Tabla espec. clave
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, R, Mk, M, Ca||ICC, WB||Rb||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at -20ºC from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||200 µg|
Ficha datos de seguridad (MSDS)
Referencias bibliográficas | 52 Disponible | Ver todas las referencias
|Visión general referencias||Aplicación||Especie||Pub Med ID|
|Wdr1-mediated cell shape dynamics and cortical tension are essential for epidermal planar cell polarity. |
Luxenburg, C; Heller, E; Pasolli, HA; Chai, S; Nikolova, M; Stokes, N; Fuchs, E
Nature cell biology 17 592-604 2015
During mouse development, core planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins become polarized in the epidermal plane to guide angling/morphogenesis of hair follicles. How PCP is established is poorly understood. Here, we identify a key role for Wdr1 (also known as Aip1), an F-actin-binding protein that enhances cofilin/destrin-mediated F-actin disassembly. We show that cofilin and destrin function redundantly in developing epidermis, but their combined depletion perturbs cell adhesion, cytokinesis, apicobasal polarity and PCP. Although Wdr1 depletion accentuates single-loss-of-cofilin/destrin phenotypes, alone it resembles core PCP mutations. Seeking a mechanism, we find that Wdr1 and cofilin/destrin-mediated actomyosin remodelling are essential for generating or maintaining cortical tension within the developing epidermal sheet and driving the cell shape and planar orientation changes that accompany establishment of PCP in mammalian epidermis. Our findings suggest intriguing evolutionary parallels but mechanistic modifications to the distal wing hinge-mediated mechanical forces that drive cell shape change and orient PCP in the Drosophila wing disc.
|RFX2 Is a Major Transcriptional Regulator of Spermiogenesis. |
Kistler, WS; Baas, D; Lemeille, S; Paschaki, M; Seguin-Estevez, Q; Barras, E; Ma, W; Duteyrat, JL; Morlé, L; Durand, B; Reith, W
PLoS genetics 11 e1005368 2015
Spermatogenesis consists broadly of three phases: proliferation of diploid germ cells, meiosis, and finally extensive differentiation of the haploid cells into effective delivery vehicles for the paternal genome. Despite detailed characterization of many haploid developmental steps leading to sperm, only fragmentary information exists on the control of gene expression underlying these processes. Here we report that the RFX2 transcription factor is a master regulator of genes required for the haploid phase. A targeted mutation of Rfx2 was created in mice. Rfx2-/- mice are perfectly viable but show complete male sterility. Spermatogenesis appears to progress unperturbed through meiosis. However, haploid cells undergo a complete arrest in spermatid development just prior to spermatid elongation. Arrested cells show altered Golgi apparatus organization, leading to a deficit in the generation of a spreading acrosomal cap from proacrosomal vesicles. Arrested cells ultimately merge to form giant multinucleated cells released to the epididymis. Spermatids also completely fail to form the flagellar axoneme. RNA-Seq analysis and ChIP-Seq analysis identified 139 genes directly controlled by RFX2 during spermiogenesis. Gene ontology analysis revealed that genes required for cilium function are specifically enriched in down- and upregulated genes showing that RFX2 allows precise temporal expression of ciliary genes. Several genes required for cell adhesion and cytoskeleton remodeling are also downregulated. Comparison of RFX2-regulated genes with those controlled by other major transcriptional regulators of spermiogenesis showed that each controls independent gene sets. Altogether, these observations show that RFX2 plays a major and specific function in spermiogenesis.
|Spatial mapping of juxtacrine axo-glial interactions identifies novel molecules in peripheral myelination. |
Poitelon, Y; Bogni, S; Matafora, V; Della-Flora Nunes, G; Hurley, E; Ghidinelli, M; Katzenellenbogen, BS; Taveggia, C; Silvestri, N; Bachi, A; Sannino, A; Wrabetz, L; Feltri, ML
Nature communications 6 8303 2015
Cell-cell interactions promote juxtacrine signals in specific subcellular domains, which are difficult to capture in the complexity of the nervous system. For example, contact between axons and Schwann cells triggers signals required for radial sorting and myelination. Failure in this interaction causes dysmyelination and axonal degeneration. Despite its importance, few molecules at the axo-glial surface are known. To identify novel molecules in axo-glial interactions, we modified the 'pseudopodia' sub-fractionation system and isolated the projections that glia extend when they receive juxtacrine signals from axons. By proteomics we identified the signalling networks present at the glial-leading edge, and novel proteins, including members of the Prohibitin family. Glial-specific deletion of Prohibitin-2 in mice impairs axo-glial interactions and myelination. We thus validate a novel method to model morphogenesis and juxtacrine signalling, provide insights into the molecular organization of the axo-glial contact, and identify a novel class of molecules in myelination.
