Tabla espec. clave
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|A||IH(P), WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified mouse monoclonal IgG2b liquid in buffer containing 0.1% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at 2-8ºC from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
Ficha datos de seguridad (MSDS)
|Cargo||Número de lote|
|Anti-Nitrotyrosine, clone 2A8.2 - 2453250||2453250|
|Anti-Nitrotyrosine, clone 2A8.2 - 0606033429||0606033429|
|Anti-Nitrotyrosine, clone 2A8.2 - 1992645||1992645|
|Anti-Nitrotyrosine, clone 2A8.2 - 2073585||2073585|
|Anti-Nitrotyrosine, clone 2A8.2 - 2325079||2325079|
|Anti-Nitrotyrosine, clone 2A8.2 - LV1434073||LV1434073|
|Anti-Nitrotyrosine, clone 2A8.2 - LV1594105||LV1594105|
|Anti-Nitrotyrosine, clone 2A8.2 - LV1703543||LV1703543|
|Anti-Nitrotyrosine, clone 2A8.2 - LV1736265||LV1736265|
|Anti-Nitrotyrosine, clone 2A8.2 - LV1751785||LV1751785|
|Anti-Nitrotyrosine, clone 2A8.2 - LV1766466||LV1766466|
|Anti-Nitrotyrosine, clone 2A8.2 - LV1777991||LV1777991|
|Anti-Nitrotyrosine, clone 2A8.2 -2571198||2571198|
Referencias bibliográficas | 22 Disponible | Ver todas las referencias
|Visión general referencias||Aplicación||Pub Med ID|
|Tocopherols inhibit oxidative and nitrosative stress in estrogen-induced early mammary hyperplasia in ACI rats. |
Das Gupta, S; So, JY; Wall, B; Wahler, J; Smolarek, AK; Sae-Tan, S; Soewono, KY; Yu, H; Lee, MJ; Thomas, PE; Yang, CS; Suh, N
Molecular carcinogenesis 54 916-25 2015
Oxidative stress is known to play a key role in estrogen-induced breast cancer. This study assessed the chemopreventive activity of the naturally occurring γ-tocopherol-rich mixture of tocopherols (γ-TmT) in early stages of estrogen-induced mammary hyperplasia in ACI rats. ACI rats provide an established model of rodent mammary carcinogenesis due to their high sensitivity to estrogen. Female rats were implanted with 9 mg of 17β-estradiol (E2) in silastic tubings and fed with control or 0.3% γ-TmT diet for 1, 3, 7, and 14 d. γ-TmT increased the levels of tocopherols and their metabolites in the serum and mammary glands of the rats. Histological analysis revealed mammary hyperplasia in the E2 treated rats fed with control or γ-TmT diet. γ-TmT decreased the levels of E2-induced nitrosative and oxidative stress markers, nitrotyrosine, and 8-oxo-dG, respectively, in the hyperplastic mammary tissues. 8-Isoprostane, a marker of oxidative stress in the serum, was also reduced by γ-TmT. Noticeably, γ-TmT stimulated Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response in the mammary glands of E2 treated rats, evident from the induced mRNA levels of Nrf2 and its downstream antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. Therefore, inhibition of nitrosative/oxidative stress through induction of antioxidant response is the primary effect of γ-TmT in early stages of E2-induced mammary hyperplasia. Due to its cytoprotective activity, γ-TmT could be a potential natural agent for the chemoprevention of estrogen-induced breast cancer.
|Effect of sodium nitrite on ischaemia and reperfusion-induced arrhythmias in anaesthetized dogs: is protein S-nitrosylation involved? |
Kovács, M; Kiss, A; Gönczi, M; Miskolczi, G; Seprényi, G; Kaszaki, J; Kohr, MJ; Murphy, E; Végh, Á
PloS one 10 e0122243 2015
To provide evidence for the protective role of inorganic nitrite against acute ischaemia and reperfusion-induced ventricular arrhythmias in a large animal model.Dogs, anaesthetized with chloralose and urethane, were administered intravenously with sodium nitrite (0.2 µmol kg(-1) min(-1)) in two protocols. In protocol 1 nitrite was infused 10 min prior to and during a 25 min occlusion of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery (NaNO2-PO; n = 14), whereas in protocol 2 the infusion was started 10 min prior to reperfusion of the occluded vessel (NaNO2-PR; n = 12). Control dogs (n = 15) were infused with saline and subjected to the same period of ischaemia and reperfusion. Severities of ischaemia and ventricular arrhythmias, as well as changes in plasma nitrate/nitrite (NOx) levels in the coronary sinus blood, were assessed throughout the experiment. Myocardial superoxide and nitrotyrosine (NT) levels were determined during reperfusion. Changes in protein S-nitrosylation (SNO) and S-glutathionylation were also examined.Compared with controls, sodium nitrite administered either pre-occlusion or pre-reperfusion markedly suppressed the number and severity of ventricular arrhythmias during occlusion and increased survival (0% vs. 50 and 92%) upon reperfusion. There were also significant decreases in superoxide and NT levels in the nitrite treated dogs. Compared with controls, increased SNO was found only in NaNO2-PR dogs, whereas S-glutathionylation occurred primarily in NaNO2-PO dogs.Intravenous infusion of nitrite profoundly reduced the severity of ventricular arrhythmias resulting from acute ischaemia and reperfusion in anaesthetized dogs. This effect, among several others, may result from an NO-mediated reduction in oxidative stress, perhaps through protein SNO and/or S-glutathionylation.
