel, M; Masland, RH; Jakobs, TC
The Journal of comparative neurology 516 1-19 2009
We evaluated the shapes, numbers, and spatial distribution of astrocytes within the glial lamina, an astrocyte-rich region at the junction of the retina and optic nerve. A primary aim was to determine how the population of astrocytes, collectively, partitions the axonal space in this region. Astrocyte processes labeled with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) compartmentalize ganglion cell axons into bundles, forming "glial tubes," and giving the glial architecture of the optic nerve head in transverse section a honeycomb appearance. The shapes of individual astrocytes were studied by using transgenic mice that express enhanced green fluorescent protein in isolated astrocytes (hGFAPpr-EGFP). Within the glial lamina the astrocytes were transverse in orientation, with thick, smooth primary processes emanating from a cytoplasmic expansion of the soma. Spaces between the processes of neighboring astrocytes were spatially aligned, to form the apertures through which the bundles of optic axons pass. The processes of individual astrocytes were far-reaching-they could span most of the width of the nerve-and overlapped the anatomical domains of other near and distant astrocytes. Thus, astrocytes in the glial lamina do not tile: each astrocyte participates in ensheathing approximately one-quarter of all of the axon bundles in the nerve, and each glial tube contains the processes of about nine astrocytes. This raises the mechanistic question of how, in glaucoma or other cases of nerve damage, the glial response can be confined to a circumscribed region where damage to axons has occurred.
|Immunohistochemical markers for quantitative studies of neurons and glia in human neocortex. |
Lyck, L; Dalmau, I; Chemnitz, J; Finsen, B; Schrøder, HD
The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society 56 201-21 2008
Reproducible visualization of neurons and glia in human brain is essential for quantitative studies of the cellular changes in neurological disease. However, immunohistochemistry in human brain specimens is often compromised because of prolonged fixation. To select cell lineage-specific antibodies for quantitative studies of neurons and the major types of glia, we used 29 different antibodies, different epitope retrieval methods, and different detection systems to stain tissue arrays of formalin-fixed human brain. The screening pointed at CD45/leukocyte common antigen (LCA), CD68(KP1), 2',3' cyclic nucleotide phosphatase (CNPase), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), HLA-DR, Ki67, neuronal nuclei (NeuN), p25alpha-antigen, and S100beta as candidates for future cell counting purposes, because these markers visualized specific neuronal and glial cell bodies. However, significant negative correlation between staining result and formalin fixation was observed by blinded scoring of staining for CD45/LCA, CNPase, GFAP, and NeuN in brain specimens fixed by immersion and stored up to 10 years in 4% formalin solution at room temperature, independent of donor sex and postmortem interval. In contrast, improved preservation of NeuN and CNPase staining, and full preservation of GFAP and CD45/LCA staining in tissue fixed by perfusion and stored for up to 3 years in 0.1% paraformaldehyde solution at 4C, indicated that immunohistochemistry can be performed in well-preserved biobank material.Artículo Texto completo
|Extended access to cocaine self-administration produces long-lasting prefrontal cortex-dependent working memory impairments. |
George, O; Mandyam, CD; Wee, S; Koob, GF
Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 33 2474-82 2008
Humans with drug addiction exhibit compulsive drug-seeking associated with impairment of prefrontal cortex cognitive function. Whether prefrontal cortex dysfunction is a consequence of chronic drug exposure, or mediates the transition from drug use to drug dependence, is unknown. The current study investigates whether a history of escalated vs controlled cocaine intake is associated with specific working memory impairments, and long-lasting alterations of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex in rats. Working memory was assessed in rats with a history of extended (6 h per session) or limited (1 h per session) access to cocaine (0.5 mg/kg per injection), 3-17 days after the last self-administration session, using a delayed nonmatching-to-sample task. The density of neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes was quantified in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal prefrontal cortex 2 months after the last self-administration session. Working memory impairments were observed after a history of chronic and escalated cocaine intake, but not after repeated limited access to cocaine. Moreover, working memory impairments were correlated with a decreased density of neurons and oligodendrocytes but not astrocytes in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, and with a decreased density of oligodendrocytes in the orbitofrontal cortex. Considering the role of the prefrontal cortex in goal-directed behavior, the prefrontal cortex dysfunctions observed here may exacerbate the loss of control associated with increased drug use and facilitate the progression to drug addiction.Artículo Texto completo
|Effect of hydrocephalus on rat brain extracellular compartment. |
Del Bigio, MR; Enno, TL
Cerebrospinal fluid research 5 12 2008
The cerebral cortex may be compressed in hydrocephalus and some experiments suggest that movement of extracellular substances through the cortex is impaired. We hypothesized that the extracellular compartment is reduced in size and that the composition of the extracellular compartment changes in rat brains with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus.We studied neonatal (newborn) onset hydrocephalus for 1 or 3 weeks, juvenile (3 weeks) onset hydrocephalus for 3-4 weeks or 9 months, and young adult (10 weeks) onset hydrocephalus for 2 weeks, after kaolin injection. Freeze substitution electron microscopy was used to measure the size of the extracellular compartment. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry with quantitative image densitometry was used to study the extracellular matrix constituents, phosphacan, neurocan, NG2, decorin, biglycan, and laminin.The extracellular space in cortical layer 1 was reduced significantly from 16.5 to 9.6% in adult rats with 2 weeks duration hydrocephalus. Western blot and immunohistochemistry showed that neurocan increased only in the periventricular white matter following neonatal induction and 3 weeks duration hydrocephalus. The same rats showed mild decorin increases in white matter and around cortical neurons. Juvenile and adult onset hydrocephalus was associated with no significant changes.We conclude that compositional changes in the extracellular compartment are negligible in cerebral cortex of hydrocephalic rats at various ages. Therefore, the functional change related to extracellular fluid flow should be reversible.Artículo Texto completo
|Msx1 and Msx2 are expressed in sub-populations of vascular smooth muscle cells. |
Olivier Goupille, Cécile Saint Cloment, Miguel Lopes, Didier Montarras, Benoît Robert
Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists 237 2187-94 2008
Using an nlacZ reporter gene inserted at the Msx1 and Msx2 loci, we could analyze the expression of these homeogenes in the adult mouse. We observed that Msx genes are prominently expressed in a subset of blood vessels. The Msx2nlacZ allele is mainly expressed in a restricted population of mural cells in peripheral arteries and veins. Msx1nlacZ is expressed to a lesser extent by vascular smooth muscle cells of peripheral arteries, but is highly expressed in arterioles and capillaries, making Msx1 a novel marker for a subpopulation of pericytes. Expression is set up early in developing vessels and maintained throughout life. In addition, expression of both genes is observed in a few endothelial cells of the aorta at fetal stages, and only Msx2 continues to be expressed in this layer at the adult stage. These results suggest major functions for Msx genes in vascular mural cell formation and remodeling.