|Par3-mInsc and Gαi3 cooperate to promote oriented epidermal cell divisions through LGN. |
Williams, SE; Ratliff, LA; Postiglione, MP; Knoblich, JA; Fuchs, E
Nature cell biology 16 758-69 2014
Asymmetric cell divisions allow stem cells to balance proliferation and differentiation. During embryogenesis, murine epidermis expands rapidly from a single layer of unspecified basal layer progenitors to a stratified, differentiated epithelium. Morphogenesis involves perpendicular (asymmetric) divisions and the spindle orientation protein LGN, but little is known about how the apical localization of LGN is regulated. Here, we combine conventional genetics and lentiviral-mediated in vivo RNAi to explore the functions of the LGN-interacting proteins Par3, mInsc and Gαi3. Whereas loss of each gene alone leads to randomized division angles, combined loss of Gnai3 and mInsc causes a phenotype of mostly planar divisions, akin to loss of LGN. These findings lend experimental support for the hitherto untested model that Par3-mInsc and Gαi3 act cooperatively to polarize LGN and promote perpendicular divisions. Finally, we uncover a developmental switch between delamination-driven early stratification and spindle-orientation-dependent differentiation that occurs around E15, revealing a two-step mechanism underlying epidermal maturation.
|Type VII collagen regulates expression of OATP1B3, promotes front-to-rear polarity and increases structural organisation in 3D spheroid cultures of RDEB tumour keratinocytes. |
Dayal, JH; Cole, CL; Pourreyron, C; Watt, SA; Lim, YZ; Salas-Alanis, JC; Murrell, DF; McGrath, JA; Stieger, B; Jahoda, C; Leigh, IM; South, AP
Journal of cell science 127 740-51 2014
Type VII collagen is the main component of anchoring fibrils, structures that are integral to basement membrane homeostasis in skin. Mutations in the gene encoding type VII collagen COL7A1 cause recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) an inherited skin blistering condition complicated by frequent aggressive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). OATP1B3, which is encoded by the gene SLCO1B3, is a member of the OATP (organic anion transporting polypeptide) superfamily responsible for transporting a wide range of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. OATP1B3 expression is limited to the liver in healthy tissues, but is frequently detected in multiple cancer types and is reported to be associated with differing clinical outcome. The mechanism and functional significance of tumour-specific expression of OATP1B3 has yet to be determined. Here, we identify SLCO1B3 expression in tumour keratinocytes isolated from RDEB and UV-induced cSCC and demonstrate that SLCO1B3 expression and promoter activity are modulated by type VII collagen. We show that reduction of SLCO1B3 expression upon expression of full-length type VII collagen in RDEB cSCC coincides with acquisition of front-to-rear polarity and increased organisation of 3D spheroid cultures. In addition, we show that type VII collagen positively regulates the abundance of markers implicated in cellular polarity, namely ELMO2, PAR3, E-cadherin, B-catenin, ITGA6 and Ln332.
|Developmental stratification of the mammary epithelium occurs through symmetry-breaking vertical divisions of apically positioned luminal cells. |
Huebner, RJ; Lechler, T; Ewald, AJ
Development (Cambridge, England) 141 1085-94 2014
Mammary ducts are elongated during development by stratified epithelial structures, known as terminal end buds (TEBs). TEBs exhibit reduced apicobasal polarity and extensive proliferation. A major unanswered question concerns the mechanism by which the simple ductal epithelium stratifies during TEB formation. We sought to elucidate this mechanism using real-time imaging of growth factor-induced stratification in 3D cultures of mouse primary epithelial organoids. We hypothesized that stratification could result from vertical divisions in either the apically positioned luminal epithelial cells or the basally positioned myoepithelial cells. Stratification initiated exclusively from vertical apical cell divisions, both in 3D culture and in vivo. During vertical apical divisions, only the mother cell retained tight junctions and segregated apical membranes. Vertical daughter cells initiated an unpolarized cell population located between the luminal and myoepithelial cells, similar to the unpolarized body cells in the TEB. As stratification and loss of apicobasal polarity are early hallmarks of cancer, we next determined the cellular mechanism of oncogenic stratification. Expression of activated ERBB2 induced neoplastic stratification through analogous vertical divisions of apically positioned luminal epithelial cells. However, ERBB2-induced stratification was accompanied by tissue overgrowth and acute loss of both tight junctions and apical polarity. Expression of phosphomimetic MEK (MEK1DD), a major ERBB2 effector, also induced stratification through vertical apical cell divisions. However, MEK1DD-expressing organoids exhibited normal levels of growth and retained apicobasal polarity. We conclude that both normal and neoplastic stratification are accomplished through receptor tyrosine kinase signaling dependent vertical cell divisions within the luminal epithelial cell layer.
