Tabla espec. clave
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|B, Ch, H, M, Po, R, Qu, Rb, Rp||ICC, IHC, IH(P), WB||Rb||Serum||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Neat rabbit antiserum containing no preservative.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||50 µL|
Ficha datos de seguridad (MSDS)
Referencias bibliográficas | 52 Disponible | Ver todas las referencias
|Visión general referencias||Aplicación||Especie||Pub Med ID|
|Why are enteric ganglia so small? Role of differential adhesion of enteric neurons and enteric neural crest cells. |
Rollo, BN; Zhang, D; Simkin, JE; Menheniott, TR; Newgreen, DF
F1000Research 4 113 2015
The avian enteric nervous system (ENS) consists of a vast number of unusually small ganglia compared to other peripheral ganglia. Each ENS ganglion at mid-gestation has a core of neurons and a shell of mesenchymal precursor/glia-like enteric neural crest (ENC) cells. To study ENS cell ganglionation we isolated midgut ENS cells by HNK-1 fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) from E5 and E8 quail embryos, and from E9 chick embryos. We performed cell-cell aggregation assays which revealed a developmentally regulated functional increase in ENS cell adhesive function, requiring both Ca (2+) -dependent and independent adhesion. This was consistent with N-cadherin and NCAM labelling. Neurons sorted to the core of aggregates, surrounded by outer ENC cells, showing that neurons had higher adhesion than ENC cells. The outer surface of aggregates became relatively non-adhesive, correlating with low levels of NCAM and N-cadherin on this surface of the outer non-neuronal ENC cells. Aggregation assays showed that ENS cells FACS selected for NCAM-high and enriched for enteric neurons formed larger and more coherent aggregates than unsorted ENS cells. In contrast, ENS cells of the NCAM-low FACS fraction formed small, disorganised aggregates. This suggests a novel mechanism for control of ENS ganglion morphogenesis where i) differential adhesion of ENS neurons and ENC cells controls the core/shell ganglionic structure and ii) the ratio of neurons to ENC cells dictates the equilibrium ganglion size by generation of an outer non-adhesive surface.
|Glial ankyrins facilitate paranodal axoglial junction assembly. |
Chang, KJ; Zollinger, DR; Susuki, K; Sherman, DL; Makara, MA; Brophy, PJ; Cooper, EC; Bennett, V; Mohler, PJ; Rasband, MN
Nature neuroscience 17 1673-81 2014
Neuron-glia interactions establish functional membrane domains along myelinated axons. These include nodes of Ranvier, paranodal axoglial junctions and juxtaparanodes. Paranodal junctions are the largest vertebrate junctional adhesion complex, and they are essential for rapid saltatory conduction and contribute to assembly and maintenance of nodes. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying paranodal junction assembly are poorly understood. Ankyrins are cytoskeletal scaffolds traditionally associated with Na(+) channel clustering in neurons and are important for membrane domain establishment and maintenance in many cell types. Here we show that ankyrin-B, expressed by Schwann cells, and ankyrin-G, expressed by oligodendrocytes, are highly enriched at the glial side of paranodal junctions where they interact with the essential glial junctional component neurofascin 155. Conditional knockout of ankyrins in oligodendrocytes disrupts paranodal junction assembly and delays nerve conduction during early development in mice. Thus, glial ankyrins function as major scaffolds that facilitate early and efficient paranodal junction assembly in the developing CNS.
|A hierarchy of ankyrin-spectrin complexes clusters sodium channels at nodes of Ranvier. |
Ho, TS; Zollinger, DR; Chang, KJ; Xu, M; Cooper, EC; Stankewich, MC; Bennett, V; Rasband, MN
Nature neuroscience 17 1664-72 2014
The scaffolding protein ankyrin-G is required for Na(+) channel clustering at axon initial segments. It is also considered essential for Na(+) channel clustering at nodes of Ranvier to facilitate fast and efficient action potential propagation. However, notwithstanding these widely accepted roles, we show here that ankyrin-G is dispensable for nodal Na(+) channel clustering in vivo. Unexpectedly, in the absence of ankyrin-G, erythrocyte ankyrin (ankyrin-R) and its binding partner βI spectrin substitute for and rescue nodal Na(+) channel clustering. In addition, channel clustering is also rescued after loss of nodal βIV spectrin by βI spectrin and ankyrin-R. In mice lacking both ankyrin-G and ankyrin-R, Na(+) channels fail to cluster at nodes. Thus, ankyrin R-βI spectrin protein complexes function as secondary reserve Na(+) channel clustering machinery, and two independent ankyrin-spectrin protein complexes exist in myelinated axons to cluster Na(+) channels at nodes of Ranvier.
|Ezh2 is required for neural crest-derived cartilage and bone formation. |
Schwarz, D; Varum, S; Zemke, M; Schöler, A; Baggiolini, A; Draganova, K; Koseki, H; Schübeler, D; Sommer, L
Development (Cambridge, England) 141 867-77 2014
The emergence of craniofacial skeletal elements, and of the jaw in particular, was a crucial step in the evolution of higher vertebrates. Most facial bones and cartilage are generated during embryonic development by cranial neural crest cells, while an osteochondrogenic fate is suppressed in more posterior neural crest cells. Key players in this process are Hox genes, which suppress osteochondrogenesis in posterior neural crest derivatives. How this specific pattern of osteochondrogenic competence is achieved remains to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that Hox gene expression and osteochondrogenesis are controlled by epigenetic mechanisms. Ezh2, which is a component of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), catalyzes trimethylation of lysine 27 in histone 3 (H3K27me3), thereby functioning as transcriptional repressor of target genes. Conditional inactivation of Ezh2 does not interfere with localization of neural crest cells to their target structures, neural development, cell cycle progression or cell survival. However, loss of Ezh2 results in massive derepression of Hox genes in neural crest cells that are usually devoid of Hox gene expression. Accordingly, craniofacial bone and cartilage formation is fully prevented in Ezh2 conditional knockout mice. Our data indicate that craniofacial skeleton formation in higher vertebrates is crucially dependent on epigenetic regulation that keeps in check inhibitors of an osteochondrogenic differentiation program.
|Null and hypomorph Prickle1 alleles in mice phenocopy human Robinow syndrome and disrupt signaling downstream of Wnt5a. |
Liu, C; Lin, C; Gao, C; May-Simera, H; Swaroop, A; Li, T
Biology open 3 861-70 2014
Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling plays a critical role in tissue morphogenesis. In mammals, disruption of three of the six "core PCP" components results in polarity-dependent defects with rotated cochlear hair cell stereocilia and open neural tube. We recently demonstrated a role of Prickle1, a core PCP molecule in Drosophila, in mammalian neuronal development. To examine Prickle1 function along a broader developmental window, we generated three mutant alleles in mice. We show that the complete loss of Prickle1 leads to systemic tissue outgrowth defects, aberrant cell organization and disruption of polarity machinery. Curiously, Prickle1 mutants recapitulate the characteristic features of human Robinow syndrome and phenocopy mouse mutants with Wnt5a or Ror2 gene defects, prompting us to explore an association of Prickle1 with the Wnt pathway. We show that Prickle1 is a proteasomal target of Wnt5a signaling and that Dvl2, a target of Wnt5a signaling, is misregulated in Prickle1 mutants. Our studies implicate Prickle1 as a key component of the Wnt-signaling pathway and suggest that Prickle1 mediates some of the WNT5A-associated genetic defects in Robinow syndrome.
|Progressive disorganization of paranodal junctions and compact myelin due to loss of DCC expression by oligodendrocytes. |
Bull, SJ; Bin, JM; Beaumont, E; Boutet, A; Krimpenfort, P; Sadikot, AF; Kennedy, TE
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 9768-78 2014
Paranodal axoglial junctions are critical for maintaining the segregation of axonal domains along myelinated axons; however, the proteins required to organize and maintain this structure are not fully understood. Netrin-1 and its receptor Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC) are proteins enriched at paranodes that are expressed by neurons and oligodendrocytes. To identify the specific function of DCC expressed by oligodendrocytes in vivo, we selectively eliminated DCC from mature myelinating oligodendrocytes using an inducible cre regulated by the proteolipid protein promoter. We demonstrate that DCC deletion results in progressive disruption of the organization of axonal domains, myelin ultrastructure, and myelin protein composition. Conditional DCC knock-out mice develop balance and coordination deficits and exhibit decreased conduction velocity. We conclude that DCC expression by oligodendrocytes is required for the maintenance and stability of myelin in vivo, which is essential for proper signal conduction in the CNS.
|Slowly emerging glycinergic transmission enhances inhibition in the sound localization pathway of the avian auditory system. |
Fischl, MJ; Weimann, SR; Kearse, MG; Burger, RM
Journal of neurophysiology 111 565-72 2014
Localization of low-frequency acoustic stimuli is processed in dedicated neural pathways where coincidence-detecting neurons compare the arrival time of sound stimuli at the two ears, or interaural time disparity (ITD). ITDs occur in the submillisecond range, and vertebrates have evolved specialized excitatory and inhibitory circuitry to compute these differences. Glycinergic inhibition is a computationally significant and prominent component of the mammalian ITD pathway. However, evidence for glycinergic transmission is limited in birds, where GABAergic inhibition has been thought to be the dominant or exclusive inhibitory transmitter. Indeed, previous work showed that GABA antagonists completely eliminate inhibition in avian nuclei specialized for processing temporal features of sound, nucleus magnocellularis (NM) and nucleus laminaris (NL). However, more recent work shows that glycine is coexpressed with GABA in synaptic terminals apposed to neurons in both nuclei (Coleman WL, Fischl MJ, Weimann SR, Burger RM. J Neurophysiol 105: 2405-2420, 2011; Kuo SP, Bradley LA, Trussell LO. J Neurosci 29: 9625-9634, 2009). Here we show complementary evidence of functional glycine receptor (GlyR) expression in NM and NL. Additionally, we show that glycinergic input can be evoked under particular stimulus conditions. Stimulation at high but physiologically relevant rates evokes a slowly emerging glycinergic response in NM and NL that builds over the course of the stimulus. Glycinergic response magnitude was stimulus rate dependent, representing 18% and 7% of the total inhibitory current in NM and NL, respectively, at the end of the 50-pulse, 200-Hz stimulus. Finally, we show that the glycinergic component is functionally relevant, as its elimination reduced inhibition of discharges evoked by current injection into NM neurons.