|Effects of an anti-VEGF-A monoclonal antibody on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in mice: optimizing methods to quantify vascular changes. |
Campa, C; Kasman, I; Ye, W; Lee, WP; Fuh, G; Ferrara, N
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 49 1178-83 2008
The purpose of this study was to evaluate different methods of detecting and quantifying experimentally induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and vascular changes induced on CNV by an anti-VEGF-A monoclonal antibody.Choroidal neovascularization was induced by 532-nm diode laser in C57BL/6 mice. Ten days after the laser, the following methods were used to detect the new vessels: high-resolution angiography with fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran; immunohistochemistry with biotinylated isolectin, rabbit anti-NG2, rat anti-CD31, rabbit anti-VWF, rat ani-CD105, rabbit anti-collagen IV, rat anti-ICAM-2, rabbit anti-desmin, and rat anti-MECA 32; and intravital injection of fluorescein-labeled Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) lectin. To verify the validity of these staining methods in the quantification of treated CNV, the authors applied the most effective of these techniques to three groups of mice after laser induction of CNV and treatment with an anti-VEGF full antibody (G6-31).Fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran angiography, rat anti-ICAM-2 immunostaining, and tomato lectin intravital injection resulted in the most effective means of identifying choroidal neovascularization. A certain amount of nonspecific fluorescence was detected in the area of CNV for eachThis fluorescence appeared more intense when fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran was used. Tomato lectin injection and rat anti-ICAM-2 immunostaining were the methods that better recorded the antiangiogenic drug effect.Because of easy execution, low background fluorescence, and detailed visualization of new vessels, intravital injection of tomato lectin followed by a quantification based on threshold fluorescence represents the best technique for measuring CNV and the vascular changes induced by anti-VEGF-A monoclonal antibody in mice.
|Persistent behavioral impairments and neuroinflammation following global ischemia in the rat. |
Kristopher D Langdon, Shirley Granter-Button, Dale Corbett, Kristopher D Langdon, Shirley Granter-Button, Dale Corbett
The European journal of neuroscience 28 2310-8 2008
Cognitive deficits associated with cardiac arrest have been well documented; however, the corresponding deficits in animal models of global ischemia have not been comprehensively assessed, particularly after long-term, clinically relevant survival times. We exposed male Sprague-Dawley rats to 10 min of bilateral carotid artery occlusion + systemic hypotension (40-45 mmHg) or sham surgery, and used histopathological assessments for short-term survival animals (16 days) and both behavioral and histopathological assessments for long-term survival animals (270 days). Analyses revealed significant long-term deficits in ischemic animals' learning, memory (T-maze, radial arm maze), working memory (radial arm maze), and reference memory (Morris water maze, radial arm maze) abilities that were not associated with a general cognitive decline. Histological results showed significant increases in glial fibrillary acidic protein, neuron glia 2, OX-42 and ED-1 staining, as well as significant decreases in microtubule-associated protein 2 staining and cornu ammonis area 1 (CA1) cell counts 16 days post-ischemia. The pattern at 270 days was similar, but notably there was a persistent elevation of ED-1 staining, suggesting recent cell death as well as significant atrophy of CA1. Whereas previous work has primarily reported transient changes in behavior after global ischemia, this study describes disturbances in several different functional domains following CA1 cell loss at clinically relevant survival times. Moreover, the histopathological outcome is suggestive of a spontaneous repopulation of CA1, but this was not sufficient to offset the behavioral impairments arising from the ischemic insult.
|Enrichment of putative stem cells from adipose tissue using dielectrophoretic field-flow fractionation. |
Vykoukal, J; Vykoukal, DM; Freyberg, S; Alt, EU; Gascoyne, PR
Lab on a chip 8 1386-93 2008
We have applied the microfluidic cell separation method of dielectrophoretic field-flow fractionation (DEP-FFF) to the enrichment of a putative stem cell population from an enzyme-digested adipose tissue derived cell suspension. A DEP-FFF separator device was constructed using a novel microfluidic-microelectronic hybrid flex-circuit fabrication approach that is scaleable and anticipates future low-cost volume manufacturing. We report the separation of a nucleated cell fraction from cell debris and the bulk of the erythrocyte population, with the relatively rare (less than 2% starting concentration) NG2-positive cell population (pericytes and/or putative progenitor cells) being enriched up to 14-fold. This work demonstrates a potential clinical application for DEP-FFF and further establishes the utility of the method for achieving label-free fractionation of cell subpopulations.
|Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B4 identifies a specific subpopulation of angiogenic blood vessels following contusive spinal cord injury in the adult mouse. |
Benton, RL; Maddie, MA; Minnillo, DR; Hagg, T; Whittemore, SR
The Journal of comparative neurology 507 1031-52 2008
After traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), disruption and plasticity of the microvasculature within injured spinal tissue contribute to the pathological cascades associated with the evolution of both primary and secondary injury. Conversely, preserved vascular function most likely results in tissue sparing and subsequent functional recovery. It has been difficult to identify subclasses of damaged or regenerating blood vessels at the cellular level. Here, adult mice received a single intravenous injection of the Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B4 (IB4) at 1-28 days following a moderate thoracic (T9) contusion. Vascular binding of IB4 was maximally observed 7 days following injury, a time associated with multiple pathologic aspects of the intrinsic adaptive angiogenesis, with numbers of IB4 vascular profiles decreasing by 21 days postinjury. Quantitative assessment of IB4 binding shows that it occurs within the evolving lesion epicenter, with affected vessels expressing a temporally specific dysfunctional tight junctional phenotype as assessed by occludin, claudin-5, and ZO-1 immunoreactivities. Taken together, these results demonstrate that intravascular lectin delivery following SCI is a useful approach not only for observing the functional status of neovascular formation but also for definitively identifying specific subpopulations of reactive spinal microvascular elements.
|Functions of paracrine PDGF signaling in the proangiogenic tumor stroma revealed by pharmacological targeting. |
Pietras, K; Pahler, J; Bergers, G; Hanahan, D
PLoS medicine 5 e19 2008
Important support functions, including promotion of tumor growth, angiogenesis, and invasion, have been attributed to the different cell types populating the tumor stroma, i.e., endothelial cells, cancer-associated fibroblasts, pericytes, and infiltrating inflammatory cells. Fibroblasts have long been recognized inside carcinomas and are increasingly implicated as functional participants. The stroma is prominent in cervical carcinoma, and distinguishable from nonmalignant tissue, suggestive of altered (tumor-promoting) functions. We postulated that pharmacological targeting of putative stromal support functions, in particular those of cancer-associated fibroblasts, could have therapeutic utility, and sought to assess the possibility in a pre-clinical setting.We used a genetically engineered mouse model of cervical carcinogenesis to investigate platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor signaling in cancer-associated fibroblasts and pericytes. Pharmacological blockade of PDGF receptor signaling with the clinically approved kinase inhibitor imatinib slowed progression of premalignant cervical lesions in this model, and impaired the growth of preexisting invasive carcinomas. Inhibition of stromal PDGF receptors reduced proliferation and angiogenesis in cervical lesions through a mechanism involving suppression of expression of the angiogenic factor fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) and the epithelial cell growth factor FGF-7 by cancer-associated fibroblasts. Treatment with neutralizing antibodies to the PDGF receptors recapitulated these effects. A ligand trap for the FGFs impaired the angiogenic phenotype similarly to imatinib. Thus PDGF ligands expressed by cancerous epithelia evidently stimulate PDGFR-expressing stroma to up-regulate FGFs, promoting angiogenesis and epithelial proliferation, elements of a multicellular signaling network that elicits functional capabilities in the tumor microenvironment.This study illustrates the therapeutic benefits in a mouse model of human cervical cancer of mechanism-based targeting of the stroma, in particular cancer-associated fibroblasts. Drugs aimed at stromal fibroblast signals and effector functions may prove complementary to conventional treatments targeting the overt cancer cells for a range of solid tumors, possibly including cervical carcinoma, the second most common lethal malignancy in women worldwide, for which management remains poor.