|Dual function of Yap in the regulation of lens progenitor cells and cellular polarity. |
Song, JY; Park, R; Kim, JY; Hughes, L; Lu, L; Kim, S; Johnson, RL; Cho, SH
Developmental biology 386 281-90 2014
Hippo-Yap signaling has been implicated in organ size determination via its regulation of cell proliferation, growth and apoptosis (Pan, 2007). The vertebrate lens comprises only two major cell types, lens progenitors and differentiated fiber cells, thereby providing a relatively simple system for studying size-controlling mechanisms. In order to investigate the role of Hippo-Yap signaling in lens size regulation, we conditionally ablated Yap in the developing mouse lens. Lens progenitor-specific deletion of Yap led to near obliteration of the lens primarily due to hypocellularity in the lens epithelium (LE) and accompanying lens fiber (LF) defects. A significantly reduced LE progenitor pool resulted mainly from failed self-renewal and increased apoptosis. Additionally, Yap-deficient lens progenitor cells precociously exited the cell cycle and expressed the LF marker, β-Crystallin. The mutant progenitor cells also exhibited multiple cellular and subcellular alterations including cell and nuclear shape change, organellar polarity disruption, and disorganized apical polarity complex and junction proteins such as Crumbs, Pals1, Par3 and ZO-1. Yap-deficient LF cells failed to anchor to the overlying LE layer, impairing their normal elongation and packaging. Furthermore, our localization study results suggest that, in the developing LE, Yap participates in the cell context-dependent transition from the proliferative to differentiation-competent state by integrating cell density information. Taken together, our results shed new light on Yap's indispensable and novel organizing role in mammalian organ size control by coordinating multiple events including cell proliferation, differentiation, and polarity.
|PKCζ mediates breakdown of outer blood-retinal barriers in diabetic retinopathy. |
Omri, S; Behar-Cohen, F; Rothschild, PR; Gélizé, E; Jonet, L; Jeanny, JC; Omri, B; Crisanti, P
PloS one 8 e81600 2013
Diabetic macular edema represents the main cause of visual loss in diabetic retinopathy. Besides inner blood retinal barrier breakdown, the role of the outer blood retinal barrier breakdown has been poorly analyzed. We characterized the structural and molecular alterations of the outer blood retinal barrier during the time course of diabetes, focusing on PKCζ, a critical protein for tight junction assembly, known to be overactivated by hyperglycemia.Studies were conducted on a type2 diabetes Goto-Kakizaki rat model. PKCζ level and subcellular localization were assessed by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Cell death was detected by TUNEL assays. PKCζ level on specific layers was assessed by laser microdissection followed by Western blotting. The functional role of PKCζ was then evaluated in vivo, using intraocular administration of its specific inhibitor.PKCζ was localized in tight junction protein complexes of the retinal pigment epithelium and in photoreceptors inner segments. Strikingly, in outer segment PKCζ staining was restricted to cone photoreceptors. Short-term hyperglycemia induced activation and delocalization of PKCζ from both retinal pigment epithelium junctions and cone outer segment. Outer blood retinal barrier disruption and photoreceptor cone degeneration characterized long-term hyperglycemia. In vivo, reduction of PKCζ overactivation using a specific inhibitor, restored its tight-junction localization and not only improved the outer blood retinal barrier, but also reduced photoreceptor cell-death.In the retina, hyperglycemia induced overactivation of PKCζ is associated with outer blood retinal barrier breakdown and photoreceptor degeneration. In vivo, short-term inhibition of PKCζ restores the outer barrier structure and reduces photoreceptor cell death, identifying PKCζ as a potential target for early and underestimated diabetes-induced retinal pathology.
|Par-complex aPKC and Par3 cross-talk with innate immunity NF-κB pathway in epithelial cells. |
Forteza, R; Wald, FA; Mashukova, A; Kozhekbaeva, Z; Salas, PJ
Biology open 2 1264-9 2013
Components of the Par-complex, atypical PKC and Par3, have been found to be downregulated upon activation of NF-κB in intestinal epithelial cells. To determine their possible role in pro-inflammatory responses we transduced Caco-2 human colon carcinoma cells with constitutively active (ca) PKCι or anti-Par3 shRNA-expressing lentiviral particles. Contrary to previous reports in other cell types, ca-PKCι did not activate, but rather decreased, baseline NF-κB activity in a luminiscence reporter assay. An identical observation applied to a PB1 domain deletion PKCι, which fails to localize to the tight-junction. Conversely, as expected, the same ca-PKCι activated NF-κB in non-polarized HEK293 cells. Likewise, knockdown of Par3 increased NF-κB activity and, surprisingly, greatly enhanced its response to TNFα, as shown by transcription of IL-8, GRO-1, GRO-2 and GRO-3. We conclude that aPKC and Par3 are inhibitors of the canonical NF-κB activation pathway, although perhaps acting through independent pathways, and may be involved in pro-inflammatory responses.