|Responses of hair follicle-associated structures to loss of planar cell polarity signaling. |
Chang, H; Nathans, J
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110 E908-17 2013
The mammalian hair follicle unit consists of a central follicle and a series of associated structures: sebaceous glands, arrector pili muscles, Merkel cells, and sensory nerve endings. The architecture of this multicellular structure is highly polarized with respect to the body axes. Previous work has implicated Frizzled6 (Fz6)-mediated planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling in the initial specification of hair follicle orientation. Here we investigate the origin of polarity information among structures within the hair follicle unit. Merkel cell clusters appear to have direct access to Fz6-based polarity information, and they lose polarity in the absence of Fz6. By contrast, the other follicle-associated structures likely derive some or all of their polarity cues from hair follicles, and as a result, their orientations closely match that of their associated follicle. These experiments reveal the interplay between global and local sources of polarity information for coordinating the spatial arrangement of diverse multicellular structures. They also highlight the utility of mammalian skin as a system for quantitative analyses of biological polarity.
|S[+] Apomorphine is a CNS penetrating activator of the Nrf2-ARE pathway with activity in mouse and patient fibroblast models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. |
Mead, RJ; Higginbottom, A; Allen, SP; Kirby, J; Bennett, E; Barber, SC; Heath, PR; Coluccia, A; Patel, N; Gardner, I; Brancale, A; Grierson, AJ; Shaw, PJ
Free radical biology & medicine 61 438-52 2013
Compelling evidence indicates that oxidative stress contributes to motor neuron injury in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but antioxidant therapies have not yet achieved therapeutic benefit in the clinic. The nuclear erythroid 2-related-factor 2 (Nrf2) transcription factor is a key regulator of an important neuroprotective response by driving the expression of multiple cytoprotective genes via its interaction with the antioxidant response element (ARE). Dysregulation of the Nrf2-ARE system has been identified in ALS models and human disease. Taking the Nrf2-ARE pathway as an attractive therapeutic target for neuroprotection in ALS, we aimed to identify CNS penetrating, small molecule activators of Nrf2-mediated transcription in a library of 2000 drugs and natural products. Compounds were screened extensively for Nrf2 activation, and antioxidant and neuroprotective properties in vitro. S[+]-Apomorphine, a receptor-inactive enantiomer of the clinically approved dopamine-receptor agonist (R[-]-apomorphine), was identified as a nontoxic Nrf2 activating molecule. In vivo S[+]-apomorphine demonstrated CNS penetrance, Nrf2 induction, and significant attenuation of motor dysfunction in the SOD1(G93A) transgenic mouse model of ALS. S[+]-apomorphine also reduced pathological oxidative stress and improved survival following an oxidative insult in fibroblasts from ALS patients. This molecule emerges as a promising candidate for evaluation as a potential neuroprotective agent in ALS patients in the clinic.
|Axons are injured by antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells through a MHC class I- and granzyme B-dependent mechanism. |
Sauer, BM; Schmalstieg, WF; Howe, CL
Neurobiology of disease 59 194-205 2013
Axon injury is a central determinant of irreversible neurological deficit and disease progression in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). CD8(+) lymphocytes (CTLs) within inflammatory demyelinated MS lesions correlate with acute axon injury and neurological deficits. The mechanisms of these correlations are unknown. We interrogated CTL-mediated axon injury using the transgenic OT-I antigen-specific CTL model system in conjunction with a chambered cortical neuron culture platform that permitted the isolated manipulation of axons independent of neuron cell bodies and glia. Interferon gamma upregulated, through a dose dependent mechanism, the axonal expression of functional major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules competent to present immunologically-relevant antigens derived from endogenously expressed proteins. Antigen-specific CTLs formed cytotoxic immune synapses with and directly injured axons expressing antigen-loaded MHC I molecules. CTL-mediated axon injury was mechanistically dependent upon axonal MHC I antigen presentation, T cell receptor specificity and axoplasmic granzyme B activity. Despite extensive distal CTL-mediated axon injury, acute neuron cell body apoptosis was not observed. These findings present a novel model of immune-mediated axon injury and offer anti-axonal CTLs and granzyme B as targets for the therapeutic protection of axons and prevention of neurological deficits in MS patients.
|Muscle-specific expression of LARGE restores neuromuscular transmission deficits in dystrophic LARGE(myd) mice. |
Gumerson, JD; Davis, CS; Kabaeva, ZT; Hayes, JM; Brooks, SV; Michele, DE
Human molecular genetics 22 757-68 2013
Mutations in several glycosyltransferases underlie a group of muscular dystrophies known as glycosylation-deficient muscular dystrophy. A common feature of these diseases is loss of glycosylation and consequent dystroglycan function that is correlated with severe pathology in muscle, brain and other tissues. Although glycosylation of dystroglycan is essential for function in skeletal muscle, whether glycosylation-dependent function of dystroglycan is sufficient to explain all complex pathological features associated with these diseases is less clear. Dystroglycan glycosylation is defective in LARGE(myd) (myd) mice as a result of a mutation in like-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (LARGE), a glycosyltransferase known to cause muscle disease in humans. We generated animals with restored dystroglycan function exclusively in skeletal muscle by crossing myd animals to a recently created transgenic line that expresses LARGE selectively in differentiated muscle. Transgenic myd mice were indistinguishable from wild-type littermates and demonstrated an amelioration of muscle disease as evidenced by an absence of muscle pathology, restored contractile function and a reduction in serum creatine kinase activity. Moreover, although deficits in nerve conduction and neuromuscular transmission were observed in myd animals, these deficits were fully rescued by muscle-specific expression of LARGE, which resulted in restored structure of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). These data demonstrate that, in addition to muscle degeneration and dystrophy, impaired neuromuscular transmission contributes to muscle weakness in dystrophic myd mice and that the noted defects are primarily due to the effects of LARGE and glycosylated dystroglycan in stabilizing the endplate of the NMJ.
|Mechanosensitive enteric neurons in the myenteric plexus of the mouse intestine. |
Mazzuoli, G; Schemann, M
PloS one 7 e39887 2012
Within the gut the autonomous enteric nervous system (ENS) is able to sense mechanical stimuli and to trigger gut reflex behaviour. We previously proposed a novel sensory circuit in the ENS which consists of multifunctional rapidly adapting mechanosensitive enteric neurons (RAMEN) in the guinea pig. The aim of this study was to validate this concept by studying its applicability to other species or gut regions.We deformed myenteric ganglia in the mouse small and large intestine and recorded spike discharge using voltage sensitive dye imaging. We also analysed expression of markers hitherto proposed to label mouse sensory myenteric neurons in the ileum (NF145kD) or colon (calretinin). RAMEN constituted 22% and 15% of myenteric neurons per ganglion in the ileum and colon, respectively. They encoded dynamic rather than sustained deformation. In the colon, 7% of mechanosensitive neurons fired throughout the sustained deformation, a behaviour typical for slowly adapting echanosensitive neurons (SAMEN). RAMEN and SAMEN responded directly to mechanical deformation as their response remained unchanged after synaptic blockade in low Ca(++)/high Mg(++). Activity levels of RAMEN increased with the degree of ganglion deformation. Recruitment of more RAMEN with stronger stimuli may suggest low and high threshold RAMEN. The majority of RAMEN were cholinergic but most lacked expression of NF145kD or calretinin.We showed for the first time that fundamental properties of mechanosensitive enteric neurons, such as firing pattern, encoding of dynamic deformation, cholinergic phenotype and their proportion, are conserved across species and regions. We conclude that RAMEN are important for mechanotransduction in the ENS. They directly encode dynamic changes in force as their firing frequency is proportional to the degree of deformation of the ganglion they reside in. The additional existence of SAMEN in the colon is likely an adaptation to colonic motor patterns which consist of phasic and tonic contractions.
|Multiple Slits regulate the development of midline glial populations and the corpus callosum. |
Unni, DK; Piper, M; Moldrich, RX; Gobius, I; Liu, S; Fothergill, T; Donahoo, AL; Baisden, JM; Cooper, HM; Richards, LJ
Developmental biology 365 36-49 2012
The Slit molecules are chemorepulsive ligands that regulate axon guidance at the midline of both vertebrates and invertebrates. In mammals, there are three Slit genes, but only Slit2 has been studied in any detail with regard to mammalian brain commissure formation. Here, we sought to understand the relative contributions that Slit proteins make to the formation of the largest brain commissure, the corpus callosum. Slit ligands bind Robo receptors, and previous studies have shown that Robo1(-/-) mice have defects in corpus callosum development. However, whether the Slit genes signal exclusively through Robo1 during callosal formation is unclear. To investigate this, we compared the development of the corpus callosum in both Slit2(-/-) and Robo1(-/-) mice using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. This analysis demonstrated similarities in the phenotypes of these mice, but crucially also highlighted subtle differences, particularly with regard to the guidance of post-crossing axons. Analysis of single mutations in Slit family members revealed corpus callosum defects (but not complete agenesis) in 100% of Slit2(-/-) mice and 30% of Slit3(-/-) mice, whereas 100% of Slit1(-/-); Slit2(-/-) mice displayed complete agenesis of the corpus callosum. These results revealed a role for Slit1 in corpus callosum development, and demonstrated that Slit2 was necessary but not sufficient for midline crossing in vivo. However, co-culture experiments utilising Robo1(-/-) tissue versus Slit2 expressing cell blocks demonstrated that Slit2 was sufficient for the guidance activity mediated by Robo1 in pre-crossing neocortical axons. This suggested that Slit1 and Slit3 might also be involved in regulating other mechanisms that allow the corpus callosum to form, such as the establishment of midline glial populations. Investigation of this revealed defects in the development and dorso-ventral positioning of the indusium griseum glia in multiple Slit mutants. These findings indicate that Slits regulate callosal development via both classical chemorepulsive mechanisms, and via a novel role in mediating the correct positioning of midline glial populations. Finally, our data also indicate that some of the roles of Slit proteins at the midline may be independent of Robo signalling, suggestive of additional receptors regulating Slit signalling during development.