|The timing of differentiation of adult hippocampal neurons is crucial for spatial memory. |
Farioli-Vecchioli, S; Saraulli, D; Costanzi, M; Pacioni, S; Cinà, I; Aceti, M; Micheli, L; Bacci, A; Cestari, V; Tirone, F
PLoS biology 6 e246 2008
Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus plays a critical role in hippocampus-dependent spatial learning. It remains unknown, however, how new neurons become functionally integrated into spatial circuits and contribute to hippocampus-mediated forms of learning and memory. To investigate these issues, we used a mouse model in which the differentiation of adult-generated dentate gyrus neurons can be anticipated by conditionally expressing the pro-differentiative gene PC3 (Tis21/BTG2) in nestin-positive progenitor cells. In contrast to previous studies that affected the number of newly generated neurons, this strategy selectively changes their timing of differentiation. New, adult-generated dentate gyrus progenitors, in which the PC3 transgene was expressed, showed accelerated differentiation and significantly reduced dendritic arborization and spine density. Functionally, this genetic manipulation specifically affected different hippocampus-dependent learning and memory tasks, including contextual fear conditioning, and selectively reduced synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus. Morphological and functional analyses of hippocampal neurons at different stages of differentiation, following transgene activation within defined time-windows, revealed that the new, adult-generated neurons up to 3-4 weeks of age are required not only to acquire new spatial information but also to use previously consolidated memories. Thus, the correct unwinding of these key memory functions, which can be an expression of the ability of adult-generated neurons to link subsequent events in memory circuits, is critically dependent on the correct timing of the initial stages of neuron maturation and connection to existing circuits.
|The PDGF signaling pathway controls multiple steroid-producing lineages. |
Schmahl, J; Rizzolo, K; Soriano, P
Genes & development 22 3255-67 2008
The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling pathway regulates numerous lineages of mesenchymal cell origin during development and in the adult. The transcriptional targets of this pathway have been shown to be required in several PDGF-dependent processes, but the roles of these targets in specific tissues is just beginning to be identified. In this study, we show that five different PDGF target genes are essential for male and/or female fertility. Mutations in each of these five different genes lead to defects in the steroid-producing cells in the testis and/or ovary and altered hormone production, suggesting that the PDGF pathway controls steroidogenesis through these genes in both sexes. Furthermore, conditional mutations of both PDGF receptors revealed a requirement in steroid-producing cells in multiple organs, including the testis, ovary, and adrenal cortex. Therefore, PDGF signaling may constitute a common mechanism in the control of multiple steroidogenic lineages.
|The cochlear pericytes. |
Shi, X; Han, W; Yamamoto, H; Tang, W; Lin, X; Xiu, R; Trune, DR; Nuttall, AL
Microcirculation (New York, N.Y. : 1994) 15 515-29 2008
Cochlear pericytes are not well characterized. The aim of this study was to further advance the characterization of cochlear pericyte location and distribution, with particular focus on pericyte-related proteins on the capillaries of the cochlear lateral wall that are functionally integral to structure, contraction, and gap junction transport.Cochlear pericytes were identified by the immunofluorescence labeling of pericyte marker proteins, including alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), desmin, Thy-1, tropomyosin, and NG2, and by morphological identification, using fluorescence, electron, and differential interference contrast microscopy.Pericytes were predominately found in the capillary network of the cochlear lateral wall, with considerable morphological heterogeneity across different types of microvessels. For example, pericytes on the vessels of the spiral ligament (V/SL) strongly expressed a gap junction protein, connexin 40, and were positive for alpha-SMA, tropomyosin, and desmin. In contrast, pericytes on the vessels of the stria vascularis (V/SV) were positive for desmin, and were negative for alpha-SMA and tropomyosin.The capillary networks of the cochlear lateral wall comprise a rich population of pericytes. These pericytes are morphologically heterogeneous, with protein expression potentially indicative of function.
|Genesis of neuronal and glial progenitors in the cerebellar cortex of peripuberal and adult rabbits. |
Ponti, G; Peretto, P; Bonfanti, L
PloS one 3 e2366 2008
Adult neurogenesis in mammals is restricted to some brain regions, in contrast with other vertebrates in which the genesis of new neurons is more widespread in different areas of the nervous system. In the mammalian cerebellum, neurogenesis is thought to be limited to the early postnatal period, coinciding with end of the granule cell genesis and disappearance of the external granule cell layer (EGL). We recently showed that in the rabbit cerebellum the EGL is replaced by a proliferative layer called 'subpial layer' (SPL) which persists beyond puberty on the cerebellar surface. Here we investigated what happens in the cerebellar cortex of peripuberal rabbits by using endogenous and exogenously-administered cell proliferation antigens in association with a cohort of typical markers for neurogenesis. We show that cortical cell progenitors extensively continue to be generated herein. Surprisingly, this neurogenic process continues to a lesser extent in the adult, even in the absence of a proliferative SPL. We describe two populations of newly generated cells, involving neuronal cells and multipolar, glia-like cells. The genesis of neuronal precursors is restricted to the molecular layer, giving rise to cells immunoreactive for GABA, and for the transcription factor Pax2, a marker for GABAergic cerebellar interneuronal precursors of neuroepithelial origin that ascend through the white matter during early postnatal development. The multipolar cells are Map5+, contain Olig2 and Sox2 transcription factors, and are detectable in all cerebellar layers. Some dividing Sox2+ cells are Bergmann glia cells. All the cortical newly generated cells are independent from the SPL and from granule cell genesis, the latter ending before puberty. This study reveals that adult cerebellar neurogenesis can exist in some mammals. Since rabbits have a longer lifespan than rodents, the protracted neurogenesis within its cerebellar parenchyma could be a suitable model for studying adult nervous tissue permissiveness in mammals.