|Loss of aPKCλ in differentiated neurons disrupts the polarity complex but does not induce obvious neuronal loss or disorientation in mouse brains. |
Yamanaka, T; Tosaki, A; Kurosawa, M; Akimoto, K; Hirose, T; Ohno, S; Hattori, N; Nukina, N
PloS one 8 e84036 2013
Cell polarity plays a critical role in neuronal differentiation during development of the central nervous system (CNS). Recent studies have established the significance of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) and its interacting partners, which include PAR-3, PAR-6 and Lgl, in regulating cell polarization during neuronal differentiation. However, their roles in neuronal maintenance after CNS development remain unclear. Here we performed conditional deletion of aPKCλ, a major aPKC isoform in the brain, in differentiated neurons of mice by camk2a-cre or synapsinI-cre mediated gene targeting. We found significant reduction of aPKCλ and total aPKCs in the adult mouse brains. The aPKCλ deletion also reduced PAR-6β, possibly by its destabilization, whereas expression of other related proteins such as PAR-3 and Lgl-1 was unaffected. Biochemical analyses suggested that a significant fraction of aPKCλ formed a protein complex with PAR-6β and Lgl-1 in the brain lysates, which was disrupted by the aPKCλ deletion. Notably, the aPKCλ deletion mice did not show apparent cell loss/degeneration in the brain. In addition, neuronal orientation/distribution seemed to be unaffected. Thus, despite the polarity complex disruption, neuronal deletion of aPKCλ does not induce obvious cell loss or disorientation in mouse brains after cell differentiation.
|Atypical protein kinase C and Par3 are required for proteoglycan-induced axon growth inhibition. |
Lee, SI; Zhang, W; Ravi, M; Weschenfelder, M; Bastmeyer, M; Levine, JM
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 2541-54 2013
When the CNS is injured, damaged axons do not regenerate. This failure is due in part to the growth-inhibitory environment that forms at the injury site. Myelin-associated molecules, repulsive axon guidance molecules, and extracellular matrix molecules including chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) found within the glial scar inhibit axon regeneration but the intracellular signaling mechanisms triggered by these diverse molecules remain largely unknown. Here we provide biochemical and functional evidence that atypical protein kinase C (PKCζ) and polarity (Par) complex proteins mediate axon growth inhibition. Treatment of postnatal rat neurons in vitro with the NG2 CSPG, a major component of the glial scar, activates PKCζ, and this activation is both necessary and sufficient to inhibit axonal growth. NG2 treatment also activates Cdc42, increases the association of Par6 with PKCζ, and leads to a Par3-dependent activation of Rac1. Transfection of neurons with kinase-dead forms of PKCζ, dominant-negative forms of Cdc42, or mutant forms of Par6 that do not bind to Cdc42 prevent NG2-induced growth inhibition. Similarly, transfection with either a phosphomutant Par3 (S824A) or dominant-negative Rac1 prevent inhibition, whereas expression of constitutively active Rac1 inhibits axon growth on control surfaces. These results suggest a model in which NG2 binding to neurons activates PKCζ and modifies Par complex function. They also identify the Par complex as a novel therapeutic target for promoting axon regeneration after CNS injury.
|Yap- and Cdc42-dependent nephrogenesis and morphogenesis during mouse kidney development. |
Reginensi, A; Scott, RP; Gregorieff, A; Bagherie-Lachidan, M; Chung, C; Lim, DS; Pawson, T; Wrana, J; McNeill, H
PLoS genetics 9 e1003380 2013
Yap is a transcriptional co-activator that regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis downstream of the Hippo kinase pathway. We investigated Yap function during mouse kidney development using a conditional knockout strategy that specifically inactivated Yap within the nephrogenic lineage. We found that Yap is essential for nephron induction and morphogenesis, surprisingly, in a manner independent of regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. We used microarray analysis to identify a suite of novel Yap-dependent genes that function during nephron formation and have been implicated in morphogenesis. Previous in vitro studies have indicated that Yap can respond to mechanical stresses in cultured cells downstream of the small GTPases RhoA. We find that tissue-specific inactivation of the Rho GTPase Cdc42 causes a severe defect in nephrogenesis that strikingly phenocopies loss of Yap. Ablation of Cdc42 decreases nuclear localization of Yap, leading to a reduction of Yap-dependent gene expression. We propose that Yap responds to Cdc42-dependent signals in nephron progenitor cells to activate a genetic program required to shape the functioning nephron.