|RP58/ZNF238 directly modulates proneurogenic gene levels and is required for neuronal differentiation and brain expansion. |
Xiang, C; Baubet, V; Pal, S; Holderbaum, L; Tatard, V; Jiang, P; Davuluri, RV; Dahmane, N
Cell death and differentiation 19 692-702 2012
Although neurogenic pathways have been described in the developing neocortex, less is known about mechanisms ensuring correct neuronal differentiation thus also preventing tumor growth. We have shown that RP58 (aka zfp238 or znf238) is highly expressed in differentiating neurons, that its expression is lost or diminished in brain tumors, and that its reintroduction blocks their proliferation. Mice with loss of RP58 die at birth with neocortical defects. Using a novel conditional RP58 allele here we show that its CNS-specific loss yields a novel postnatal phenotype: microencephaly, agenesis of the corpus callosum and cerebellar hypoplasia that resembles the chr1qter deletion microcephaly syndrome in human. RP58 mutant brains maintain precursor pools but have reduced neuronal and increased glial differentiation. Well-timed downregulation of pax6, ngn2 and neuroD1 depends on RP58 mediated transcriptional repression, ngn2 and neuroD1 being direct targets. Thus, RP58 may act to favor neuronal differentiation and brain growth by coherently repressing multiple proneurogenic genes in a timely manner.
|Critical period of axoglial signaling between neuregulin-1 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor required for early Schwann cell survival and differentiation. |
Ma, Z; Wang, J; Song, F; Loeb, JA
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 31 9630-40 2011
During peripheral nervous system development, successful communication between axons and Schwann cells is required for proper function of both myelinated and nonmyelinated nerve fibers. Alternatively spliced proteins belonging to the neuregulin1 (NRG1) gene family of growth and differentiation factors are essential for Schwann cell survival and peripheral nerve development. Although recent studies have strongly implicated membrane-bound NRG1 forms (type III) in the myelination at late stages, little is known about the role of soluble, heparin-binding forms of NRG1 (type I/II) in regulating early Schwann cell development in vivo. These forms are rapidly released from axons in vitro by Schwann-cell-secreted neurotrophic factors and, unlike membrane-bound forms, have a unique ability to diffuse and adhere to heparan sulfate-rich cell surfaces. Here, we show that axon-derived soluble NRG1 translocates from axonal to Schwann cell surfaces in the embryonic chick between days 5 and 7, corresponding to the critical period of Schwann cell survival. Downregulating endogenous type I/II NRG1 signaling either with a targeted NRG1 antagonist or by shRNA blocks their differentiation from precursors into immature Schwann cells and increases programmed cell death, whereas upregulating NRG1 rescues Schwann cells. Exogenous BDNF also promotes Schwann cell survival through promoting the local release of axonal NRG1. Consistently, increased Schwann cell death occurs both in trkB knock-out mice and after knocking down axonal trkB in chick embryos, which can then be rescued with soluble NRG1. These findings suggest a localized, axoglial feedback loop through soluble NRG1 and BDNF critical for early Schwann cell survival and differentiation.
|Enhanced neuronal Met signalling levels in ALS mice delay disease onset. |
Genestine, M; Caricati, E; Fico, A; Richelme, S; Hassani, H; Sunyach, C; Lamballe, F; Panzica, GC; Pettmann, B; Helmbacher, F; Raoul, C; Maina, F; Dono, R
Cell death & disease 2 e130 2011
Signalling by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) coordinates basic cellular processes during development and in adulthood. Whereas aberrant RTK signalling can lead to cancer, reactivation of RTKs is often found following stress or cell damage. This has led to the common belief that RTKs can counteract degenerative processes and so strategies to exploit them for therapy have been extensively explored. An understanding of how RTK stimuli act at cellular levels is needed, however, to evaluate their mechanism of therapeutic action. In this study, we genetically explored the biological and functional significance of enhanced signalling by the Met RTK in neurons, in the context of a neurodegenerative disease. Conditional met-transgenic mice, namely Rosa26(LacZ-stop-Met), have been engineered to trigger increased Met signalling in a temporal and tissue-specific regulated manner. Enhancing Met levels in neurons does not affect either motor neuron (MN) development or maintenance. In contrast, increased neuronal Met in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mice prolongs life span, retards MN loss, and ameliorates motor performance, by selectively delaying disease onset. Thus, our studies highlight the properties of RTKs to counteract toxic signals in a disease characterized by dysfunction of multiple cell types by acting in MNs. Moreover, they emphasize the relevance of genetically assessing the effectiveness of agents targeting neurons during ALS evolution.
|Polystyrene replicas of neuronal basal lamina act as excellent guides for regenerating neurites. |
Karlsson M, Johansson F, Kanje M
Acta biomaterialia 2011
Various scaffolds, natural or artificial, have been used for neural repair, including basal lamina scaffolds obtained through extraction of nerves. Here we tested whether plastic casts of such preparations could be used for neurite guidance. To this end, longitudinal micron thick sections of rat sciatic nerve were extracted with detergents and treated with Dnase, yielding an acellular basal lamina master. From the basal lamina master a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold was made. Then a polystyrene replica was made using the PDMS mold as the master. The polystyrene replica showed high similarity to the master within nanometer resolution as revealed by scanning electron microscopy. Organ cultured mouse dorsal root ganglia grown on the polystyrene replica and the master preparation exhibited guided outgrowth of neurites as assayed by two-dimensional fast Fourier transform analysis on preparations, where the neurites had been visualized by β-III-tubulin staining. The neurites aligned longitudally in the direction of the original basal lamina tubes. Thus, using inexpensive methods it is possible to make replicas of basal lamina which can be used for neurite guidance. This opens a new avenue for nerve reconstruction.Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
|The Culture of Primary Motor and Sensory Neurons in Defined Media on Electrospun Poly-L-lactide Nanofiber Scaffolds. |
Leach MK, Feng ZQ, Gertz CC, Tuck SJ, Regan TM, Naim Y, Vincent AM, Corey JM
J Vis Exp 2389. doi 2011
Electrospinning is a technique for producing micro- to nano-scale fibers. Fibers can be electrospun with varying degrees of alignment, from highly aligned to completely random. In addition, fibers can be spun from a variety of materials, including biodegradable polymers such as poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA). These characteristics make electrospun fibers suitable for a variety of scaffolding applications in tissue engineering. Our focus is on the use of aligned electrospun fibers for nerve regeneration. We have previously shown that aligned electrospun PLLA fibers direct the outgrowth of both primary sensory and motor neurons in vitro. We maintain that the use of a primary cell culture system is essential when evaluating biomaterials to model real neurons found in vivo as closely as possible. Here, we describe techniques used in our laboratory to electrospin fibrous scaffolds and culture dorsal root ganglia explants, as well as dissociated sensory and motor neurons, on electrospun scaffolds. However, the electrospinning and/or culture techniques presented here are easily adapted for use in other applications.
|Pool-specific regulation of motor neuron survival by neurotrophic support. |
Lamballe, F; Genestine, M; Caruso, N; Arce, V; Richelme, S; Helmbacher, F; Maina, F
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 31 11144-58 2011
The precise control of motor neuron (MN) death and survival following initial innervation of skeletal muscle targets is a key step in sculpting a functional motor system, but how this is regulated at the level of individual motor pools remains unclear. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor Met play key developmental roles in both muscle and MNs. We generated mice (termed "Nes-Met") in which met is inactivated from midembryonic stages onward in the CNS only. Adult animals showed motor behavioral defects suggestive of impaired innervation of pectoral muscles. Correspondingly, in neonatal spinal cords of Nes-Met mutants, we observed death of a discrete population of pea3-expressing MNs at brachial levels. Axonal tracing using pea3 reporter mice revealed a novel target muscle of pea3-expressing MNs: the pectoralis minor muscle. In Nes-Met mice, the pectoralis minor pool initially innervated its target muscle, but required HGF/Met for survival, hence for proper maintenance of muscle innervation. In contrast, HGF/Met was dispensable for the survival of neighboring Met-expressing MN pools, despite its earlier functions for their specification and axon growth. Our results demonstrate the exquisite degree to which outcomes of signaling by receptor tyrosine kinases are regulated on a cell-by-cell basis. They also provide a model for one way in which the multiplicity of neurotrophic factors may allow for regulation of MN numbers in a pool-specific manner.