|A dlx2- and pax6-dependent transcriptional code for periglomerular neuron specification in the adult olfactory bulb. |
Brill, MS; Snapyan, M; Wohlfrom, H; Ninkovic, J; Jawerka, M; Mastick, GS; Ashery-Padan, R; Saghatelyan, A; Berninger, B; Götz, M
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 28 6439-52 2008
Distinct olfactory bulb (OB) interneurons are thought to become specified depending on from which of the different subregions lining the lateral ventricle wall they originate, but the role of region-specific transcription factors (TFs) in the generation of OB interneurons diversity is still poorly understood. Despite the crucial roles of the Dlx family of TFs for patterning and neurogenesis in the ventral telencephalon during embryonic development, their role in adult neurogenesis has not yet been addressed. Here we show that in the adult brain, Dlx 1 and Dlx2 are expressed in progenitors of the lateral but not the dorsal subependymal zone (SEZ), thus exhibiting a striking regional specificity. Using retroviral vectors to examine the function of Dlx2 in a cell-autonomous manner, we demonstrate that this TF is necessary for neurogenesis of virtually all OB interneurons arising from the lateral SEZ. Beyond its function in generic neurogenesis, Dlx2 also plays a crucial role in neuronal subtype specification in the OB, promoting specification of adult-born periglomerular neurons (PGNs) toward a dopaminergic fate. Strikingly, Dlx2 requires interaction with Pax6, because Pax6 deletion blocks Dlx2-mediated PGN specification. Thus, Dlx2 wields a dual function by first instructing generic neurogenesis from adult precursors and subsequently specifying PGN subtypes in conjunction with Pax6.
|Toll-like receptors modulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis. |
Rolls, Asya, et al.
Nat. Cell Biol., 9: 1081-8 (2007) 2007
Neurogenesis - the formation of new neurons in the adult brain - is considered to be one of the mechanisms by which the brain maintains its lifelong plasticity in response to extrinsic and intrinsic changes. The mechanisms underlying the regulation of neurogenesis are largely unknown. Here, we show that Toll-like receptors (TLRs), a family of highly conserved pattern-recognizing receptors involved in neural system development in Drosophila and innate immune activity in mammals, regulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis. We show that TLR2 and TLR4 are found on adult neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) and have distinct and opposing functions in NPC proliferation and differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. TLR2 deficiency in mice impaired hippocampal neurogenesis, whereas the absence of TLR4 resulted in enhanced proliferation and neuronal differentiation. In vitro studies further indicated that TLR2 and TLR4 directly modulated self-renewal and the cell-fate decision of NPCs. The activation of TLRs on the NPCs was mediated via MyD88 and induced PKCalpha/beta-dependent activation of the NF-kappaB signalling pathway. Thus, our study identified TLRs as players in adult neurogenesis and emphasizes their specified and diverse role in cell renewal.
|Distribution of histone deacetylases 1-11 in the rat brain. |
Ron S Broide, Jeff M Redwine, Najla Aftahi, Warren Young, Floyd E Bloom, Christopher J Winrow, Ron S Broide, Jeff M Redwine, Najla Aftahi, Warren Young, Floyd E Bloom, Christopher J Winrow
Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN 31 47-58 2007
Although protein phosphorylation has been characterized more extensively, modulation of the acetylation state of signaling molecules is now being recognized as a key means of signal transduction. The enzymes responsible for mediating these changes include histone acetyl transferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs). Members of the HDAC family of enzymes have been identified as potential therapeutic targets for diseases ranging from cancer to ischemia and neurodegeneration. We initiated a project to conduct comprehensive gene expression mapping of the 11 HDAC isoforms (HDAC1-11) (classes I, II, and IV) throughout the rat brain using high-resolution in situ hybridization (ISH) and imaging technology. Internal and external data bases were employed to identify the appropriate rat sequence information for probe selection. In addition, immunohistochemistry was performed on these samples to separately examine HDAC expression in neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and endothelial cells in the CNS. This double-labeling approach enabled the identification of specific cell types in which the individual HDACs were expressed. The signals obtained by ISH were compared to radiolabeled standards and thereby enabled semiquantitative analysis of individual HDAC isoforms and defined relative levels of gene expression in >50 brain regions. This project produced an extensive atlas of 11 HDAC isoforms throughout the rat brain, including cell type localization, providing a valuable resource for examining the roles of specific HDACs in the brain and the development of future modulators of HDAC activity.
|The expression of NG2 proteoglycan in the human intervertebral disc. |
Koji Akeda,Howard S An,Rajeswari Pichika,Kalpa Patel,Carol Muehleman,Koichi Nakagawa,Atsumasa Uchida,Koichi Masuda
Spine 32 2007
Immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses of NG2 proteoglycan in the human intervertebral disc.
|Neurogenic neuroepithelial and radial glial cells generated from six human embryonic stem cell lines in serum-free suspension and adherent cultures. |
Roxana Nat, Mats Nilbratt, Susanna Narkilahti, Bengt Winblad, Outi Hovatta, Agneta Nordberg
Glia 55 385-99 2007
The great potential of human embryonic stem (hES) cells offers the opportunity both for studying basic developmental processes in vitro as well as for drug screening, modeling diseases, or future cell therapy. Defining protocols for the generation of human neural progenies represents a most important prerequisite. Here, we have used six hES cell lines to evaluate defined conditions for neural differentiation in suspension and adherent culture systems. Our protocol does not require fetal serum, feeder cells, or retinoic acid at any step, to induce neural fate decisions in hES cells. We monitored neurogenesis in differentiating cultures using morphological (including on-line follow up), immunocytochemical, and RT-PCR assays. For each hES cell line, in suspension or adherent culture, the same longitudinal progression of neural differentiation occurs. We showed the dynamic transitions from hES cells to neuroepithelial (NE) cells, to radial glial (RG) cells, and to neurons. Thus, 7 days after neural induction the majority of cells were NE, expressing nestin, Sox1, and Pax6. During neural proliferation and differentiation, NE cells transformed in RG cells, which acquired vimentin, BLBP, GLAST, and GFAP, proliferated and formed radial scaffolds. gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)-positive and glutamate positive neurons, few oligodendrocyte progenitors and astrocytes were formed in our conditions and timing. Our system successfully generates human RG cells and could be an effective source for neuronal replacement, since RG cells predominantly generate neurons and provide them with support and guidance.
|Demyelination, astrogliosis, and accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins, hallmarks of CNS disease in hsf1-deficient mice. |
Homma, S; Jin, X; Wang, G; Tu, N; Min, J; Yanasak, N; Mivechi, NF
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 27 7974-86 2007
The heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) are responsible for the heat shock response, an evolutionarily conserved process for clearance of damaged and aggregated proteins. In organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans, which contain a single Hsf, reduction in the level of Hsf is associated with the appearance of age-related phenotypes and increased accumulation of protein aggregates. Mammalian cells express three hsfs (hsf1, hsf2, hsf4) and their role in CNS homeostasis remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of deletion of single or multiple hsf genes in the CNS using mutant mice. Our results show that hsf1-/- mice display progressive myelin loss that accompanies severe astrogliosis and this is exacerbated in the absence of either the hsf2 or hsf4 gene. Magnetic resonance imaging and behavioral studies indicate reduction in the white matter tracts of the corpus callosum, and deficiencies in motor activity, respectively, in aged hsf1-/- mice. Concomitantly, hsf1-/- aged CNS exhibit increased activated microglia and apoptotic cells that are mainly positive for GFAP, an astrocyte-specific marker. Studies based on the expression of short-lived ubiquitinated green fluorescent protein (GFPu) in living hsf1-/- cells indicate that they exhibit reduced ability to degrade ubiquitinated proteins, accumulate short-lived GFPu, and accumulate aggregates of the Huntington's model of GFP containing trinucleotide repeats (Q103-GFP). Likewise, hsf1-/- brain and astrocytes exhibit higher than wild-type levels of ubiquitinated proteins, increased levels of protein oxidation, and increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. These studies indicate a critical role for mammalian hsf genes, but specifically hsf1, in the quality control mechanisms and maintenance of CNS homeostasis during the organism's lifetime.