|The adhesion-GPCR BAI1 regulates synaptogenesis by controlling the recruitment of the Par3/Tiam1 polarity complex to synaptic sites. |
Duman, JG; Tzeng, CP; Tu, YK; Munjal, T; Schwechter, B; Ho, TS; Tolias, KF
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 6964-78 2013
Excitatory synapses are polarized structures that primarily reside on dendritic spines in the brain. The small GTPase Rac1 regulates the development and plasticity of synapses and spines by modulating actin dynamics. By restricting the Rac1-guanine nucleotide exchange factor Tiam1 to spines, the polarity protein Par3 promotes synapse development by spatially controlling Rac1 activation. However, the mechanism for recruiting Par3 to spines is unknown. Here, we identify brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1) as a synaptic adhesion GPCR that is required for spinogenesis and synaptogenesis in mice and rats. We show that BAI1 interacts with Par3/Tiam1 and recruits these proteins to synaptic sites. BAI1 knockdown results in Par3/Tiam1 mislocalization and loss of activated Rac1 and filamentous actin from spines. Interestingly, BAI1 also mediates Rac-dependent engulfment in professional phagocytes through its interaction with a different Rac1-guanine nucleotide exchange factor module, ELMO/DOCK180. However, this interaction is dispensable for BAI1's role in synapse development because a BAI1 mutant that cannot interact with ELMO/DOCK180 rescues spine defects in BAI1-knockdown neurons, whereas a mutant that cannot interact with Par3/Tiam1 rescues neither spine defects nor Par3 localization. Further, overexpression of Tiam1 rescues BAI1 knockdown spine phenotypes. These results indicate that BAI1 plays an important role in synaptogenesis that is mechanistically distinct from its role in phagocytosis. Furthermore, our results provide the first example of a cell surface receptor that targets members of the PAR polarity complex to synapses.
|Factor inhibiting HIF-1 (FIH-1) modulates protein interactions of apoptosis-stimulating p53 binding protein 2 (ASPP2). |
Janke, K; Brockmeier, U; Kuhlmann, K; Eisenacher, M; Nolde, J; Meyer, HE; Mairbäurl, H; Metzen, E
Journal of cell science 126 2629-40 2013
The asparaginyl hydroxylase factor inhibiting HIF-1 (FIH-1) is an important suppressor of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) activity. In addition to HIF-α, FIH-1 was previously shown to hydroxylate other substrates within a highly conserved protein interaction domain, termed the ankyrin repeat domain (ARD). However, to date, the biological role of FIH-1-dependent ARD hydroxylation could not be clarified for any ARD-containing substrate. The apoptosis-stimulating p53-binding protein (ASPP) family members were initially identified as highly conserved regulators of the tumour suppressor p53. In addition, ASPP2 was shown to be important for the regulation of cell polarity through interaction with partitioning defective 3 homolog (Par-3). Using mass spectrometry we identified ASPP2 as a new substrate of FIH-1 but inhibitory ASPP (iASPP) was not hydroxylated. We demonstrated that ASPP2 asparagine 986 (N986) is a single hydroxylation site located within the ARD. ASPP2 protein levels and stability were not affected by depletion or inhibition of FIH-1. However, FIH-1 depletion did lead to impaired binding of Par-3 to ASPP2 while the interaction between ASPP2 and p53, apoptosis and proliferation of the cancer cells were not affected. Depletion of FIH-1 and incubation with the hydroxylase inhibitor dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) resulted in relocation of ASPP2 from cell-cell contacts to the cytosol. Our data thus demonstrate that protein interactions of ARD-containing substrates can be modified by FIH-1-dependent hydroxylation. The large cellular pool of ARD-containing proteins suggests that FIH-1 can affect a broad range of cellular functions and signalling pathways under certain conditions, for example, in response to severe hypoxia.
|Expression of partitioning defective 3 (Par-3) for predicting extrahepatic metastasis and survival with hepatocellular carcinoma. |
Jan, YJ; Ko, BS; Liu, TA; Wu, YM; Liang, SM; Chen, SC; Wang, J; Liou, JY
International journal of molecular sciences 14 1684-97 2013
Partitioning defective 3 (Par-3), a crucial component of partitioning-defective complex proteins, controls cell polarity and contributes to cell migration and cancer cell epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. However, the clinical relevance of Par-3 in tumor progression and metastasis has not been well elucidated. In this study, we investigated the impact and association of Par-3 expression and clinical outcomes with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We first confirmed that Par-3 was abundantly expressed in HCC cell lines by Western blot analysis. We used immunohistochemistry to analyze the association of Par-3 expression and clinicopathological characteristics in primary and subsequent metastatic tumors of patients with HCC. Par-3 was overexpressed in 47 of 111 (42.3%) primary tumors. Increased expression of Par-3 in primary tumors predicted an increased five-year cumulative incidence of extrahepatic metastasis. In addition, multivariate analysis revealed that Par-3 overexpression was an independent risk factor of extrahepatic metastasis. Increased Par-3 expression in primary tumors was associated with poor five-year overall survival rates and was an independent prognostic factor on Cox regression analysis. In conclusion, we show for the first time that increased Par-3 expression is associated with distant metastasis and poor survival rates in patients with HCC. Par-3 may be a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for HCC.