|Ascl1 expression defines a subpopulation of lineage-restricted progenitors in the mammalian retina. |
Brzezinski, JA; Kim, EJ; Johnson, JE; Reh, TA
Development (Cambridge, England) 138 3519-31 2011
The mechanisms of cell fate diversification in the retina are not fully understood. The seven principal cell types of the neural retina derive from a population of multipotent progenitors during development. These progenitors give rise to multiple cell types concurrently, suggesting that progenitors are a heterogeneous population. It is thought that differences in progenitor gene expression are responsible for differences in progenitor competence (i.e. potential) and, subsequently, fate diversification. To elucidate further the mechanisms of fate diversification, we assayed the expression of three transcription factors made by retinal progenitors: Ascl1 (Mash1), Ngn2 (Neurog2) and Olig2. We observed that progenitors were heterogeneous, expressing every possible combination of these transcription factors. To determine whether this progenitor heterogeneity correlated with different cell fate outcomes, we conducted Ascl1- and Ngn2-inducible expression fate mapping using the CreER™/LoxP system. We found that these two factors gave rise to markedly different distributions of cells. The Ngn2 lineage comprised all cell types, but retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were exceedingly rare in the Ascl1 lineage. We next determined whether Ascl1 prevented RGC development. Ascl1-null mice had normal numbers of RGCs and, interestingly, we observed that a subset of Ascl1+ cells could give rise to cells expressing Math5 (Atoh7), a transcription factor required for RGC competence. Our results link progenitor heterogeneity to different fate outcomes. We show that Ascl1 expression defines a competence-restricted progenitor lineage in the retina, providing a new mechanism to explain fate diversification.
|Mitochondrial biogenesis and fission in axons in cell culture and animal models of diabetic neuropathy. |
Andrea M Vincent,James L Edwards,Lisa L McLean,Yu Hong,Federica Cerri,Ignazio Lopez,Angelo Quattrini,Eva L Feldman
Acta neuropathologica 120 2010
Mitochondrial-mediated oxidative stress in response to high glucose is proposed as a primary cause of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neuron injury in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. In the present study, we report a greater number of mitochondria in both myelinated and unmyelinated dorsal root axons in a well-established model of murine diabetic neuropathy. No similar changes were seen in younger diabetic animals without neuropathy or in the ventral motor roots of any diabetic animals. These findings led us to examine mitochondrial biogenesis and fission in response to hyperglycemia in the neurites of cultured DRG neurons. We demonstrate overall mitochondrial biogenesis via increases in mitochondrial transcription factors and increases in mitochondrial DNA in both DRG neurons and axons. However, this process occurs over a longer time period than a rapidly observed increase in the number of mitochondria in DRG neurites that appears to result, at least in part, from mitochondrial fission. We conclude that during acute hyperglycemia, mitochondrial fission is a prominent response, and excessive mitochondrial fission may result in dysregulation of energy production, activation of caspase 3, and subsequent DRG neuron injury. During more prolonged hyperglycemia, there is evidence of compensatory mitochondrial biogenesis in axons. Our data suggest that an imbalance between mitochondrial biogenesis and fission may play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy.
|In vitro differentiation of human amniotic fluid-derived cells: augmentation towards a neuronal dopaminergic phenotype. |
Shona Pfeiffer,David McLaughlin
Cell biology international 34 2010
Amniotic fluid is known to yield a number of cell types which are multipotent, ethically derived, genetically stable, easily grown, expanded and possess favourable immunogenicity, which has resulted in an increasing interest for use in various neuronal disorders such as Parkinson's disease. The neuronal potential of cells derived from the adherent fraction of amniotic fluid, routinely taken by amniocentesis, are least explored. The aim of the present study was to investigate the capacity of these cells for neuronal and dopaminergic differentiation using in vitro differentiation protocols with canonical inductive factors not previously tested. To do this, samples derived from multiple donors were grown under four conditions: standard serum-containing media, NB (neurobasal) media designed specifically for propagation and maintenance of neuronal cells, NB media with addition of retinoic acid and BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) for NI (neuronal induction), and NB media with addition of FGF8 (fibroblast growth factor-8) and Shh (sonic hedgehog) after NI. Our results showed the presence of multiple neuronal markers after growth in serum-containing medium [TUJ1, MAP2, NF-M, TH (tyrosine hydroxylase)], which was significantly up-regulated after serum withdrawal in NB medium alone with induction of NeuN (neuronal nuclei) and NSE (neuron-specific enolase). NI and DA.I (dopaminergic induction) was accompanied by further increases in expression and a distinct transition to a sustained neuronal morphology. Western blot analysis confirmed increasing TH expression and NURR1, expressed in base serum-containing media, found to be down-regulated after induction. In conclusion, these cells possess a highly favourable base neuronal and dopaminergic prepotential, which may easily be accentuated by standard induction protocols.
|A hereditary spastic paraplegia mutation in kinesin-1A/KIF5A disrupts neurofilament transport. |
Wang, L; Brown, A
Molecular neurodegeneration 5 52 2010
Hereditary spastic paraplegias are a group of neurological disorders characterized by progressive distal degeneration of the longest ascending and descending axons in the spinal cord, leading to lower limb spasticity and weakness. One of the dominantly inherited forms of this disease (spastic gait type 10, or SPG10) is caused by point mutations in kinesin-1A (also known as KIF5A), which is thought to be an anterograde motor for neurofilaments.We investigated the effect of an SPG10 mutation in kinesin-1A (N256S-kinesin-1A) on neurofilament transport in cultured mouse cortical neurons using live-cell fluorescent imaging. N256S-kinesin-1A decreased both anterograde and retrograde neurofilament transport flux by decreasing the frequency of anterograde and retrograde movements. Anterograde velocity was not affected, whereas retrograde velocity actually increased.These data reveal subtle complexities to the functional interdependence of the anterograde and retrograde neurofilament motors and they also raise the possibility that anterograde and retrograde neurofilament transport may be disrupted in patients with SPG10.Artículo Texto completo
|Peripherin-IgG association with neurologic and endocrine autoimmunity. |
Chamberlain, JL; Pittock, SJ; Oprescu, AM; Dege, C; Apiwattanakul, M; Kryzer, TJ; Lennon, VA
Journal of autoimmunity 34 469-77 2010
Peripherin-IgG has been reported a pertinent autoantibody in non-obese type 1 diabetic (NOD) mice. However, it has not previously been recognized in any human disease. In blinded evaluation of serum for markers of neurological autoimmunity in a high-volume diagnostic laboratory, we incidentally identified 26 patients (61% female) with an IgG that bound selectively to neural elements in enteric ganglia, sympathetic nerve trunks and discrete nerve tracts in mid-brain and hind-brain. The target antigen was identified as peripherin, a 55kDa - type III intermediate filament protein. Review of clinical histories revealed that 54% of seropositive patients had dysautonomia (predominantly gastrointestinal dysmotility), 30% had neuropathies with varied sensory symptoms and 35% had clinical or serological evidence of endocrinopathy (type 1 diabetes, thyroiditis or premature ovarian failure). Collectively, 73% had autonomic dysfunction or endocrinopathy. None of 173 healthy subjects was seropositive. Subsequent western blot evaluation of archival sera from patients with small fiber/autonomic neuropathies (with or without endocrinopathy) revealed a 33% seropositivity rate for peripherin-IgG. Our further demonstration that peripherin-immunoreactive autonomic fibers in pancreas, thyroid and ovary are juxtaposed to endocrine epithelium, complement our clinical observations in suggesting that neuronal elements may be a pertinent initial target for immune attack in multiple forms of endocrine autoimmunity (intermolecular epitope spreading). It remains to be determined whether or not peripherin-IgG is predictive for development of small fiber neuropathy (autonomic or somatic).