|Developmental and injury-induced expression of alpha1beta1 and alpha6beta1 integrins in the rat spinal cord. |
Baker, KA; Hagg, T
Brain research 1130 54-66 2007
Loss and damage to blood vessels are thought to contribute to secondary tissue loss after spinal cord injury. Integrins might be therapeutic targets to protect the vasculature and/or promote angiogenesis, as their activation can promote tubule formation and survival of endothelial cells in vitro. Here, we show that immunostaining with an antibody against the alpha1beta1 integrin heterodimer is present only in blood vessels from postnatal day 1 (P1) through adulthood in Sprague-Dawley rats. After a spinal cord contusion at T9 in adults, the area of alpha1beta1 integrin positive blood vessels increases within 11 mm from the injury site at 3 days post-injury and remains prominent within the injured core only at 7 days. Staining for the alpha6beta1 integrin heterodimer increases in blood vessels between P10 and adulthood and is present in preganglionic neurons of the intermediolateral cell column (IML) at all ages. The alpha6beta1 integrin is also expressed by motor neurons postnatally, and oligodendrocyte precursors (OPCs), as previously reported. After the contusion, the area of alpha6beta1-stained blood vessels is increased at 3 days and most prominently, 1 mm from the injury site, followed by a significant reduction at 7 days, when alpha6beta1 integrin staining is most prominent around the injured core. Staining is also present in a subset of microglia and/or macrophages. These results raise the possibility that alpha1beta1 and alpha6beta1 integrins in blood vessels might be targeted to reduce blood vessel loss and promote angiogenesis, which may promote tissue sparing after spinal cord injury.
|Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-2/megalin is expressed in oligodendrocytes in the mouse spinal cord white matter |
Wicher, Grzegorz, et al
J Neurosci Res, 83:864-73 (2006) 2006
|Astrocytes promote myelination in response to electrical impulses |
Ishibashi, T. et al.
Neuron, 49(6):823-832 (2006) 2006
|A subpial, transitory germinal zone forms chains of neuronal precursors in the rabbit cerebellum |
Ponti, Giovanna, et al
Dev Biol, 294:168-80 (2006) 2006
|Rescuing qkV dysmyelination by a single isoform of the selective RNA-binding protein QKI |
Zhao, Lixia, et al
J Neurosci, 26:11278-86 (2006) 2006
|Immunohistochemical study of NG2 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan expression in the small and large intestines. |
Nobuo Terada, Nobuhiko Ohno, Shinichi Murata, Ryohei Katoh, William B Stallcup, Shinichi Ohno
Histochemistry and cell biology 126 483-90 2006
The intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMFs) are located in the lamina propria under the epithelial cells. ISEMFs are thought to have an important role in protecting and maintaining the integrity of the epithelial cell layer and also in the process of wound healing. In this study, we report that the membrane-bound proteoglycan NG2 is abundantly distributed in the ISEMF layer of the mouse and human intestines. NG2 immunostaining in this layer is distributed with similar intensity from the crypt to villi. NG2 is also immunolocalized along the membranes of smooth muscle cells in the intestinal muscle layer. However, skeletal and cardiac muscles are not immunostained for NG2, demonstrating selective expression of the proteoglycan by smooth muscle cells. Using electron microscopy, NG2 immunoreactivity was strongly observed along the cell membranes of ISEMF, with weak diffusion into the neighboring matrix, indicative of the presence of some shed NG2. This first report of NG2 proteoglycan expression by ISEMF provides insights into the nature of the interaction of these cells with extracellular matrix and/or intestinal epithelial cells.
|Development of NG2 neural progenitor cells requires Olig gene function. |
Ligon, KL; Kesari, S; Kitada, M; Sun, T; Arnett, HA; Alberta, JA; Anderson, DJ; Stiles, CD; Rowitch, DH
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103 7853-8 2006
In the adult central nervous system, two distinct populations of glial cells expressing the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan NG2 have been described: bipolar progenitor cells and more differentiated "synantocytes." These cells have diverse neurological functions, including critical roles in synaptic transmission, repair, and regeneration. Despite their potential importance, the genetic factors that regulate NG2 cell development are poorly understood, and the relationship of synantocytes to the oligodendroglial lineage, in particular, remains controversial. Here, we show that greater than 90% of embryonic and adult NG2 cells express Olig2, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor required for oligodendrocyte lineage specification. Analysis of mice lacking Olig function demonstrates a failure of NG2 cell development at embryonic and perinatal stages that can be rescued by addition of a transgene containing the human OLIG2 locus. These findings show a general requirement for Olig function in NG2 cell development and highlight further roles for Olig transcription factors in neural progenitor cells.Artículo Texto completo
|Cellular changes in normal blood capillaries undergoing regression after inhibition of VEGF signaling. |
Baffert, F; Le, T; Sennino, B; Thurston, G; Kuo, CJ; Hu-Lowe, D; McDonald, DM
American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology 290 H547-59 2006
The vasculature of the embryo requires vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) during development, but most adult blood vessels lose VEGF dependence. However, some capillaries in the respiratory tract and selected other organs of adult mice regress after VEGF inhibition. The present study sought to identify the sequence of events and the fate of endothelial cells, pericytes, and vascular basement membrane during capillary regression in mouse tracheas after VEGF signaling was blocked with a VEGF-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG-013736 or soluble receptor construct (VEGF Trap or soluble adenoviral VEGFR-1). Within 1 day, patency was lost and fibrin accumulated in some tracheal capillaries. Apoptotic endothelial cells marked by activated caspase-3 were present in capillaries without blood flow. VEGF inhibition was accompanied by a 19% decrease in tracheal capillaries over 7 days and 30% over 21 days. During this period, desmin/NG2-immunoreactive pericytes moved away from regressing capillaries onto surviving vessels. Empty sleeves of basement membrane, left behind by regressing endothelial cells, persisted for about 2 wk and served as a scaffold for vascular regrowth after treatment ended. The amount of regrowth was limited by the number of surviving basement membrane sleeves. These findings demonstrate that, after inhibition of VEGF signaling, some normal capillaries regress in a systematic sequence of events initiated by a cessation of blood flow and followed by apoptosis of endothelial cells, migration of pericytes away from regressing vessels, and formation of empty basement membrane sleeves that can facilitate capillary regrowth.