|aPKCλ/ι and aPKCζ contribute to podocyte differentiation and glomerular maturation. |
Hartleben, B; Widmeier, E; Suhm, M; Worthmann, K; Schell, C; Helmstädter, M; Wiech, T; Walz, G; Leitges, M; Schiffer, M; Huber, TB
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN 24 253-67 2013
Precise positioning of the highly complex interdigitating podocyte foot processes is critical to form the normal glomerular filtration barrier, but the molecular programs driving this process are unknown. The protein atypical protein kinase C (aPKC)--a component of the Par complex, which localizes to tight junctions and interacts with slit diaphragm proteins--may play a role. Here, we found that the combined deletion of the aPKCλ/ι and aPKCζ isoforms in podocytes associated with incorrectly positioned centrosomes and Golgi apparatus and mislocalized molecules of the slit diaphragm. Furthermore, aPKC-deficient podocytes failed to form the normal network of foot processes, leading to defective glomerular maturation with incomplete capillary formation and mesangiolysis. Our results suggest that aPKC isoforms orchestrate the formation of the podocyte processes essential for normal glomerular development and kidney function. Defective aPKC signaling results in a dramatically simplified glomerular architecture, causing severe proteinuria and perinatal death.
|De novo lumen formation and elongation in the developing nephron: a central role for afadin in apical polarity. |
Yang, Z; Zimmerman, S; Brakeman, PR; Beaudoin, GM; Reichardt, LF; Marciano, DK
Development (Cambridge, England) 140 1774-84 2013
A fundamental process in biology is the de novo formation and morphogenesis of polarized tubules. Although these processes are essential for the formation of multiple metazoan organ systems, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate them. In this study, we have characterized several steps in tubule formation and morphogenesis using the mouse kidney as a model system. We report that kidney mesenchymal cells contain discrete Par3-expressing membrane microdomains that become restricted to an apical domain, coinciding with lumen formation. Once lumen formation has been initiated, elongation occurs by simultaneous extension and additional de novo lumen generation. We demonstrate that lumen formation and elongation require afadin, a nectin adaptor protein implicated in adherens junction formation. Mice that lack afadin in nephron precursors show evidence of Par3-expressing membrane microdomains, but fail to develop normal apical-basal polarity and generate a continuous lumen. Absence of afadin led to delayed and diminished integration of nectin complexes and failure to recruit R-cadherin. Furthermore, we demonstrate that afadin is required for Par complex formation. Together, these results suggest that afadin acts upstream of the Par complex to regulate the integration and/or coalescence of membrane microdomains, thereby establishing apical-basal polarity and lumen formation/elongation during kidney tubulogenesis.
|Kif3a guides microtubular dynamics, migration and lumen formation of MDCK cells. |
Boehlke, C; Kotsis, F; Buchholz, B; Powelske, C; Eckardt, KU; Walz, G; Nitschke, R; Kuehn, EW
PloS one 8 e62165 2013
The microtubular motor Kinesin-2 and its subunit Kif3a are essential for the formation of primary cilia, an organelle implicated in a wide spectrum of developmental abnormalities. Outside cilia, Kinesin-2 mediated transport has been implicated in vesicle and N-cadherin transport, but it is unknown if and how extraciliary Kif3a affects basic cellular functions such as migration or the formation of multicellular structures. Here we show that tetracycline inducible depletion of Kif3a in MDCK cells slows epithelial cell migration. Microtubules at the leading edge of Kif3a depleted cells failed to grow perpendicularly into the leading edge and microtubular dynamics were dampened in Kif3a depleted cells. Loss of Kif3a retarded lateral membrane specification and completely prevented the formation of three-dimensional spheres in collagen. These data uncover that Kif3a regulates the microtubular cytoskeleton in the cell periphery and imply that extra-ciliary Kif3a has an unexpected function in morphogenesis.
|Notch signaling maintains neural rosette polarity. |
Main, H; Radenkovic, J; Jin, SB; Lendahl, U; Andersson, ER
PloS one 8 e62959 2013
Formation of the metazoan body plan requires a complex interplay of morphological changes and patterning, and central to these processes is the establishment of apical/basal cell polarity. In the developing nervous system, apical/basal cell polarity is essential for neural tube closure and maintenance of the neural stem cell population. In this report we explore how a signaling pathway important for nervous system development, Notch signaling, impacts on apical/basal cell polarity in neural differentiation. CSL(-/-) mouse embryos, which are devoid of canonical Notch signaling, demonstrated a neural tube phenotype consistent with cell polarity and convergent extension defects, including deficiencies in the restricted expression of apical polarity markers in the neuroepithelium. CSL(-/-) mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, cultured at low density, behaved as wild-type in the establishment of neural progenitors and apical specification, though progression through rosette formation, an in vitro correlate of neurulation, required CSL for correct maintenance of rosette structure and regulation of neuronal differentiation. Similarly, acute pharmacological inhibition of Notch signaling led to the breakdown of neural rosettes and accelerated neuronal differentiation. In addition to functional Notch signaling, rosette integrity was found to require actin polymerization and Rho kinase (ROCK) activity. Disruption of rosettes through inhibition of actin polymerization or ROCK activity, however, had no effect on neuronal differentiation, indicating that rosette maintenance is not a prerequisite for normal neuronal differentiation. In conclusion, our data indicate that Notch signaling plays a role not only in differentiation, but also in organization and maintenance of polarity during development of the early nervous system.