|Birth of ophthalmic trigeminal neurons initiates early in the placodal ectoderm. |
Kathryn L McCabe,John W Sechrist,Marianne Bronner-Fraser
The Journal of comparative neurology 514 2009
The largest of the cranial ganglia, the trigeminal ganglion, relays cutaneous sensations of the head to the central nervous system. Its sensory neurons have a dual origin from both ectodermal placodes and neural crest. Here, we show that the birth of neurons derived from the chick ophthalmic trigeminal placode begins prior to their ingression (HH11), as early as HH8, and considerably earlier than previously suspected (HH16). Furthermore, cells exiting the cell cycle shortly thereafter express the ophthalmic trigeminal placode marker Pax3 (HH9). At HH11, these postmitotic Pax3+ placode cells begin to express the pan-neuronal marker neurofilament while still in the ectoderm. Analysis of the ectodermal origin and distribution of these early postmitotic neurons reveals that the ophthalmic placode extends further rostrally than anticipated, contributing to neurons that reside in and make a significant contribution to the ophthalmic trigeminal nerve. These data redefine the timing and extent of neuron formation from the ophthalmic trigeminal placode.Artículo Texto completo
|Cyclin D1 fine-tunes the neurogenic output of embryonic retinal progenitor cells. |
Das, G; Choi, Y; Sicinski, P; Levine, EM
Neural development 4 15 2009
Maintaining the correct balance of proliferation versus differentiation in retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) is essential for proper development of the retina. The cell cycle regulator cyclin D1 is expressed in RPCs, and mice with a targeted null allele at the cyclin D1 locus (Ccnd1-/-) have microphthalmia and hypocellular retinas, the latter phenotype attributed to reduced RPC proliferation and increased photoreceptor cell death during the postnatal period. How cyclin D1 influences RPC behavior, especially during the embryonic period, is unclear.In this study, we show that embryonic RPCs lacking cyclin D1 progress through the cell cycle at a slower rate and exit the cell cycle at a faster rate. Consistent with enhanced cell cycle exit, the relative proportions of cell types born in the embryonic period, such as retinal ganglion cells and photoreceptor cells, are increased. Unexpectedly, cyclin D1 deficiency decreases the proportions of other early born retinal neurons, namely horizontal cells and specific amacrine cell types. We also found that the laminar positioning of horizontal cells and other cell types is altered in the absence of cyclin D1. Genetically replacing cyclin D1 with cyclin D2 is not efficient at correcting the phenotypes due to the cyclin D1 deficiency, which suggests the D-cyclins are not fully redundant. Replacement with cyclin E or inactivation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 restores the balance of RPCs and retinal cell types to more normal distributions, which suggests that regulation of the retinoblastoma pathway is an important function for cyclin D1 during embryonic retinal development.Our findings show that cyclin D1 has important roles in RPC cell cycle regulation and retinal histogenesis. The reduction in the RPC population due to a longer cell cycle time and to an enhanced rate of cell cycle exit are likely to be the primary factors driving retinal hypocellularity and altered output of precursor populations in the embryonic Ccnd1-/- retina.Artículo Texto completo
|Quantitative evaluation of myenteric ganglion cells in normal human left colon: implications for histopathological analysis. |
Chiara Ippolito, Cristina Segnani, Roberto De Giorgio, Corrado Blandizzi, Letizia Mattii, Maura Castagna, Stefania Moscato, Amelio Dolfi, Nunzia Bernardini, Chiara Ippolito, Cristina Segnani, Roberto De Giorgio, Corrado Blandizzi, Letizia Mattii, Maura Castagna, Stefania Moscato, Amelio Dolfi, Nunzia Bernardini
Cell and tissue research 336 191-201 2009
The analysis of myenteric neurons is becoming increasingly important for the assessment of enteric nervous system injury and degeneration occurring in motor disorders of the gut. Limited information is presently available on the quantitative estimation of myenteric neurons and glial cells in paraffin-embedded colonic sections; additional data would be useful for diagnostic purposes. In this morphometric study, we performed immunohistochemistry to count myenteric neurons and glial cells in paraffin sections of human colon. Serial cross sections of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded full-thickness normal human left colon (n = 10, age-range: 50-72 years) were examined. HuC/D and S100beta antigens were found to be the best markers for the detection of neurons and glial cells, respectively. Significant correlations were noted between the numbers of neurons/glial cells and the respective myenteric ganglion areas. These findings suggest that HuC/D-S100beta-immunostained paraffin cross sections of human colon can be regarded as valuable tools for the quantitative estimation of myenteric neurons and glial cells. Based on the present method, only a limited number of paraffin sections are needed for reliable quantitative assessments of myenteric ganglion cells, thus allowing fast and simple approaches in the settings of the histopathological diagnosis of colonic motility disorders and retrospective evaluations of pathological archival tissue specimens.
|Maintenance of the relative proportion of oligodendrocytes to axons even in the absence of BAX and BAK. |
Kumi Kawai,Takayuki Itoh,Aki Itoh,Makoto Horiuchi,Kouji Wakayama,Peter Bannerman,James Y Garbern,David Pleasure,Tullia Lindsten
The European journal of neuroscience 30 2009
Highly purified oligodendroglial lineage cells from mice lacking functional bax and bak genes were resistant to apoptosis after in-vitro differentiation, indicating an essential role of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in apoptosis of oligodendrocytes in the absence of neurons (axons) and other glial cells. These mice therefore provide a valuable tool with which to evaluate the significance of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in regulating the population sizes of oligodendrocytes and oligodendroglial progenitor cells. Quantitative analysis of the optic nerves and the dorsal columns of the spinal cord revealed that the absolute numbers of mature oligodendrocytes immunolabeled for aspartoacylase and adult glial progenitor cells expressing NG2 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan were increased in both white matter tracts of adult bax/bak-deficient mice and, to a lesser extent, bax-deficient mice, except that there was no increase in NG2-positive progenitor cells in the dorsal columns of these strains of mutant mice. These increases in mature oligodendrocytes and progenitor cells in bax/bak-deficient mice were unexpectedly proportional to increases in numbers of axons in these white matter tracts, thus retaining the oligodendroglial lineage to axon ratios of at most 1.3-fold of the physiological numbers. This is in contrast to the prominent expansion in numbers of neural precursor cells in the subventricular zones of these adult mutant mice. Our study indicates that homeostatic control of cell number is different for progenitors of the oligodendroglial and neuronal lineages. Furthermore, regulatory mechanism(s) operating in addition to apoptotic elimination through the intrinsic pathway, appear to prevent the overproduction of highly mitotic oligodendroglial progenitor cells.Artículo Texto completo
|Myosin Va increases the efficiency of neurofilament transport by decreasing the duration of long-term pauses. |
Alami, NH; Jung, P; Brown, A
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 29 6625-34 2009
We investigated the axonal transport of neurofilaments in cultured neurons from two different strains of dilute lethal mice, which lack myosin Va. To analyze the motile behavior, we tracked the movement of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged neurofilaments through naturally occurring gaps in the axonal neurofilament array of cultured superior cervical ganglion neurons from DLS/LeJ dilute lethal mice. Compared with wild-type controls, we observed no statistically significant difference in velocity or frequency of movement. To analyze the pausing behavior, we used a fluorescence photoactivation pulse-escape technique to measure the rate of departure of PAGFP (photoactivatable GFP)-tagged neurofilaments from photoactivated axonal segments in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons from DLS/LeJ and dl20J dilute lethal mice. Compared with wild-type controls, we observed a 48% increase in the mean time for neurofilaments to depart the activated regions in neurons from DLS/LeJ mice (p less than 0.001) and a 169% increase in neurons from dl20J mice (p less than 0.0001). These data indicate that neurofilaments pause for more prolonged periods in the absence of myosin Va. We hypothesize that myosin Va is a short-range motor for neurofilaments and that it can function to enhance the efficiency of neurofilament transport in axons by delivering neurofilaments to their microtubule tracks, thereby reducing the duration of prolonged off-track pauses.
|Heterogeneous distribution of axonal cytoskeleton proteins in the human optic nerve. |
Chandrakumar Balaratnasingam, William H Morgan, Victoria Johnstone, Stephen J Cringle, Dao-Yi Yu
Investigative ophthalmology visual science 50 2824-38 2009
PURPOSE: Cytoskeleton proteins play a critical role in maintaining retinal ganglion cell structure, viability, and function. This study documents the distribution of cytoskeleton protein subunits in the various regions of the normal human optic nerve and identifies important relationships among mitochondria, myelin, and neurofilament proteins. METHODS: Twenty-three optic nerves from human cadavers were used. Confocal microscopy was used to examine the distribution of neurofilament light, neurofilament medium, neurofilament heavy (phosphorylated and unphosphorylated), neurofilament heavy (phosphorylated only), actin, and microtubule associated protein (MAP)-1 along the sagittal plane of the optic nerve. Comparisons were made among superior, middle, and inferior regions and also among temporal, central, and nasal portions of the optic nerve. Colocalization of neurofilament light, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COX), and myelin was also performed. RESULTS: There are significant differences in the pattern and distribution of neurofilament protein subunits, actin, and MAP-1 along the sagittal plane of the optic nerve. Cytoskeleton proteins and COX mitochondria are found in highest concentrations in the prelaminar and lamina cribrosa regions. COX and neurofilament light occurs predominantly in unmyelinated nerve, with a significant decrease in concentration occurring on optic nerve myelination. CONCLUSIONS: The heterogeneous distribution of cytoskeleton proteins along the sagittal plane may be an important functional adaptation that reflects the nonuniform nature of the physiological and structural environment of the optic nerve. The heterogeneous distribution of cytoskeleton proteins may also partly account for the asymmetric pattern of optic nerve damage after intraocular pressure elevation.
|Shp2 acts downstream of SDF-1alpha/CXCR4 in guiding granule cell migration during cerebellar development. |
Hagihara, K; Zhang, EE; Ke, YH; Liu, G; Liu, JJ; Rao, Y; Feng, GS
Developmental biology 334 276-84 2009
Shp2 is a non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase containing two Src homology 2 (SH2) domains that is implicated in intracellular signaling events controlling cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. To examine the role of Shp2 in brain development, we created mice with Shp2 selectively deleted in neural stem/progenitor cells. Homozygous mutant mice exhibited early postnatal lethality with defects in neural stem cell self-renewal and neuronal/glial cell fate specification. Here we report a critical role of Shp2 in guiding neuronal cell migration in the cerebellum. In homozygous mutants, we observed reduced and less foliated cerebellum, ectopic presence of external granule cells and mispositioned Purkinje cells, a phenotype very similar to that of mutant mice lacking either SDF-1alpha or CXCR4. Consistently, Shp2-deficient granule cells failed to migrate toward SDF-1alpha in an in vitro cell migration assay, and SDF-1alpha treatment triggered a robust induction of tyrosyl phosphorylation on Shp2. Together, these results suggest that although Shp2 is involved in multiple signaling events during brain development, a prominent role of the phosphatase is to mediate SDF-1alpha/CXCR4 signal in guiding cerebellar granule cell migration.
|Mutant SOD1 impairs axonal transport of choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholine release by sequestering KAP3. |
Tateno, M; Kato, S; Sakurai, T; Nukina, N; Takahashi, R; Araki, T
Human molecular genetics 18 942-55 2009
Mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 (sod1) gene cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS), likely due to the toxic properties of misfolded mutant SOD1 protein. Here we demonstrated that, starting from the pre-onset stage of FALS, misfolded SOD1 species associates specifically with kinesin-associated protein 3 (KAP3) in the ventral white matter of SOD1(G93A)-transgenic mouse spinal cord. KAP3 is a kinesin-2 subunit responsible for binding to cargos including choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). Motor axons in SOD1(G93A)-Tg mice also showed a reduction in ChAT transport from the pre-onset stage. By employing a novel FALS modeling system using NG108-15 cells, we showed that microtubule-dependent release of acetylcholine was significantly impaired by misfolded SOD1 species. Furthermore, such impairment was able to be normalized by KAP3 overexpression. KAP3 was incorporated into SOD1 aggregates in human FALS cases as well. These results suggest that KAP3 sequestration by misfolded SOD1 species and the resultant inhibition of ChAT transport play a role in the dysfunction of ALS.