|Electroacupuncture-like stimulation at the Baihui (GV20) and Dazhui (GV14) acupoints protects rats against subacute-phase cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injuries by reducing S100B-mediated neurotoxicity. |
Cheng, CY; Lin, JG; Tang, NY; Kao, ST; Hsieh, CL
PloS one 9 e91426 2014
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of electroacupuncture-like stimulation at the Baihui (GV20) and Dazhui (GV14) acupoints (EA at acupoints) during the subacute phase of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and to establish the neuroprotective mechanisms involved in the modulation of the S100B-mediated signaling pathway.The experimental rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) for 15 min followed by 1 d or 7 d of reperfusion. EA at acupoints was applied 1 d postreperfusion then once daily for 6 consecutive days.We observed that 15 min of MCAo caused delayed infarct expansion 7 d after reperfusion. EA at acupoints significantly reduced the cerebral infarct and neurological deficit scores. EA at acupoints also downregulated the expression of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), S100B, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB; p50), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and reduced the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and apoptosis in the ischemic cortical penumbra 7 d after reperfusion. Western blot analysis showed that EA at acupoints significantly downregulated the cytosolic expression of phospho-p38 MAP kinase (p-p38 MAP kinase), tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1-associated death domain (TRADD), Fas-associated death domain (FADD), cleaved caspase-8, and cleaved caspase-3 in the ischemic cortical penumbra 7 d after reperfusion. EA at acupoints significantly reduced the numbers of GFAP/S100B and S100B/nitrotyrosine double-labeled cells.Our study results indicate that EA at acupoints initiated 1 d postreperfusion effectively downregulates astrocytic S100B expression to provide neuroprotection against delayed infarct expansion by modulating p38 MAP kinase-mediated NF-κB expression. These effects subsequently reduce oxidative/nitrative stress and inhibit the TNF-α/TRADD/FADD/cleaved caspase-8/cleaved caspase-3 apoptotic pathway in the ischemic cortical penumbra 7 d after reperfusion.
|Endothelial nitric oxide synthase and superoxide mediate hemodynamic initiation of intracranial aneurysms. |
Liaw, N; Fox, JM; Siddiqui, AH; Meng, H; Kolega, J
PloS one 9 e101721 2014
Hemodynamic insults at arterial bifurcations are believed to play a critical role in initiating intracranial aneurysms. Recent studies in a rabbit model indicate that aneurysmal damage initiates under specific wall shear stress conditions when smooth muscle cells (SMCs) become pro-inflammatory and produce matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The mechanisms leading to SMC activation and MMP production during hemodynamic aneurysm initiation are unknown. The goal is to determine if nitric oxide and/or superoxide induce SMC changes, MMP production and aneurysmal remodeling following hemodynamic insult.Bilateral common carotid artery ligation was performed on rabbits (n = 19, plus 5 sham operations) to induce aneurysmal damage at the basilar terminus. Ligated animals were treated with the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor LNAME (n = 7) or the superoxide scavenger TEMPOL (n = 5) and compared to untreated animals (n = 7). Aneurysm development was assessed histologically 5 days after ligation. Changes in NOS isoforms, peroxynitrite, reactive oxygen species (ROS), MMP-2, MMP-9, and smooth muscle α-actin were analyzed by immunohistochemistry.LNAME attenuated ligation-induced IEL loss, media thinning and bulge formation. In untreated animals, immunofluorescence showed increased endothelial NOS (eNOS) after ligation, but no change in inducible or neuronal NOS. Furthermore, during aneurysm initiation ROS increased in the media, but not the intima, and there was no change in peroxynitrite. In LNAME-treated animals, ROS production did not change. Together, this suggests that eNOS is important for aneurysm initiation but not by producing superoxide. TEMPOL treatment reduced aneurysm development, indicating that the increased medial superoxide is also necessary for aneurysm initiation. LNAME and TEMPOL treatment in ligated animals restored α-actin and decreased MMPs, suggesting that eNOS and superoxide both lead to SMC de-differentiation and MMP production.Aneurysm-inducing hemodynamics lead to increased eNOS and superoxide, which both affect SMC phenotype, increasing MMP production and aneurysmal damage.
|Targeting immune suppression with PDE5 inhibition in end-stage multiple myeloma. |
Noonan, KA; Ghosh, N; Rudraraju, L; Bui, M; Borrello, I
Cancer immunology research 2 725-31 2014
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) play a significant role in tumor-induced immune suppression. Targeting their function could improve antitumor therapies. Previously, we demonstrated that phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibition in MDSCs augmented antitumor immunity in murine models. Here, we show how the addition of the PDE5 inhibitor, tadalafil, in a patient with end-stage relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma reduced MDSC function and generated a dramatic and durable antimyeloma immune and clinical response. Strategies targeting MDSC function with PDE5 inhibitors represent a novel approach that can augment the efficacy of tumor-directed therapies.