|Localization of the mouse alpha1A-adrenergic receptor (AR) in the brain: alpha1AAR is expressed in neurons, GABAergic interneurons, and NG2 oligodendrocyte progenitors. |
Robert Papay, Robert Gaivin, Archana Jha, Dan F McCune, John C McGrath, Manoj C Rodrigo, Paul C Simpson, Van A Doze, Dianne M Perez
The Journal of comparative neurology 497 209-22 2006
alpha(1)-Adrenergic receptors (ARs) are not well defined in the central nervous system. The particular cell types and areas that express these receptors are uncertain because of the lack of high avidity antibodies and selective ligands. We have developed transgenic mice that either systemically overexpress the human alpha(1A)-AR subtype fused with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) or express the EGFP protein alone under the control of the mouse alpha(1A)-AR promoter. We confirm our transgenic model against the alpha(1A)-AR knockout mouse, which expresses the LacZ gene in place of the coding region for the alpha(1A)-AR. By using these models, we have now determined cellular localization of the alpha(1A)-AR in the brain, at the protein level. The alpha(1A)-AR or the EGFP protein is expressed prominently in neuronal cells in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, midbrain, pontine olivary nuclei, trigeminal nuclei, cerebellum, and spinal cord. The types of neurons were diverse, and the alpha(1A)-AR colocalized with markers for glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Recordings from alpha(1A)-AR EGFP-expressing cells in the stratum oriens of the hippocampal CA1 region confirmed that these cells were interneurons. We could not detect expression of the alpha(1A)-AR in mature astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, or cerebral blood vessels, but we could detect the alpha(1A)-AR in oligodendrocyte progenitors. We conclude that the alpha(1A)-AR is abundant in the brain, expressed in various types of neurons, and may regulate the function of oligodendrocyte progenitors, interneurons, GABA, and NMDA receptor containing neurons.
|Hematopoietic origins of fibroblasts: I. In vivo studies of fibroblasts associated with solid tumors. |
Amanda C LaRue, Masahiro Masuya, Yasuhiro Ebihara, Paul A Fleming, Richard P Visconti, Hitoshi Minamiguchi, Makio Ogawa, Christopher J Drake
Experimental hematology 34 208-18 2006
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have reported that bone marrow cells can give rise to tissue fibroblasts. However, the bone marrow cell(s) that gives rise to fibroblasts has not yet been identified. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that tissue fibroblasts are derived from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in vivo. METHODS: These studies were conducted using mice whose hematopoiesis had been reconstituted by transplantation of a clonal population of cells derived from a single enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-positive HSC in conjunction with murine tumor models. RESULTS: When tumors propagated in the transplanted mice were evaluated for the presence of EGFP(+) HSC-derived cells, two prominent populations of EGFP(+) cells were found. The first were determined to be fibroblasts within the tumor stromal capsule, a subset of which expressed type I collagen mRNA and alpha-smooth muscle actin. The second population was a perivascular cell associated with the CD31(+) tumor blood vessels. CONCLUSION: These in vivo findings establish an HSC origin of fibroblasts.
|Axonal degeneration stimulates the formation of NG2+ cells and oligodendrocytes in the mouse. |
Helle H Nielsen, Rune Ladeby, Nina Drøjdahl, Alan C Peterson, Bente Finsen
Glia 54 105-15 2006
Proliferation of the adult NG2-expressing oligodendrocyte precursor cells has traditionally been viewed as a remyelination response ensuing from destruction of myelin and oligodendrocytes, and not to the axonal pathology that is also a characteristic of demyelinating disease. To better understand the response of the NG2+ cells to the different components of demyelinating pathology, we investigated the response of adult NG2+ cells to axonal degeneration in the absence of primary myelin or oligodendrocyte pathology. Axonal degeneration was induced in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of adult mice by transection of the entorhino-dentate perforant path projection. The acutely induced degeneration of axons and terminals resulted in a prompt response of NG2+ cells, consisting of morphological transformation, cellular proliferation, and upregulation of NG2 expression days 2-3 after surgery. This was followed by a reduction of cellular NG2 expression to subnormal levels from day 5 to 7 and reappearance of normal appearing NG2+ cells from day 10. Mice that had received repeated injections of bromodeoxyuridine from 24 to 72 h after surgery contained significant numbers of bromodeoxyuridine-incorporating oligodendrocytes in the areas with axonal degeneration at day 7. The results suggest that axonal degeneration induces a unique sequence of changes of NG2+ cells and that a subpopulation of the newly generated NG2+ cells differentiate into oligodendrocytes.
|Functional genomic analysis of oligodendrocyte differentiation. |
Dugas, JC; Tai, YC; Speed, TP; Ngai, J; Barres, BA
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 26 10967-83 2006
To better understand the molecular mechanisms governing oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation, we have used gene profiling to quantitatively analyze gene expression in synchronously differentiating OLs generated from pure oligodendrocyte precursor cells in vitro. By comparing gene expression in these OLs to OLs generated in vivo, we discovered that the program of OL differentiation can progress normally in the absence of heterologous cell-cell interactions. In addition, we found that OL differentiation was unexpectedly prolonged and occurred in at least two sequential stages, each characterized by changes in distinct complements of transcription factors and myelin proteins. By disrupting the normal dynamic expression patterns of transcription factors regulated during OL differentiation, we demonstrated that these sequential stages of gene expression can be independently controlled. We also uncovered several genes previously uncharacterized in OLs that encode transmembrane, secreted, and cytoskeletal proteins that are as highly upregulated as myelin genes during OL differentiation. Last, by comparing genomic loci associated with inherited increased risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) to genes regulated during OL differentiation, we identified several new positional candidate genes that may contribute to MS susceptibility. These findings reveal a previously unexpected complexity to OL differentiation and suggest that an intrinsic program governs successive phases of OL differentiation as these cells extend and align their processes, ensheathe, and ultimately myelinate axons.
|VEGF and angiopoietin-1 stimulate different angiogenic phenotypes that combine to enhance functional neovascularization in adult tissue. |
Andrew V Benest, Andrew H Salmon, Wenying Wang, Colin P Glover, James Uney, Steven J Harper, David O Bates
Microcirculation (New York, N.Y. : 1994) 13 423-37 2006
OBJECTIVE: Therapeutic angiogenesis requires an understanding of how growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) result in physiological neovascularization. This study determined the physiological mechanism by which adenoviral delivery of growth factor combinations alter vascular phenotype and functionality. METHODS: Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer into the adjacent fat pad of the rat mesentery was used to characterize induction of angiogenesis by VEGF and Ang-1, in a model that permitted a detailed examination of the neovessel phenotype. RESULTS: Ang-1 combined with VEGF resulted in a distinct vascular phenotype from either factor alone. Microvascular perfusion was significantly enhanced in all groups, but VEGF produced short, narrow, highly branched and sprouting vessels, with normal pericyte coverage. Ang-1 induced broader, longer neovessels, with no increase in branching or sprouting, yet a significantly higher pericyte ensheathment. Combination of Ang-1 and VEGF generated a significantly higher degree of functionally perfused, larger, less branched, and more mature microvessels, resulting from increased efficiency of sprout to vessel formation. Ang-1 and VEGF also caused differential effects on larger compared with smaller blood vessels, a finding reproduced in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Ang-1 and VEGF use different physiological mechanisms to enhance neovascularization of relatively avascular tissue. Administration of both growth factors combines these physiological mechanisms to give greater enhancement of neovascularization than either growth factor alone. These results suggest that effective revascularization therapy may require combination growth factor treatment.
|Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 disrupts tumor vascular mural cell recruitment and survival signaling. |
Alice Lee, Jason Frischer, Anna Serur, Jianzhong Huang, Jae-O Bae, Zev Noah Kornfield, Lucy Eljuga, Carrie J Shawber, Nikki Feirt, Mahesh Mansukhani, Diana Stempak, Sylvain Baruchel, Julia Glade Bender, Jessica J Kandel, Darrell J Yamashiro
Cancer research 66 4378-84 2006
Much evidence supports an important role for the inducible enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in tumor angiogenesis. Previous studies have focused on the role of COX-2 in stimulating endothelial proliferation, with blockade of this enzyme impairing endothelial homeostasis. However, recent data suggest that COX-2 also regulates molecules implicated in endothelial trafficking with pericytes/vascular mural cells (VMC), an interaction crucial to vessel stability. We investigated the role of COX-2 in vascular assembly by testing the effect of the specific COX-2 inhibitor SC-236 in an orthotopic xenograft model of human Wilms' tumor. Tumor growth was significantly suppressed by SC-236 (78% at day 28, 55% at day 35). Perfusion studies and immunostaining showed a marked decrease in vasculature, particularly in small vessels. Specifically, SC-236 inhibited participation of VMC in xenograft vessels. SC-236-treated tumors developed segmentally dilated, architecturally erratic tumor vessels with decreased nascent pericytes and scant mature VMC. Although vascular endothelial growth factor expression was unchanged, expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 was decreased in tumor vessels, consistent with defective homing of vascular progenitor cells. Vascular expression of phosphorylated platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta was also diminished, indicating impaired VMC-endothelial trafficking. Consistent with the key role of this interaction in vessel homeostasis, vascular cells in SC-236-treated tumors displayed markedly diminished phosphorylated Akt, indicating disrupted survival signaling. These results show that SC-236 causes defective vascular assembly by attenuating incorporation of VMC into tumor vessels, impairing endothelial survival, and raise the possibility that blockade of COX-2 may provide therapeutic synergies with antiangiogenic molecules that more selectively target endothelial cells.
|Expression analysis of genes involved in brain tumor progression driven by retroviral insertional mutagenesis in mice. |
Johansson, Fredrik K, et al.
Oncogene, 24: 3896-905 (2005) 2005
|Glioblastoma-induced attraction of endogenous neural precursor cells is associated with improved survival. |
Glass, Rainer, et al.
J. Neurosci., 25: 2637-46 (2005) 2005
|VEGF-A and FGF-2 synergistically promote neoangiogenesis through enhancement of endogenous PDGF-B-PDGFRbeta signaling. |
Kano, MR; Morishita, Y; Iwata, C; Iwasaka, S; Watabe, T; Ouchi, Y; Miyazono, K; Miyazawa, K
Journal of cell science 118 3759-68 2005
Combined stimulation with VEGF-A, FGF-2, or PDGF-BB has emerged as a potent strategy for therapeutic angiogenesis, although the mechanisms underlying the synergism of these factors are not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of synergism between VEGF-A and FGF-2 by using Matrigel plug assay in vivo and embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2)-positive cells in vitro. Experiments in vitro revealed that, in addition to having direct mitogenic effects, these molecules enhance intercellular PDGF-B signaling in a cell-type specific manner: VEGF-A enhances endothelial PDGF-B expression, whereas FGF-2 enhances mural PDGF receptor beta (PDGFRbeta) expression. Co-stimulation with VEGF-A and FGF-2 caused significant mural cell recruitment in vitro and formation of functional neovasculature in vivo, compared with single-agent stimulation. These effects were abrogated not only by anti-PDGFRbeta neutralizing antibody, but also by exogenous PDGF-BB, which could overwhelm the endogenous PDGF-BB distribution. These findings indicated the importance of preservation of the periendothelial PDGF-BB gradient. Thus, we demonstrated that the directional enhancement of endogenous PDGF-B-PDGFRbeta signaling is indispensable for the synergistic effect of VEGF-A and FGF-2 on neoangiogenesis in adults. The findings provide insights into the mechanisms underlying the effects of co-stimulation by growth factors, which could lead to rational design of therapeutic angiogenic strategies.
|Neural stem cells transplanted into intact brains as neurospheres form solid grafts composed of neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocyte precursors. |
Karbanová, Jana, et al.
Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia, 148: 217-20 (2004) 2004
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are tissue-specific stem cells with self-renewal potential that can give rise to neurons and glia in vivo and in vitro. The aim of this study was to transplant NSCs as whole neurospheres into intact brain and assess the fate and phenotype of their progeny generated in vivo. We isolated NSCs from E14 foetal rat forebrains and cultured them in basic fibroblast and epidermal growth factor-supplemented serum-free medium in the form of neurospheres in vitro. Neurospheres were transplanted into the intact brains of 2 Wistar rats and after a period of 3 weeks, grafted brains were examined immunohistochemically. Neurospheres formed solid grafts that were found in the lateral ventricle and in the velum interpositum under the hippocampus. The majority of cells in the transplanted tissue were identified as beta-III-tubulin(+), NeuN(+), PanNF(+) and synaptophysin(+) neurons and were accumulated throughout the graft centre. GFAP(+) astrocytes were scattered throughout the entire graft and astrocyte processes delimited the outer and perivascular surfaces. A great number of NG2(+) oligodendrocyte precursors was detected. Nestin(+) endothelial cells were found to line capillaries growing in the transplant. These data indicate that nestin(+) NSCs prevailing in neurospheres differentiate following transplantation into nestin(-) neuronal and glial cells which confirms the multipotency of NSCs. Three weeks posttransplantation neuronal and astrocyte cells reached terminal differentiation (formation of synaptic vesicles and superficial and perivascular limiting membranes) while elements of oligodendroglial cell lineage remained immature. Grafting stem cells as non-dissociated neurospheres provide cells with favourable conditions which facilitate cell survival, proliferation and differentiation. However, in the intact brain, grafted neurosphere cells were not found to integrate with the brain parenchyma and formed a compact structure demarcated from its surroundings.
|Synthetic hydrogel guidance channels facilitate regeneration of adult rat brainstem motor axons after complete spinal cord transection. |
Tsai, Eve C, et al.