|An essential role for frizzled 5 in mammalian ocular development. |
Liu, C; Nathans, J
Development (Cambridge, England) 135 3567-76 2008
Microphthalmia, coloboma and persistent fetal vasculature within the vitreous cavity are among the most common human congenital ocular anomalies, and each has been associated with a variety of genetic disorders. Here we show that, in the mouse, loss of frizzled 5 (Fz5) - a putative Wnt receptor expressed in the eye field, optic cup and retina - causes all of these defects with high penetrance. In the developing Fz5(-/-) eye, the sequence of defects, in order of appearance, is: increased cell death in the ventral retina, delayed and/or incomplete closure of the ventral fissure, an excess of mesenchymal cells in the vitreous cavity, an excess of retinal astrocyte precursors and mature astrocytes, and persistence of the hyaloid vasculature in association with a large number of pigment cells. Fz5(-/-) mice also exhibit a late-onset progressive retinal degeneration by approximately 6 months of age, which might be related to the expression of Fz5 in Müller glia in the adult retina. These results demonstrate a central role for frizzled signaling in mammalian eye development and are likely to be relevant to the etiology of congenital human ocular anomalies.
|Mapping of notch activation during cochlear development in mice: implications for determination of prosensory domain and cell fate diversification. |
Junko Murata, Akinori Tokunaga, Hideyuki Okano, Takeshi Kubo
The Journal of comparative neurology 497 502-18 2006
Recent chick experiments have shown that Notch signaling plays context-dependent distinct roles in inner ear development: initially, Notch activity confers a prosensory character on groups of cells by lateral induction; subsequently, it is involved in the establishment of fine-graded patterns of hair cells and supporting cells by lateral inhibition. However, the spatiotemporal pattern of Notch activation in situ during mammalian inner ear development has not been investigated. In this study, we detected the expression patterns of the activated form of Notch1 (actN1) as well as those of endogenous Notch1, Jagged1 (Jag1), and Math1. ActN1 was detected by immunohistochemistry using an antibody that specifically recognizes the processed form of the intracellular domain of Notch1 cleaved by presenilin/gamma-secretase activity. Between embryonic days (E)12.5 and E14.5, actN1 was weakly detected mainly in the medial region of cochlear epithelium, where Jag1-immunoreactivivty (IR) was also observed. Jag1-IR gradually became stronger in a more sharply defined area, finally becoming localized in supporting cells, while actN1 was detected in an overlapping area. Thus, a positive feedback loop was assumed to exist between the expression of Jag1 and actN1. In addition, actN1 started to be strongly expressed in the cells surrounding Math1-positive hair cell progenitors between E14.5 and E15.5. Strong actN1-IR continued in both a supporting cell lineage and in the greater epithelial ridge during the perinatal stage but ended by P7, suggesting that Notch1 activation may initially demarcate a prosensory region in the cochlear epithelium and then inhibit progenitor cells from becoming hair cells via classical lateral inhibition.
|Axonal growth and guidance defects in Frizzled3 knock-out mice: a comparison of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging, neurofilament staining, and genetically directed cell labeling. |
Wang, Y; Zhang, J; Mori, S; Nathans, J
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 26 355-64 2006
Previous work has identified axonal outgrowth and/or guidance defects in the brain and spinal cord of prenatal Frizzled3 (Fz3)(-/-) mice. To systematically explore the axonal defects in Fz3(-/-) mice and to compare techniques for the global assessment of axon tracts in the developing mouse, we have analyzed wild-type and Fz3(-/-) brains using (1) diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (muDTI), (2) neurofilament staining, and (3) two genetically directed neuronal labeling methods. Confirming and extending the previous work of Wang et al. (2002), we find that the following structures/tracts are absent or greatly reduced in the Fz3(-/-) brain: the anterior commissure, cerebral peduncle (corticospinal tract), corpus callosum, fornix, internal capsule (thalamocortical and corticothalamic tracts), stria medullaris, stria terminalis, and hippocampal commissure. An aberrant U-shaped fiber bundle immediately caudal to the optic tract connects the left and right sides of the Fz3(-/-) thalamus and likely represents a default pathway for thalamic axons that failed to enter the internal capsule. At embryonic day 18, labeling of cortical pyramidal cells with a yellow fluorescent protein reporter reveals widespread fragmentation of axons with no apparent loss of pyramidal cell bodies. Fragmentation likely represents one stage in the process that normally eliminates stalled or mistargeted axons. This work demonstrates the usefulness of muDTI and genetically directed neuronal labeling for the analysis of nervous system defects in the mouse.
|Robo1 regulates the development of major axon tracts and interneuron migration in the forebrain. |
Andrews, W; Liapi, A; Plachez, C; Camurri, L; Zhang, J; Mori, S; Murakami, F; Parnavelas, JG; Sundaresan, V; Richards, LJ
Development (Cambridge, England) 133 2243-52 2006
The Slit genes encode secreted ligands that regulate axon branching, commissural axon pathfinding and neuronal migration. The principal identified receptor for Slit is Robo (Roundabout in Drosophila). To investigate Slit signalling in forebrain development, we generated Robo1 knockout mice by targeted deletion of exon 5 of the Robo1 gene. Homozygote knockout mice died at birth, but prenatally displayed major defects in axon pathfinding and cortical interneuron migration. Axon pathfinding defects included dysgenesis of the corpus callosum and hippocampal commissure, and abnormalities in corticothalamic and thalamocortical targeting. Slit2 and Slit1/2 double mutants display malformations in callosal development, and in corticothalamic and thalamocortical targeting, as well as optic tract defects. In these animals, corticothalamic axons form large fasciculated bundles that aberrantly cross the midline at the level of the hippocampal and anterior commissures, and more caudally at the medial preoptic area. Such phenotypes of corticothalamic targeting were not observed in Robo1 knockout mice but, instead, both corticothalamic and thalamocortical axons aberrantly arrived at their respective targets at least 1 day earlier than controls. By contrast, in Slit mutants, fewer thalamic axons actually arrive in the cortex during development. Finally, significantly more interneurons (up to twice as many at E12.5 and E15.5) migrated into the cortex of Robo1 knockout mice, particularly in both rostral and parietal regions, but not caudal cortex. These results indicate that Robo1 mutants have distinct phenotypes, some of which are different from those described in Slit mutants, suggesting that additional ligands, receptors or receptor partners are likely to be involved in Slit/Robo signalling.
|Alsin/Rac1 signaling controls survival and growth of spinal motoneurons. |
Arnaud Jacquier, Emmanuelle Buhler, Michael K E Schäfer, Delphine Bohl, Stephane Blanchard, Christophe Beclin, Georg Haase
Annals of neurology 60 105-17 2006
OBJECTIVE: Recessive mutations in alsin, a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for the GTPases Rab5 and Rac1, cause juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS2) and related motoneuron disorders. Alsin function in motoneurons remained unclear because alsin knock-out mice do not develop overt signs of motoneuron degeneration. METHODS: To generate an alsin loss-of-function model in an ALS-relevant cell type, we developed a new small interfering RNA electroporation technique that allows efficient knock down of alsin in embryonic rat spinal motoneurons. RESULTS: After small interfering RNA-mediated alsin knockdown, cultured motoneurons displayed a reduced apparent size of EEA1-labeled early endosomes and an increased intracellular accumulation of transferrin and L1CAM. Alsin knockdown induced cell death in 32 to 48% of motoneurons and significantly inhibited axon growth in the surviving neurons. Both cellular phenotypes were mimicked by expression of a dominant-negative Rac1 mutant and were completely blocked by expression of a constitutively active Rac1 mutant. Expression of dominant-negative or constitutively active forms of Rab5 had no such effects. INTERPRETATION: Our data demonstrate that alsin controls the growth and survival of motoneurons in a Rac1-dependant manner. The strategy reported here illustrates how small interfering RNA electroporation can be used to generate cellular models of neurodegenerative disease involving a loss-of-function mechanism.