|Amifostine alleviates radiation-induced lethal small bowel damage via promotion of 14-3-3σ-mediated nuclear p53 accumulation. |
Huang, EY; Wang, FS; Chen, YM; Chen, YF; Wang, CC; Lin, IH; Huang, YJ; Yang, KD
Oncotarget 5 9756-69 2014
Amifostine (AM) is a radioprotector that scavenges free radicals and is used in patients undergoing radiotherapy. p53 has long been implicated in cell cycle arrest for cellular repair after radiation exposure. We therefore investigated the protective p53-dependent mechanism of AM on small bowel damage after lethal whole-abdominal irradiation (WAI). AM increased both the survival rate of rats and crypt survival following lethal 18 Gy WAI. The p53 inhibitor PFT-α compromised AM-mediated effects when administered prior to AM administration. AM significantly increased clonogenic survival in IEC-6 cells expressing wild type p53 but not in p53 knockdown cells. AM significantly increased p53 nuclear accumulation and p53 tetramer expression before irradiation through the inhibition of p53 degradation. AM inhibited p53 interactions with MDM2 but enhanced p53 interactions with 14-3-3σ. Knockdown of 14-3-3σ also compromised the effect of AM on clonogenic survival and p53 nuclear accumulation in IEC-6 cells. For the first time, our data reveal that AM alleviates lethal small bowel damage through the induction of 14-3-3σ and subsequent accumulation of p53. Enhancement of the p53/14-3-3σ interaction results in p53 tetramerization in the nucleus that rescues lethal small bowel damage.
|Vitamin E dietary supplementation improves neurological symptoms and decreases c-Abl/p73 activation in Niemann-Pick C mice. |
Marín, T; Contreras, P; Castro, JF; Chamorro, D; Balboa, E; Bosch-Morató, M; Muñoz, FJ; Alvarez, AR; Zanlungo, S
Nutrients 6 3000-17 2014
Niemann-Pick C (NPC) disease is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of free cholesterol in lysosomes. We have previously reported that oxidative stress is the main upstream stimulus activating the proapoptotic c-Abl/p73 pathway in NPC neurons. We have also observed accumulation of vitamin E in NPC lysosomes, which could lead to a potential decrease of its bioavailability. Our aim was to determine if dietary vitamin E supplementation could improve NPC disease in mice. NPC mice received an alpha-tocopherol (α-TOH) supplemented diet and neurological symptoms, survival, Purkinje cell loss, α-TOH and nitrotyrosine levels, astrogliosis, and the c-Abl/p73 pathway functions were evaluated. In addition, the effect of α-TOH on the c-Abl/p73 pathway was evaluated in an in vitro NPC neuron model. The α-TOH rich diet delayed loss of weight, improved coordination and locomotor function and increased the survival of NPC mice. We found increased Purkinje neurons and α-TOH levels and reduced astrogliosis, nitrotyrosine and phosphorylated p73 in cerebellum. A decrease of c-Abl/p73 activation was also observed in the in vitro NPC neurons treated with α-TOH. In conclusion, our results show that vitamin E can delay neurodegeneration in NPC mice and suggest that its supplementation in the diet could be useful for the treatment of NPC patients.
|A prescribed Chinese herbal medicine improves glucose profile and ameliorates oxidative stress in Goto-Kakisaki rats fed with high fat diet. |
Wu, L; Li, X; Zhu, H; Xu, P; Gao, X
PloS one 8 e60262 2013
Oxidative stress (OS) plays a role in hyperglycemia induced islet β cell dysfunction, however, studies on classic anti-oxidants didn't show positive results in treating diabetes. We previously demonstrated that the prescribed Chinese herbal medicine preparation "Qing Huo Yi Hao" (QHYH) improved endothelial function in type 2 diabetic patients. QHYH protected endothelial cells from high glucose-induced damages by scavenging superoxide anion and reducing production of reactive oxygen species. Its active component protected C2C12 myotubes against palmitate-induced oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction. In the present study, we investigated whether QHYH protected islet β cell function exacerbated by high fat diet (HFD) in hyperglycemic GK rats. 4-week-old male rats were randomly divided into high HFD feeding group (n = 20) and chow diet feeding group (n = 10). Each gram of HFD contained 4.8 kcal of energy, 52% of which from fat. Rats on HFD were further divided into 2 groups given either QHYH (3 ml/Kg/d) or saline through gastric tube. After intervention, serum glucose concentrations were monitored; IPGTTs were performed without anesthesia on 5 fasting rats randomly chosen from each group on week 4 and 16. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations and activities of serum antioxidant enzymes were measured on week 4 and 16. Islet β cell mass and OS marker staining was done by immunohistochemistry on week 16. QHYH prevented the exacerbation of hyperglycemia in HFD feeding GK rats for 12 weeks. On week 16, it improved the exacerbated glucose tolerance and prevented the further loss of islet β cell mass induced by HFD. QHYH markedly decreased serum MDA concentration, increased serum catalase (CAT) and SOD activities on week 4. However, no differences of serum glucose concentration or OS were observed on week 16. We concluded that QHYH decreased hyperglycemia exacerbated by HFD in GK rats by improving β cell function partly via its antioxidant effect.