|Polycystin-1 binds Par3/aPKC and controls convergent extension during renal tubular morphogenesis. |
Castelli, M; Boca, M; Chiaravalli, M; Ramalingam, H; Rowe, I; Distefano, G; Carroll, T; Boletta, A
Nature communications 4 2658 2013
Several organs, including the lungs and kidneys, are formed by epithelial tubes whose proper morphogenesis ensures correct function. This is best exemplified by the kidney, where defective establishment or maintenance of tubular diameter results in polycystic kidney disease, a common genetic disorder. Most polycystic kidney disease cases result from loss-of-function mutations in the PKD1 gene, encoding Polycystin-1, a large receptor of unknown function. Here we demonstrate that PC-1 has an essential role in the establishment of correct tubular diameter during nephron development. Polycystin-1 associates with Par3 favouring the assembly of a pro-polarizing Par3/aPKC complex and it regulates a programme of cell polarity important for oriented cell migration and for a convergent extension-like process during tubular morphogenesis. Par3 inactivation in the developing kidney results in defective convergent extension and tubular morphogenesis, and in renal cyst formation. Our data define Polycystin-1 as central to cell polarization and to epithelial tube morphogenesis and homeostasis.
|Western Blotting, Immunofluorescence||24153433|
|Role of the polarity protein Scribble for podocyte differentiation and maintenance. |
Hartleben, B; Widmeier, E; Wanner, N; Schmidts, M; Kim, ST; Schneider, L; Mayer, B; Kerjaschki, D; Miner, JH; Walz, G; Huber, TB
PloS one 7 e36705 2012
The kidney filter represents a unique assembly of podocyte epithelial cells that tightly enwrap the glomerular capillaries with their complex foot process network. While deficiency of the polarity proteins Crumbs and aPKC result in impaired podocyte foot process architecture, the function of basolateral polarity proteins for podocyte differentiation and maintenance remained unclear. Here we report, that Scribble is expressed in developing podocytes, where it translocates from the lateral aspects of immature podocytes to the basal cell membrane and foot processes of mature podocytes. Immunogold electron microscopy reveals membrane associated localisation of Scribble predominantly at the basolateral site of foot processes. To further study the role of Scribble for podocyte differentiation Scribble(flox/flox) mice were generated by introducing loxP-sites into the Scribble introns 1 and 8 and these mice were crossed to NPHS2.Cre mice and Cre deleter mice. Podocyte-specific Scribble knockout mice develop normally and display no histological, ultrastructural or clinical abnormalities up to 12 months of age. In addition, no increased susceptibility to glomerular stress could be detected in these mice. In contrast, constitutive Scribble knockout animals die during embryonic development indicating the fundamental importance of Scribble for embryogenesis. Like in podocyte-specific Scribble knockout mice, the development of podocyte foot processes and the slit diaphragm was unaffected in kidney cultures from constitutive Scribble knockout animals. In summary these results indicate that basolateral polarity signaling via Scribble is dispensable for podocyte function, highlighting the unique feature of podocyte development with its significant apical membrane expansions being dominated by apical polarity complexes rather than by basolateral polarity signaling.
|Myosin-X functions in polarized epithelial cells. |
Liu, KC; Jacobs, DT; Dunn, BD; Fanning, AS; Cheney, RE
Molecular biology of the cell 23 1675-87 2012
Myosin-X (Myo10) is an unconventional myosin that localizes to the tips of filopodia and has critical functions in filopodia. Although Myo10 has been studied primarily in nonpolarized, fibroblast-like cells, Myo10 is expressed in vivo in many epithelia-rich tissues, such as kidney. In this study, we investigate the localization and functions of Myo10 in polarized epithelial cells, using Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells as a model system. Calcium-switch experiments demonstrate that, during junction assembly, green fluorescent protein-Myo10 localizes to lateral membrane cell-cell contacts and to filopodia-like structures imaged by total internal reflection fluorescence on the basal surface. Knockdown of Myo10 leads to delayed recruitment of E-cadherin and ZO-1 to junctions, as well as a delay in tight junction barrier formation, as indicated by a delay in the development of peak transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). Although Myo10 knockdown cells eventually mature into monolayers with normal TER, these monolayers do exhibit increased paracellular permeability to fluorescent dextrans. Importantly, knockdown of Myo10 leads to mitotic spindle misorientation, and in three-dimensional culture, Myo10 knockdown cysts exhibit defects in lumen formation. Together these results reveal that Myo10 functions in polarized epithelial cells in junction formation, regulation of paracellular permeability, and epithelial morphogenesis.