|Chronic activation in presymptomatic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mice of a feedback loop involving Fas, Daxx, and FasL. |
Raoul, C; Buhler, E; Sadeghi, C; Jacquier, A; Aebischer, P; Pettmann, B; Henderson, CE; Haase, G
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103 6007-12 2006
The reasons for the cellular specificity and slow progression of motoneuron diseases such as ALS are still poorly understood. We previously described a motoneuron-specific cell death pathway downstream of the Fas death receptor, in which synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) is an obligate step. Motoneurons from ALS model mice expressing mutant SOD1 showed increased susceptibility to exogenous NO as compared with controls. Here, we report a signaling mechanism whereby NO leads to death of mutant, but not control, motoneurons. Unexpectedly, exogenous NO triggers expression of Fas ligand (FasL) in cultured motoneurons. In mutant SOD1(G93A) and SOD1(G85R), but not in control motoneurons, this up-regulation results in activation of Fas, leading through Daxx to phosphorylation of p38 and further NO synthesis. This Fas/NO feedback amplification loop is required for motoneuron death in vitro. In vivo, mutant SOD1(G93A) and SOD1(G85R) mice show increased numbers of positive motoneurons and Daxx nuclear bodies weeks before disease onset. Moreover, FasL up-regulation is reduced in the presence of transgenic dominant-negative Daxx. We propose that chronic low-level activation of the Fas/NO feedback loop may underlie the motoneuron loss that characterizes familial ALS and may help to explain its slowly progressive nature.Artículo Texto completo
|The slow Wallerian degeneration protein, WldS, binds directly to VCP/p97 and partially redistributes it within the nucleus. |
Laser, H; Conforti, L; Morreale, G; Mack, TG; Heyer, M; Haley, JE; Wishart, TM; Beirowski, B; Walker, SA; Haase, G; Celik, A; Adalbert, R; Wagner, D; Grumme, D; Ribchester, RR; Plomann, M; Coleman, MP
Molecular biology of the cell 17 1075-84 2006
Slow Wallerian degeneration (Wld(S)) mutant mice express a chimeric nuclear protein that protects sick or injured axons from degeneration. The C-terminal region, derived from NAD(+) synthesizing enzyme Nmnat1, is reported to confer neuroprotection in vitro. However, an additional role for the N-terminal 70 amino acids (N70), derived from multiubiquitination factor Ube4b, has not been excluded. In wild-type Ube4b, N70 is part of a sequence essential for ubiquitination activity but its role is not understood. We report direct binding of N70 to valosin-containing protein (VCP; p97/Cdc48), a protein with diverse cellular roles including a pivotal role in the ubiquitin proteasome system. Interaction with Wld(S) targets VCP to discrete intranuclear foci where ubiquitin epitopes can also accumulate. Wld(S) lacking its N-terminal 16 amino acids (N16) neither binds nor redistributes VCP, but continues to accumulate in intranuclear foci, targeting its intrinsic NAD(+) synthesis activity to these same foci. Wild-type Ube4b also requires N16 to bind VCP, despite a more C-terminal binding site in invertebrate orthologues. We conclude that N-terminal sequences of Wld(S) protein influence the intranuclear location of both ubiquitin proteasome and NAD(+) synthesis machinery and that an evolutionary recent sequence mediates binding of mammalian Ube4b to VCP.
|Development of GABAergic neurons from the ventricular zone in the superior colliculus of the mouse. |
Naoko Tsunekawa, Yuchio Yanagawa, Kunihiko Obata
Neuroscience research 51 243-51 2005
The superior colliculus (SC) is a layered structure in the midbrain and is particularly rich in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The present investigation aimed to determine whether the development of GABAergic neurons in the SC is common to that of the neocortex in which they are produced in a distinct area called the ganglionic eminence and are transported by tangential migration. A green fluorescent protein (GFP) knock-in mouse was used in which a GFP gene was introduced into the gene for glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 67 and all GABAergic neurons were fluorescent. At embryonic day (E) 11-14, GFP-positive cells increased strikingly. They were spindle-shaped with processes at both poles and oriented radially between the ventricular and pial surface, together with other GFP-negative cells. After the cutting of the embryonic SC, GFP-positive cells accumulated on one side of the injury as expected from their radial but not tangential migration. In the living slice preparations GFP-positive cells migrated radially during the observation. These results indicate that tangential migration of GABAergic neurons as observed in the neocortex is not applicable and that radial migration from the underlying ventricular zone is predominant in the SC. At E12-13, bundles of commissural GFP-positive fibers which appeared to originate outside the SC were distributed at the superficial layer. These superficial fibers were no longer observed at the later stages.
|Distribution of OL-protocadherin in axon fibers in the developing chick nervous system. |
Shinsuke Nakao, Masato Uemura, Eiko Aoki, Shintaro T Suzuki, Masatoshi Takeichi, Shinji Hirano
Brain research. Molecular brain research 134 294-308 2005
OL-protocadherin (OL-pc) is a homophilic cell adhesion molecule that belongs to the cadherin gene superfamily. We cloned and characterized the chicken homologue of OL-pc and examined its expression pattern in chick embryos mainly from embryonic day (E) 3.5 to E6.5. The structure of chick OL-pc was found to be essentially the same as that of mammalian OL-pc's except for some small deletions and insertions in the amino acid sequence. OL-pc protein was detected prominently along developing axonal fibers in the brain and also in the peripheral nervous system. In addition, it was detected in some mesenchymal cells and in the embryonic ectoderm of the mandible and limb bud. In the spinal cord, OL-pc was specifically expressed in motor neurons, and the protein was distributed along motor nerves. Motor nerves merged gradually with sensory nerves showing negative/faint OL-pc expression, but their fibers remained separated as small bundles in the nerves. Interestingly, OL-pc-positive motor nerves such as those to the sternocoracoideus became segregated from OL-pc-faint/weak motor nerves at the plexus region. Moreover, OL-pc was distributed along the path of the branchial nerves. These results suggest that OL-pc might play some roles in axon navigation such as in axon elongation, selective fasciculation, and pathfinding in the early stage of neural development.
|Dlx2 over-expression regulates cell adhesion and mesenchymal condensation in ectomesenchyme. |
Sonja J McKeown, Donald F Newgreen, Peter G Farlie
Developmental biology 281 22-37 2005
The Dlx family of homeodomain transcription factors have diverse roles in development including craniofacial morphogenesis and consists of 6 members with overlapping expression patterns. Dlx2 is expressed within the developing branchial arches in both the epithelium and mesenchyme and targeted deletion in mice has revealed roles in patterning and development of the craniofacial skeleton. Defects in Dlx2 null mice include skeletal anomalies of proximal branchial arch 1 derivatives while distal elements are largely spared indicating redundancy within the Dlx family. We have investigated the function of Dlx2 using in ovo electroporation and cell culture. Ectopic expression of Dlx2 within the neural tube beginning prior to emigration of neural crest cells at E1.25 drastically inhibits the migration of transfected cells and induces aggregation of transfected neuroepithelial cells within the neural tube at 24 h post-electroporation. By 48 h post-electroporation, the majority of transfected cells formed multicellular aggregates that were found adjacent to the basal side of the neural tube and very few Dlx2 expressing cells migrated to the level of the branchial arches. Similar results were obtained for Dlx5, suggesting these effects may be common to Dlx genes. Electroporation of the Dlx2 expression construct into branchial arch mesenchyme induced N-cadherin and NCAM, a dramatic increase in cell-cell adhesion relative to controls, and resulted in an increase in mesenchymal condensation. These results suggest a role for Dlx genes in regulating ectomesenchymal cell adhesion and supports the possibility that the skeletal dysmorphology seen in Dlx null mice may derive from abnormalities at the condensation stage.
|Displaced granule cells in the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex in mice treated with methylazoxymethanol. |
Hajime Yamanaka, Kunihiko Obata
Neuroscience letters 358 132-6 2004
To study the effect of a reduced granule cell number on the development of the cerebellum, mice were administered with methylazoxymethanol (MAM) at birth and examined histologically at 21 days of age. In these mice, green fluorescent protein had been knocked in within the glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 gene, resulting in fluorescent GABAergic neurons. In severe cases, granule cells were greatly reduced in number and mixed with Purkinje cells instead of forming layers. In about 10% of the MAM-treated mice, an ectopic cell layer consisting of granule cells was observed within the molecular layer. Concomitantly, basket cells disappeared. The transient interruption of granule cell production in the external granular layer presumably resulted in their incomplete migration through the molecular layer.
|Calcium-permeable AMPA receptors promote misfolding of mutant SOD1 protein and development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a transgenic mouse model. |
Tateno, M; Sadakata, H; Tanaka, M; Itohara, S; Shin, RM; Miura, M; Masuda, M; Aosaki, T; Urushitani, M; Misawa, H; Takahashi, R
Human molecular genetics 13 2183-96 2004
Mutant Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) protein aggregation has been suggested as responsible for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), although the operative mediating factors are as yet unestablished. To evaluate the contribution of motoneuronal Ca2+-permeable (GluR2 subunit-lacking) alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors to SOD1-related motoneuronal death, we generated chat-GluR2 transgenic mice with significantly reduced Ca2+-permeability of these receptors in spinal motoneurons. Crossbreeding of the hSOD1G93A transgenic mouse model of ALS with chat-GluR2 mice led to marked delay of disease onset (19.5%), mortality (14.3%) and the pathological hallmarks such as release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, induction of cox2 and astrogliosis. Subcellular fractionation analysis revealed that unusual SOD1 species first accumulated in two fractions dense with neurofilaments/glial fibrillary acidic protein/nuclei and mitochondria long time before disease onset, and then concentrated into the former fraction by disease onset. All these processes for unusual SOD1 accumulation were considerably delayed by GluR2 overexpression. Ca2+-influx through atypical motoneuronal AMPA receptors thus promotes a misfolding of mutant SOD1 protein and eventual death of these neurons.
|Muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs in bovine calf extraocular muscle studied by means of double-fluorescent labeling, electron microscopy, and three-dimensional reconstruction. |
Roland Blumer, Kadriye Zeynep Konakci, Peter Christian Brugger, Michael Josef Franz Blumer, Doris Moser, Christian Schoefer, Julius-Robert Lukas, Johannes Streicher
Experimental eye research 77 447-62 2003
In the present study muscle spindles (MSps) and Golgi tendon organs (GTOs) in bovine extraocular muscles (EOMs) were analyzed in detail. The innervation pattern of these proprioceptors was investigated with transmission electron microscope and confocal laser scanning microscope after double-fluorescent labeling. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions were performed of GTOs.Muscle spindles. MSps are numerous, each containing two nuclear bag fibers and up to eight nuclear chain fibers. In the equatorial region and paraequatorial region thin axons enwrapping the intrafusal muscle fibers form numerous nerve contacts on the muscle fiber surface. Double staining of such nerve terminals with synaptophysin and alpha-bungarotoxin and their fine structural features confirm their sensory nature. In the encapsulated part of the polar region neuromuscular contacts have structural features of motor nerve terminals and stain positively with alpha-bungarotoxin. Golgi tendon organs. GTOs are numerous in bovine EOMs. Each GTO contains collagen bundles but frequently also intracapsular muscle fibers. Intracapsular muscle fibers either terminate inside the GTO in collagen bundles or pass through the proprioceptor. GTOs are richly supplied with sensory nerve terminals which intermingle with the collagen bundles. Nerve terminals on intracapsular muscle fibers exhibit fine structural characteristics of motor nerve terminals and are alpha-bungarotoxin positive. The 3D images of GTOs show the detailed spatial arrangement of the GTO tissue components. These new insights in the complex and specific morphology of MSps and GTOs in bovine EOMs indicate that we deal with highly developed proprioceptors. These are supposed to provide important information for EOM innervation.