|GH-independent IGF-I action is essential to prevent the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in a GH-deficient rat model. |
Hitoshi Nishizawa,Michiko Takahashi,Hidenori Fukuoka,Genzo Iguchi,Riko Kitazawa,Yutaka Takahashi
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 423 2012
The progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) from simple steatosis is associated with the mitochondrial dysfunction, enhanced oxidative stress, and inflammation. Recently, it has been reported that the prevalence of NAFLD (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease)/NASH is increased in patients with adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD), suggesting that the deficiencies in GH and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) are involved in the development of NAFLD/NASH; however, the precise underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. To clarify the mechanisms and the specific contribution of GH and IGF-I in these conditions, we examined the liver of a GH-deficient rat model, spontaneous dwarf rat (SDR) and the effect of GH and IGF-I administration. SDR showed steatosis and fibrosis in the liver in line with the phenotype observed in AGHD. Serum AST and ALT levels and triglyceride content in the liver were significantly increased in the SDR compared with the control. Intriguingly, the mitochondrial morphology in the SDR hepatocyte was impaired and the area was significantly decreased. Furthermore, oxidative stress in the SDR liver was enhanced. These changes were improved not only by GH but also by IGF-I administration, suggesting that GH-independent IGF-I action plays an essential role in the liver. In conclusion, we demonstrated that GH-deficient rat exhibits NASH and IGF-I plays an essential role to prevent the development of NASH. The improved mitochondrial function and reduced oxidative stress may contribute the effect of IGF-I in the liver.
|When is mass spectrometry combined with affinity approaches essential? A case study of tyrosine nitration in proteins. |
Petre, BA; Ulrich, M; Stumbaum, M; Bernevic, B; Moise, A; Döring, G; Przybylski, M
Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 23 1831-40 2012
Tyrosine nitration in proteins occurs under physiologic conditions and is increased at disease conditions associated with oxidative stress, such as inflammation and Alzheimer's disease. Identification and quantification of tyrosine-nitrations are crucial for understanding nitration mechanism(s) and their functional consequences. Mass spectrometry (MS) is best suited to identify nitration sites, but is hampered by low stabilities and modification levels and possible structural changes induced by nitration. In this insight, we discuss methods for identifying and quantifying nitration sites by proteolytic affinity extraction using nitrotyrosine (NT)-specific antibodies, in combination with electrospray-MS. The efficiency of this approach is illustrated by identification of specific nitration sites in two proteins in eosinophil granules from several biological samples, eosinophil-cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN). Affinity extraction combined with Edman sequencing enabled the quantification of nitration levels, which were found to be 8 % and 15 % for ECP and EDN, respectively. Structure modeling utilizing available crystal structures and affinity studies using synthetic NT-peptides suggest a tyrosine nitration sequence motif comprising positively charged residues in the vicinity of the NT- residue, located at specific surface- accessible sites of the protein structure. Affinities of Tyr-nitrated peptides from ECP and EDN to NT-antibodies, determined by online bioaffinity- MS, provided nanomolar K(D) values. In contrast, false-positive identifications of nitrations were obtained in proteins from cystic fibrosis patients upon using NT-specific antibodies, and were shown to be hydroxy-tyrosine modifications. These results demonstrate affinity- mass spectrometry approaches to be essential for unequivocal identification of biological tyrosine nitrations.
|Defects of mtDNA replication impaired mitochondrial biogenesis during Trypanosoma cruzi infection in human cardiomyocytes and chagasic patients: the role of Nrf1/2 and antioxidant response. |
Wan, X; Gupta, S; Zago, MP; Davidson, MM; Dousset, P; Amoroso, A; Garg, NJ
Journal of the American Heart Association 1 e003855 2012
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a key determinant in chagasic cardiomyopathy development in mice; however, its relevance in human Chagas disease is not known. We determined if defects in mitochondrial biogenesis and dysregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) coactivator-1 (PGC-1)-regulated transcriptional pathways constitute a mechanism or mechanisms underlying mitochondrial oxidative-phosphorylation (OXPHOS) deficiency in human Chagas disease.We utilized human cardiomyocytes and left-ventricular tissue from chagasic and other cardiomyopathy patients and healthy donors (ngreater than 6/group). We noted no change in citrate synthase activity, yet mRNA and/or protein levels of subunits of the respiratory complexes were significantly decreased in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected cardiomyocytes (0 to 24 hours) and chagasic hearts. We observed increased mRNA and decreased nuclear localization of PGC-1-coactivated transcription factors, yet the expression of genes for PPARγ-regulated fatty acid oxidation and nuclear respiratory factor (NRF1/2)-regulated mtDNA replication and transcription machinery was enhanced in infected cardiomyocytes and chagasic hearts. The D-loop formation was normal or higher, but mtDNA replication and mtDNA content were decreased by 83% and 40% to 65%, respectively. Subsequently, we noted that reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative stress, and mtDNA oxidation were significantly increased, yet NRF1/2-regulated antioxidant gene expression remained compromised in infected cardiomyocytes and chagasic hearts.The replication of mtDNA was severely compromised, resulting in a significant loss of mtDNA and expression of OXPHOS genes in T cruzi-infected cardiomyocytes and chagasic hearts. Our data suggest increased ROS generation and selective functional incapacity of NRF2-mediated antioxidant gene expression played a role in the defects in mtDNA replication and unfitness of mtDNA for replication and gene expression in Chagas disease.