J. Neurotrauma, 21: 789-804 (2004) 2004
Synthetic guidance channels or tubes have been shown to promote axonal regeneration within the spinal cord from brainstem motor nuclei with the inclusion of agents such as matrices, cells, or growth factors to the tube. We examined the biocompatibility and regenerative capacity of synthetic hydrogel tubular devices that were composed of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) (PHEMA-MMA). Two PHEMA-MMA channels, having a mean elastic modulus of either 177 or 311 kPa were implanted into T8-transected spinal cords of adult Sprague Dawley rats. The cord stumps were inserted into the channels and fibrin glue was applied to the cord-channel interface. An expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membrane was used for duraplasty. Controls underwent cord transection alone. Gross and microscopic examination of the spinal cords showed continuity of tissue within the synthetic guidance channels between the cord stumps at 4 and 8 weeks. There was a trend towards an increased area and width of bridging neural tissue in the 311-kPa guidance channels compared to the 177-kPa channels. Neurofilament stained axons were visualized within the bridging tissue, and serotonergic axons were found to enter the 311-kPa channel. Retrograde axonal tracing revealed regeneration of axons from reticular, vestibular, and raphe brainstem motor nuclei. For both channels, there was minimal scarring at the channel-cord interface, and less scarring at the channel-dura interface compared to that observed next to the ePTFE. The present study is the first to show that axons from brainstem motor nuclei regenerated in unfilled synthetic hydrogel guidance channels after complete spinal cord transection.
|Cortical neurons arise in symmetric and asymmetric division zones and migrate through specific phases |
Noctor, Stephen C, et al
Nat Neurosci, 7:136-44 (2004) 2004
|Thyroid hormone administration enhances remyelination in chronic demyelinating inflammatory disease. |
Fernandez, Mercedes, et al.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 101: 16363-8 (2004) 2004
|Decorin suppresses neurocan, brevican, phosphacan and NG2 expression and promotes axon growth across adult rat spinal cord injuries. |
Davies, Jeannette E, et al.
Eur. J. Neurosci., 19: 1226-42 (2004) 2004
|Matrix metalloproteinase 1 interacts with neuronal integrins and stimulates dephosphorylation of Akt. |
Conant, K; St Hillaire, C; Nagase, H; Visse, R; Gary, D; Haughey, N; Anderson, C; Turchan, J; Nath, A
The Journal of biological chemistry 279 8056-62 2004
Several studies have demonstrated that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are cytotoxic. The responsible mechanisms, however, are not well understood. MMPs may promote cytotoxicity through their ability to disrupt or degrade matrix proteins that support cell survival, and MMPs may also cleave substrates to generate molecules that stimulate cell death. In addition, MMPs may themselves act on cell surface receptors that affect cell survival. Among such receptors is the alpha(2)beta(1) integrin, a complex that has previously been linked to leukocyte death. In the present study we show that human neurons express alpha(2)beta(1) and that pro-MMP-1 interacts with this integrin complex. We also show that stimulation of neuronal cultures with MMP-1 is associated with a rapid reduction in the phosphorylation of Akt, a kinase that can influence caspase activity and cell survival. Moreover, MMP-1-associated dephosphorylation of Akt is inhibited by a blocking antibody to the alpha(2) integrin, but not by batimastat, an inhibitor of MMP-1 enzymatic activity. Such dephosphorylation is also stimulated by a catalytic mutant of pro-MMP-1. Additional studies show that MMP-1 causes neuronal death, which is significantly diminished by both a general caspase inhibitor and anti-alpha(2) but not by batimastat. Together, these results suggest that MMP-1 can stimulate dephosphorylation of Akt and neuronal death through a non-proteolytic mechanism that involves changes in integrin signaling.
|Notch1 and Jagged1 are expressed after CNS demyelination, but are not a major rate-determining factor during remyelination. |
Stidworthy, MF; Genoud, S; Li, WW; Leone, DP; Mantei, N; Suter, U; Franklin, RJ
Brain : a journal of neurology 127 1928-41 2004
The reasons for the eventual failure of repair mechanisms in multiple sclerosis are unknown. The presence of precursor and immature oligodendrocytes in some non-repairing lesions suggests a mechanism in which these cells either receive insufficient differentiation signals or are exposed to differentiation inhibitors. Jagged signalling via Notch receptors on oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) inhibits their differentiation during development and the finding that both notch and jagged are expressed in multiple sclerosis lesions has fostered the view that this signalling pathway may explain remyelination failure. In this study, we show that Notch1 is expressed on adult OPCs and that there are multiple cellular sources of its ligand Jagged1 in a rodent model of remyelination. However, despite their expression, the lesions undergo complete remyelination. To establish whether Notch-jagged signalling regulates the rate of remyelination we compared their expression profiles in young animals with those in older animals, where remyelination occurs more slowly, but could find no correlation between expression and remyelination rate. Finally we found that OPC-targeted Notch1 ablation in cuprizone-treated Plp-creER Notch1(lox/lox) transgenic mice yielded no significant differences in remyelination parameters between knock-out and control mice. Thus, in contrast to developmental myelination, adult expression of Notch1 and Jagged1 neither prevents nor plays a major rate-determining role in remyelination. More generally, the re-expression of developmentally expressed genes following injury in the adult does not per se imply similar function.
|Satellite cells of dorsal root ganglia are multipotential glial precursors. |
Svenningsen, Asa Fex, et al.
Neuron Glia Biol., 1: 85-93 (2004) 2004
|Transcription profiling of platelet-derived growth factor-B-deficient mouse embryos identifies RGS5 as a novel marker for pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. |
Bondjers, C; Kalén, M; Hellström, M; Scheidl, SJ; Abramsson, A; Renner, O; Lindahl, P; Cho, H; Kehrl, J; Betsholtz, C
The American journal of pathology 162 721-9 2003
All blood capillaries consist of endothelial tubes surrounded by mural cells referred to as pericytes. The origin, recruitment, and function of the pericytes is poorly understood, but the importance of these cells is underscored by the severe cardiovascular defects in mice genetically devoid of factors regulating pericyte recruitment to embryonic vessels, and by the association between pericyte loss and microangiopathy in diabetes mellitus. A general problem in the study of pericytes is the shortage of markers for these cells. To identify new markers for pericytes, we have taken advantage of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B knockout mouse model, in which developing blood vessels in the central nervous system are almost completely devoid of pericytes. Using cDNA microarrays, we analyzed the gene expression in PDGF-B null embryos in comparison with corresponding wild-type embryos and searched for down-regulated genes. The most down-regulated gene present on our microarray was RGS5, a member of the RGS family of GTPase-activating proteins for G proteins. In situ hybridization identified RGS5 expression in brain pericytes, and in pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells in certain other, but not all, locations. Absence of RGS5 expression in PDGF-B and PDGFR beta-null embryos correlated with pericyte loss in these mice. Residual RGS5 expression in rare pericytes suggested that RGS5 is a pericyte marker expressed independently of PDGF-B/R beta signaling. With RGS5 as a proof-of-principle, our data demonstrate the usefulness of microarray analysis of mouse models for abnormal pericyte development in the identification of new pericyte-specific markers.
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