|Temporal restriction of migratory and lineage potential in rhombomere 1 and 2 neural crest. |
Sonja J McKeown, Donald F Newgreen, Peter G Farlie
Developmental biology 255 62-76 2003
Migratory cranial neural crest cells differentiate into a wide range of cell types, such as ectomesenchymal tissue (bone and connective tissues) ventrally in the branchial arches and neural tissue (neurons and glia) dorsally. We investigated spatial and temporal changes of migration and differentiation potential in neural crest populations derived from caudal midbrain and rhombomeres 1 and 2 by back-transplanting cells destined for the first branchial arch and trigeminal ganglion from HH8-HH19 quail into HH7-HH11 chicks. Branchial arch cells differentiated down ectomesenchymal lineages but largely lost both the ability to localize to the trigeminal position and neurogenic differentiation capacity by HH12-HH13, even before the arch is visible, and lost long distance migratory ability around HH17. In contrast, neural crest-derived cells from trigeminal ganglia lost ectomesechymal differentiation potential by HH17. Despite this, they retain the ability to migrate into the branchial arches until at least HH19. However, many of the neural crest-derived trigeminal ganglia cells in the branchial arch localized to the non-neural crest core of the arch from HH13 and older donors. These results suggest that long distance migration ability, finer scale localization, and lineage restriction may not be coordinately regulated in the cranial neural crest population.
|The projections of early enteric neurons are influenced by the direction of neural crest cell migration. |
Young, H M, et al.
J. Neurosci., 22: 6005-18 (2002) 2002
The enteric nervous system arises from the neural crest. In embryonic mice, vagal neural crest cells enter the developing foregut at approximately embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5) and then migrate rostrocaudally to colonize the entire gastrointestinal tract by E14.5. This study showed that a subpopulation of vagal crest-derived cells, very close to the migratory wavefront, starts to differentiate into neurons early, as shown by the expression of neuron-specific proteins and the absence of Sox10. Many of the early differentiating neurons transiently exhibited tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity. The TH cells were demonstrated to be the progenitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) neurons. Immunohistochemistry, lesions, and DiI tracing were used to examine the projections of developing enteric neurons. The axons of first neurons in the gut (the TH-NOS neurons) projected in the same direction (caudally), and traversed the same pathways through the mesenchyme, as the migrating, undifferentiated, vagal crest-derived cells. To examine if the direction of migration and direction of axon projection are linked, coculture experiments were set up in which vagal crest-derived cells migrated either rostrocaudally (as they do in vivo), or caudorostrally (which they do not normally do), to colonize explants of embryonic aneural hindgut. The direction in which neurons projected was correlated with the direction of cell migration, but migration direction appears to be not the only mechanism influencing axon projection. Peristaltic reflexes involve both orally (rostrally) projecting neurons and anally (caudally) projecting neurons. Because few rostrally projecting neurons could be detected before birth, the full circuitry for peristaltic reflexes appears to develop after birth.
|Leukocyte infiltration, neuronal degeneration, and neurite outgrowth after ablation of scar-forming, reactive astrocytes in adult transgenic mice. |
Bush, T G, et al.
Neuron, 23: 297-308 (1999) 1999
Reactive astrocytes adjacent to a forebrain stab injury were selectively ablated in adult mice expressing HSV-TK from the Gfap promoter by treatment with ganciclovir. Injured tissue that was depleted of GFAP-positive astrocytes exhibited (1) a prolonged 25-fold increase in infiltration of CD45-positive leukocytes, including ultrastructurally identified monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphocytes, (2) failure of blood-brain barrier (BBB) repair, (3) substantial neuronal degeneration that could be attenuated by chronic glutamate receptor blockade, and (4) a pronounced increase in local neurite outgrowth. These findings show that genetic targeting can be used to ablate scar-forming astrocytes and demonstrate roles for astrocytes in regulating leukocyte trafficking, repairing the BBB, protecting neurons, and restricting nerve fiber growth after injury in the adult central nervous system.
|Interactions between peripherin and neurofilaments in cultured cells: disruption of peripherin assembly by the NF-M and NF-H subunits. |
J M Beaulieu, J Robertson, J P Julien
Biochemistry and cell biology = Biochimie et biologie cellulaire 77 41-5 1999
Neurofilaments are the principal intermediate filament type expressed by neurons. They are formed by the co-assembly of three subunits: NF-L, NF-M, and NF-H. Peripherin is another intermediate filament protein expressed mostly in neurons of the peripheral nervous system. In contrast to neurofilaments, peripherin can self-assemble to establish an intermediate filament network in cultured cells. The co-expression of neurofilaments and peripherin is found mainly during development and regeneration. We used SW13 cells devoid of endogenous cytoplasmic intermediate filaments to assess the exact assembly characteristics of peripherin with each neurofilament subunit. Our results demonstrate that peripherin can assemble with NF-L. In contrast, the co-expression of peripherin with the large neurofilament subunits interferes with peripherin assembly. These results confirm the existence of interactions between peripherin and neurofilaments in physiological conditions. Moreover, they suggest that perturbations in the stoichiometry of neurofilaments can have an impact on peripherin assembly in vivo.
|Age-related intra-axonal accumulation of neurofilaments in the dorsal column nuclei of the cat brainstem: a light and electron microscopic immunohistochemical study. |
J H Zhang, S Sampogna, F R Morales, M H Chase
Brain research 797 333-8 1998
In the present study, we examined the age-related intra-axonal accumulation of neurofilaments in the dorsal column nuclei of the cat by using immunohistochemical techniques combined with light and electron microscopy. Light microscopic analysis revealed oval or circular immunostained structures in the dorsal column nuclei of old cats. These immunostained structures were not observed in the material obtained from adult controls. Under the electron microscope, it was discovered that the immunostained structures were greatly enlarged axons with disrupted myelin sheaths. These enlarged axons contained massive accumulations of neurofilaments, some mitochondria, vacuoles and dense granules. The abnormalities of the myelin sheaths included the breaking of myelin at several locations, a splitting and ballooning in the myelin lamellae of the sheath and a distended periaxonal space between the axon and myelin sheaths. These ultrastructural changes resembled the degenerative alterations that have been observed in the axons of human and animals suffering from a number of pathological conditions, including giant axonal neuropathy and toxic neuropathy. Therefore, severely altered axons with intra-axonal accumulation of neurofilaments appear to reflect chronic degenerative changes that are a component of the aging process.
|BAX is required for neuronal death after trophic factor deprivation and during development. |
Deckwerth, T L, et al.
Neuron, 17: 401-11 (1996) 1996
Members of the BCL2-related family of proteins either promote or repress programmed cell death. BAX, a death-promoting member, heterodimerizes with multiple death-repressing molecules, suggesting that it could prove critical to cell death. We tested whether Bax is required for neuronal death by trophic factor deprivation and during development. Neonatal sympathetic neurons and facial motor neurons from Bax-deficient mice survived nerve growth factor deprivation and disconnection from their targets by axotomy, respectively. These salvaged neurons displayed remarkable soma atrophy and reduced elaboration of neurities; yet they responded to readdition of trophic factor with soma hypertrophy and enhanced neurite outgrowth. Bax-deficient superior cervical ganglia and facial nuclei possessed increased numbers of neurons. Our observations demonstrate that trophic factor deprivation-induced death of sympathetic and motor neurons depends on Bax.
|A molecular dissection of the carboxyterminal tails of the major neurofilament subunits NF-M and NF-H. |
Harris, J, et al.
J. Neurosci. Res., 30: 47-62 (1991) 1991
We have initiated a multidisciplinary project that aims to dissect and ultimately define the functions of the long and unusual C-terminal "tail" sequences of the two high molecular weight neurofilament subunits, NF-M and NF-H. A series of recombinant fusion proteins containing selected NF-M and NF-H tail sequences were constructed using appropriate cDNAs. These fusion proteins were used to further define the epitopes for a variety of widely used neurofilament antibodies, including NN18 and N52, which are now available commercially from several companies. We also measured the SDS-PAGE mobility of the fusion proteins and found that, like the native neurofilament tails, the fusion proteins ran considerably slower than predicted from their molecular weight. Since all fusion proteins produced so far exhibit this characteristic we conclude that all segments of the NF-M and NF-H tail share this unusual property. Finally we were able to produce novel and potentially useful polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to selected segments of NF-M and NF-H sequence. These antibody studies showed that the extreme C-termini of NF-M and NF-H are immunologically absolutely distinct from one another and also indicate that the extreme C-terminus of NF-M is immunologically much more conserved than the analogous region of NF-H. These findings are in complete agreement with our conclusions derived from amino acid sequence analysis, and further underline the possible functional importance of the extreme C-terminus of NF-M. We also show that the unusual immunological properties of the bovine NF-M tail we have previously observed do not extend to the extreme C-terminal region, which appears immunologically no different from the analogous region of other NF-M molecules. The peculiarities of bovine NF-M could be explained by the presence of a KSP motif that resembles the NF-H KSP prototype.
|Anti-Neurofilament M (145 kDa), C-terminus - Data Sheet|