|Is there a trigger role of peroxynitrite in the anti-arrhythmic effect of ischaemic preconditioning and peroxynitrite infusion |
Juhász L, Kiss A, Nyeső E, Kovács M, Seprényi G, Kaszaki J, Végh A
European journal of pharmacology 2011
This study has examined whether peroxynitrite (PN), generated during the preconditioning (PC) procedure or administered by brief intracoronary infusions, plays a trigger role in the anti-arrhythmic effects of preconditioning and peroxynitrite in anaesthetized dogs. To achieve this we infused the peroxynitrite scavenger uric acid (UA; 0.2mg/kg/min, i.v.) over a 30min period, just prior to a 25min occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery, in preconditioned (UA+PC, n=8), peroxynitrite-treated (UA+PN, n=8) and in control (UAC; n=9) dogs. The effects were compared to those obtained from groups (PC, n=10; PN, n=10; C1, n=14) without uric acid administration. Severities of ischaemia (ST-segment elevation, inhomogeneity of electrical activation) and ventricular arrhythmias (VPBs, VT, VF), plasma nitrate/nitrite levels, as well as myocardial superoxide and nitrotyrosine productions were determined. Both preconditioning and the infusion of peroxynitrite increased nitrotyrosine formation which was abolished by the simultaneous administration of urate. Despite this, the protective effects of preconditioning (i.e. reductions in arrhythmias, superoxide and nitrotyrosine productions, as well as the increase in nitric oxide availability), occurring during the prolonged period of occlusion and reperfusion were still present. In contrast, urate completely abolished the protection resulted from peroxynitrite administration. This effect is most probably due to the fact that urate has already scavenged peroxynitrite during the infusion. Interestingly, urate itself, given prior to ischaemia and reperfusion, was also protective. We conclude that peroxynitrite in nanomolar concentrations can induce an anti-arrhythmic effect but peroxynitrite, generated during the preconditioning stimulus, is not necessary for the preconditioning-induced anti-arrhythmic protection.Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
|Epitope motif of an anti-nitrotyrosine antibody specific for tyrosine-nitrated peptides revealed by a combination of affinity approaches and mass spectrometry. |
Mihaela Dr Gu?anu,Brîndu?a-Alina Petre,Michael Przybylski
Journal of peptide science : an official publication of the European Peptide Society 17 2011
Nitration of tyrosine residues has been shown to be an important oxidative modification in proteins and has been suggested to play a role in several diseases such as atherosclerosis, asthma, lung and neurodegenerative diseases. Detection of nitrated proteins has been mainly based on the use of nitrotyrosine-specific antibodies. In contrast, only a small number of nitration sites in proteins have been unequivocally identified by MS. We have used a monoclonal 3-NT-specific antibody, and have synthesized a series of tyrosine-nitrated peptides of prostacyclin synthase (PCS) in which a single specific nitration site at Tyr-430 had been previously identified upon reaction with peroxynitrite17. The determination of antibody-binding affinity and specificity of PCS peptides nitrated at different tyrosine residues (Tyr-430, Tyr-421, Tyr-83) and sequence mutations around the nitration sites provided the identification of an epitope motif containing positively charged amino acids (Lys and/or Arg) N-terminal to the nitration site. The highest affinity to the anti-3NT-antibody was found for the PCS peptide comprising the Tyr-430 nitration site with a K(D) of 60 nM determined for the peptide, PCS(424-436-Tyr-430NO(2) ); in contrast, PCS peptides nitrated at Tyr-421 and Tyr-83 had substantially lower affinity. ELISA, SAW bioaffinity, proteolytic digestion of antibody-bound peptides and affinity-MS analysis revealed highest affinity to the antibody for tyrosine-nitrated peptides that contained positively charged amino acids in the N-terminal sequence to the nitration site. Remarkably, similar N-terminal sequences of tyrosine-nitration sites have been recently identified in nitrated physiological proteins, such as eosinophil peroxidase and eosinophil-cationic protein.
|On-line bioaffinity-electrospray mass spectrometry for simultaneous detection, identification, and quantification of protein-ligand interactions. |
Dragusanu, M; Petre, BA; Slamnoiu, S; Vlad, C; Tu, T; Przybylski, M
Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 21 1643-8 2010
We describe here an on-line combination of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) biosensor with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (SAW-ESI-MS) that enables the direct detection, identification, and quantification of affinity-bound ligands from a protein-ligand complex on a biosensor chip. A trapping column was used between the SAW-biosensor and the electrospray mass spectrometer equipped with a micro-guard column, which provides simultaneous sample concentration and desalting for the mass spectrometric analysis of the dissociated ligand. First applications of the on-line SAW-ESI-MS combination include (1), differentiation of β-amyloid (Aβ) epitope peptides bound to anti-Aβ antibodies; (2), the identification of immobilized Substance P peptide-calmodulin complex; (3), identification and quantification of the interaction of 3-nitrotyrosine-modified peptides with nitrotyrosine-specific antibodies; and (4), identification of immobilized anti-α-synuclein-human α-synuclein complex. Quantitative determinations of protein-ligand complexes by SAW yielded dissociation constants (K(D)) from micro-to low nanomolar sample concentrations. The on-line bioaffinity-ESI-MS combination presented here is expected to enable broad bioanalytical application to the simultaneous, label-free determination and quantification of biopolymer-ligand interactions, as diverse as antigen-antibody and lectin-carbohydrate complexes.
|Ferulic acid inhibits nitric oxide-induced apoptosis by enhancing GABA(B1) receptor expression in transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats. |
Cheng, CY; Su, SY; Tang, NY; Ho, TY; Lo, WY; Hsieh, CL
Acta pharmacologica Sinica 31 889-99 2010
Ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid, FA) provides neuroprotection against apoptosis in a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) model. This study was to further investigate the anti-apoptotic effect of FA during reperfusion after cerebral ischemia.Rats were subjected to 90 min of cerebral ischemia followed by 3 or 24 h of reperfusion after which they were sacrificed.Intravenous FA (100 mg/kg) administered immediately after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) or 2 h after reperfusion effectively abrogated the elevation of postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitrotyrosine, and cleaved caspase-3 levels as well as apoptosis in the ischemic cortex at 24 h of reperfusion. FA further inhibited Bax translocation, cytochrome c release, and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase phosphorylation. Moreover, FA enhanced the expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 1 (GABA(B1)) in the ischemic cortex at 3 and 24 h of reperfusion. In addition, nitrotyrosine-positive cells colocalized with cleaved caspase-3-positive cells, and phospho-p38 MAP kinase-positive cells colocalized with nitrotyrosine- and Bax-positive cells, indicating a positive relationship among the expression of nitrotyrosine, phospho-p38 MAP kinase, Bax, and cleaved caspase-3. The mutually exclusive expression of GABA(B1) and nitrotyrosine revealed that there is a negative correlation between GABA(B1) and nitrotyrosine expression profiles. Additionally, pretreatment with saclofen, a GABA(B) receptor antagonist, abolished the neuroprotection of FA against nitric oxide (NO)-induced apoptosis.FA significantly enhances GABA(B1) receptor expression at early reperfusion and thereby provides neuroprotection against p38 MAP kinase-mediated NO-induced apoptosis at 24 h of reperfusion.
|Cholesterol diet-induced hyperlipidemia impairs the cardioprotective effect of postconditioning: role of peroxynitrite. |
Kupai K, Csonka C, Fekete V, Odendaal L, van Rooyen J, Marais de W, Csont T, Ferdinandy P
American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology 297 H1729-35 2009
The aim of the present study was to investigate if hyperlipidemia interferes with the infarct size-limiting effect of postconditioning and to study the involvement of peroxynitrite in this phenomenon. Rats were fed a 2% cholesterol-enriched or normal diet for 12 wk. Infarct size by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining was measured in hearts isolated from both groups and subjected to 30 min coronary occlusion followed by 120 min reperfusion with or without the postconditioning protocol induced by six cycles of 10 s coronary occlusion and 10 s reperfusion at the onset of the reperfusion. Postconditioning significantly decreased infarct size in the normolipidemic but not in the hyperlipidemic group. Postconditioning increased cardiac 3-nitrotyrosine concentration (a marker for peroxynitrite formation) in the normal but not in the cholesterol-fed group when measured at the 5th min of reperfusion. Next, we tested if the postconditioning-induced acute increase in peroxynitrite is involved in the cardioprotection in normolipidemic animals in separate experiments. Postconditioning failed to decrease infarct size in the presence of the peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-[4-sulfonatophenyl]-porphyrinato-iron [III] (20 mg/l) in normolipidemic animals. We conclude that an early increase in peroxynitrite after postconditioning plays a role in cardioprotection. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia blocks the cardioprotective effect of postconditioning at least in part via deterioration of the postconditioning-induced early increase in peroxynitrite formation.
|A physiologically relevant atherogenic diet causes severe endothelial dysfunction within 4 weeks in rabbit. |
Rai S, Hare DL, Zulli A
Int J Exp Pathol 90 598-604. Epub 2009 Sep 15. 2009
A physiological atherogenic human diet consists of 0.1% cholesterol, fat, as well as high levels of methionine, which is the precursor to homocysteine. The pathological effects of a diet enriched with physiologically high levels of cholesterol, methionine and fat over a short period on the aorta are unknown. In this regard, we sought to determine the effects of a 0.1% cholesterol diet in combination with a 1% methionine over a 4-week period on endothelial function and artery pathology and the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase as well as nitrosative stress by nitrotyrosine (NT), oxidative stress by heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and endoplasmic reticulum stress by glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78). Rabbits were fed for 4 weeks a diet supplemented with 1% methionine + 0.1% cholesterol + 5% peanut oil (MC). The endothelial function of the abdominal aorta was examined using organ bath techniques, atherosclerosis determined in each artery by microscopy and eNOS, NT, GRP78 and HSP70 by standard immunohistochemistry. Endothelium dependent relaxation in response to acetylcholine significantly decreased by 63% at 1 muM acetylcholine (P < 0.001) compared with control arteries. There was no evidence of atherosclerosis formation in any artery studied, however, eNOS, NT and GRP78 was clearly present in all arteries studied but HSP70 was not easily detectable. Severe endothelial dysfunction is present in the abdominal aorta of rabbits within 4 weeks of physiological dietary manipulation, possibly due to NT formation and endoplasmic reticulum stress. This model could be used to study the early onset of endothelial dysfunction prior to the initiation of atherosclerosis.
|Aminoguanidine alleviates radiation-induced small-bowel damage through its antioxidant effect. |
Eng-Yen Huang, Feng-Sheng Wang, I-Hui Lin, Kuender D Yang, Eng-Yen Huang, Feng-Sheng Wang, I-Hui Lin, Kuender D Yang
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 74 237-44 2009
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect and its mechanism of aminoguanidine (AG) on small-bowel protection after whole-abdominal irradiation (WAI) in rats. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (300-400 g) subjected to 12 Gy WAI were used for the study. Aminoguanidine at a dose of 50-800 mg/kg was administered by the gavage route 2 h before WAI. Mucosal damage of small bowel was evaluated by the grade of diarrhea and crypt survival; oxidative stress was determined by the level of 8-hydroxy 2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) with immunohistochemistry (IHC). Nitrosative stress was evaluated by the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) with IHC, and systemic and portal vein NOx (nitrite + nitrate) levels were measured and compared with and without AG treatment after WAI. RESULTS: Aminoguanidine showed a dose-dependent effect against WAI-induced diarrhea. Aminoguanidine at a dose of 400 mg/kg had the best protective effect, from 92% to 17% (p = 0.002). Aminoguanidine increased crypt survival from 23% to 46% (p = 0.003). It also significantly attenuated 8-OHdG expression but not 3-NT and iNOS expression at both 4 and 8 h after 12-Gy WAI. Aminoguanidine did not alter the portal vein NOx levels 4 and 8 h after 12-Gy WAI. CONCLUSION: Aminoguanidine has a radioprotective effect against radiation-induced small-bowel damage due to its antioxidant effect but not inhibition of nitric oxide production. Dietary AG may have a potentially protective effect on the small intestine of patients subjected to pelvic and abdominal radiotherapies.
|High dietary taurine reduces apoptosis and atherosclerosis in the left main coronary artery: association with reduced CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein and total plasma homocysteine but not lipidemia. |
Zulli, A; Lau, E; Wijaya, BP; Jin, X; Sutarga, K; Schwartz, GD; Learmont, J; Wookey, PJ; Zinellu, A; Carru, C; Hare, DL
Hypertension 53 1017-22 2009
We sought to determine whether taurine could specifically protect against coronary artery disease during an atherogenic diet and whether taurine affects the lipid profile, metabolites of methionine, and endothelial atherogenic systems. Rabbits were fed one of the following diets for 4 weeks: (1) control diet; (2) 0.5% cholesterol+1.0% methionine; or (3) 0.5% cholesterol+1.0% methionine+2.5% taurine. Endothelial function was examined, and the left main coronary artery atherosclerosis was quantified by stereology and semiquantitative immunohistochemistry to determine the endothelial expression of proteins related to the NO, renin-angiotensin, endoplasmic reticulum, and oxidative stress systems, as well as apoptosis. Taurine normalized hyperhomocysteinemia (Pless than 0.05) and significantly reduced hypermethioninemia (Pless than 0.05) but not lipidemia. The intima:media ratio was reduced by 28% (P=0.034), and atherosclerosis was reduced by 64% (P=0.012) and endothelial cell apoptosis by 30% (Pless than 0.01). Endothelial cell CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein was normalized (Pless than 0.05). Taurine failed to improve hyperlipidemia, endothelial function, or endothelial proteins related to the NO, renin-angiotensin, and oxidative stress systems. Taurine reduces left main coronary artery wall pathology associated with decreased plasma total homocysteine, methionine, apoptosis, and normalization of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein. These results elucidate the antiapoptotic and antiatherogenic properties of taurine, possibly via normalization of endoplasmic reticulum stress.
|Age-dependent increase in oxidative stress in gastrocnemius muscle with unloading. |
Siu, PM; Pistilli, EE; Alway, SE
Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) 105 1695-705 2008
Oxidative stress increases during unloading in muscle from young adult rats. The present study examined the markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme gene and protein expressions in medial gastrocnemius muscles of aged and young adult (30 and 6 mo of age) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats after 14 days of hindlimb suspension. Medial gastrocnemius muscle weight was decreased by approximately 30% in young adult and aged rats following suspension. When muscle weight was normalized to animal body weight, it was reduced by 12% and 22% in young adult and aged rats, respectively, after suspension. Comparisons between young adult and aged control animals demonstrated a 25% and 51% decline in muscle mass when expressed as absolute muscle weight and muscle weight normalized to the animal body weight, respectively. H(2)O(2) content was elevated by 43% while Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) protein content was reduced by 28% in suspended muscles compared with control muscles exclusively in the aged animals. Suspended muscles had greater content of malondialdehyde (MDA)/4-hydroxyalkenals (4-HAE) (29% and 58% increase in young adult and aged rats, respectively), nitrotyrosine (76% and 65% increase in young adult and aged rats, respectively), and catalase activity (69% and 43% increase in young adult and aged rats, respectively) relative to control muscles. Changes in oxidative stress markers MDA/4-HAE, H(2)O(2), and MnSOD protein contents in response to hindlimb unloading occurred in an age-dependent manner. These findings are consistent with the hypotheses that oxidative stress has a role in mediating disuse-induced and sarcopenia-associated muscle losses. Our data suggest that aging may predispose skeletal muscle to increased levels of oxidative stress both at rest and during unloading.Artículo Texto completo
|Growth hormone reverses nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in a patient with adult growth hormone deficiency. |
Yutaka Takahashi, Keiji Iida, Kentaro Takahashi, Shiro Yoshioka, Hidenori Fukuoka, Ryoko Takeno, Mari Imanaka, Hitoshi Nishizawa, Michiko Takahashi, Yasushi Seo, Yoshitake Hayashi, Takuma Kondo, Yasuhiko Okimura, Hidesuke Kaji, Riko Kitazawa, Sohei Kitazawa, Kazuo Chihara
Gastroenterology 132 938-43 2007
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an emerging progressive hepatic disease and demonstrates steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. Insulin resistance is a common feature in the development of NASH. Molecular pathogenesis of NASH consists of 2 steps: triglyceride accumulation in hepatocytes with insulin resistance and an enhanced oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species. Interestingly, NASH demonstrates a striking similarity to the pathologic conditions observed in adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD). AGHD is characterized by decreased lean body mass, increased visceral adiposity, abnormal lipid profile, and insulin resistance. Moreover, liver dysfunctions with hyperlipidemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are frequently observed in patients with AGHD, and it is accompanied by metabolic syndrome. METHODS: We studied a case diagnosed as NASH with hyperlipidemia in AGHD. The effect of GH-replacement therapy on the patient was analyzed. RESULTS: Six months of GH-replacement therapy in the patient drastically ameliorated NASH and the abnormal lipid profile concomitant with a marked reduction in oxidative stress. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that GH plays an essential role in the metabolic and redox regulation in the liver.
|Deficiency of the Bax gene attenuates denervation-induced apoptosis. |
P M Siu, S E Alway, P M Siu, S E Alway
Apoptosis : an international journal on programmed cell death 11 967-81 2006
Apoptosis has been implicated in mediating denervation-induced muscle wasting. In this study we determined the effect of interference of apoptosis on muscle wasting during denervation by using mice genetically deficient in pro-apoptotic Bax. After denervation, muscle wasting was evident in both wild-type and Bax(-/-) muscles but reduction of muscle weight was attenuated in Bax(-/-) mice. Apoptotic DNA fragmentation increased in wild-type denervated muscles whereas there was no statistical increase in DNA fragmentation in denervated muscles from Bax(-/-) mice. Mitochondrial AIF and Smac/DIABLO releases and Bcl-2, p53 and HSP27 increased whereas XIAP and MnSOD decreased to a similar extent in muscles from wild-type and Bax(-/-) mice following denervation. Mitochondrial cytochrome c release was elevated in denervated muscles from wild-type mice but the increase was suppressed in muscles from Bax(-/-) mice. Increases in caspase-3 and -9 activities and oxidative stress markers H(2)O(2), MDA/4-HAE and nitrotyrosine were all evident in denervated muscles from wild-type mice but these changes were absent in muscles from Bax(-/-) mice. Moreover, ARC increased exclusively in denervated Bax(-/-) muscle. Our data indicate that under conditions of denervation, pro-apoptotic signalling is suppressed and muscle wasting is attenuated when the Bax gene is lacking. These findings suggest that interventions targeting apoptosis may be valuable in ameliorating denervation-associated pathologic muscle wasting in certain neuromuscular disorders that involve partial or full denervation.
|Pathways and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress|
Licencias necesarias e Información técnica
|White Paper- Modern Methods in Oxidative Stress Research|
|Anti-Nitrotyrosine, clone 2A8.2 - Data Sheet|