|Western Blotting, Immunofluorescence||22419816|
|Mammary collective cell migration involves transient loss of epithelial features and individual cell migration within the epithelium. |
Ewald, AJ; Huebner, RJ; Palsdottir, H; Lee, JK; Perez, MJ; Jorgens, DM; Tauscher, AN; Cheung, KJ; Werb, Z; Auer, M
Journal of cell science 125 2638-54 2012
Normal mammary morphogenesis involves transitions between simple and multilayered epithelial organizations. We used electron microscopy and molecular markers to determine whether intercellular junctions and apico-basal polarity were maintained in the multilayered epithelium. We found that multilayered elongating ducts had polarized apical and basal tissue surfaces both in three-dimensional culture and in vivo. However, individual cells were only polarized on surfaces in contact with the lumen or extracellular matrix. The basolateral marker scribble and the apical marker atypical protein kinase C zeta localized to all interior cell membranes, whereas PAR3 displayed a cytoplasmic localization, suggesting that the apico-basal polarity was incomplete. Despite membrane localization of E-cadherin and β-catenin, we did not observe a defined zonula adherens connecting interior cells. Instead, interior cells were connected through desmosomes and exhibited complex interdigitating membrane protrusions. Single-cell labeling revealed that individual cells were both protrusive and migratory within the epithelial multilayer. Inhibition of Rho kinase (ROCK) further reduced intercellular adhesion on apical and lateral surfaces but did not disrupt basal tissue organization. Following morphogenesis, segregated membrane domains were re-established and junctional complexes re-formed. We observed similar epithelial organization during mammary morphogenesis in organotypic culture and in vivo. We conclude that mammary epithelial morphogenesis involves a reversible, spatially limited, reduction in polarity and intercellular junctions and active individualistic cell migration. Our data suggest that reductions in polarity and adhesion during breast cancer progression might reflect partial recapitulation of a normal developmental program.
|Abundant occurrence of basal radial glia in the subventricular zone of embryonic neocortex of a lissencephalic primate, the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus. |
Kelava, I; Reillo, I; Murayama, AY; Kalinka, AT; Stenzel, D; Tomancak, P; Matsuzaki, F; Lebrand, C; Sasaki, E; Schwamborn, JC; Okano, H; Huttner, WB; Borrell, V
Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) 22 469-81 2012
Subventricular zone (SVZ) progenitors are a hallmark of the developing neocortex. Recent studies described a novel type of SVZ progenitor that retains a basal process at mitosis, sustains expression of radial glial markers, and is capable of self-renewal. These progenitors, referred to here as basal radial glia (bRG), occur at high relative abundance in the SVZ of gyrencephalic primates (human) and nonprimates (ferret) but not lissencephalic rodents (mouse). Here, we analyzed the occurrence of bRG cells in the embryonic neocortex of the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus, a near-lissencephalic primate. bRG cells, expressing Pax6, Sox2 (but not Tbr2), glutamate aspartate transporter, and glial fibrillary acidic protein and retaining a basal process at mitosis, occur at similar relative abundance in the marmoset SVZ as in human and ferret. The proportion of progenitors in M-phase was lower in embryonic marmoset than developing ferret neocortex, raising the possibility of a longer cell cycle. Fitting the gyrification indices of 26 anthropoid species to an evolutionary model suggested that the marmoset evolved from a gyrencephalic ancestor. Our results suggest that a high relative abundance of bRG cells may be necessary, but is not sufficient, for gyrencephaly and that the marmoset's lissencephaly evolved secondarily by changing progenitor parameters other than progenitor type.
|hnRNP K post-transcriptionally co-regulates multiple cytoskeletal genes needed for axonogenesis. |
Liu, Y; Szaro, BG
Development (Cambridge, England) 138 3079-90 2011
The RNA-binding protein, hnRNP K, is essential for axonogenesis. Suppressing its expression in Xenopus embryos yields terminally specified neurons with severely disorganized microtubules, microfilaments and neurofilaments, raising the hypothesis that hnRNP K post-transcriptionally regulates multiple transcripts of proteins that organize the axonal cytoskeleton. To identify downstream candidates for this regulation, RNAs that co-immunoprecipitated from juvenile brain with hnRNP K were identified on microarrays. A substantial number of these transcripts were linked to the cytoskeleton and to intracellular localization, trafficking and transport. Injection into embryos of a non-coding RNA bearing multiple copies of an hnRNP K RNA-binding consensus sequence found within these transcripts largely phenocopied hnRNP K knockdown, further supporting the idea that it regulates axonogenesis through its binding to downstream target RNAs. For further study of regulation by hnRNP K of the cytoskeleton during axon outgrowth, we focused on three validated RNAs representing elements associated with all three polymers - Arp2, tau and an α-internexin-like neurofilament. All three were co-regulated post-transcriptionally by hnRNP K, as hnRNP K knockdown yielded comparable defects in their nuclear export and translation but not transcription. Directly knocking down expression of all three together, but not each one individually, substantially reproduced the axonless phenotype, providing further evidence that regulation of axonogenesis by hnRNP K occurs largely through pleiotropic effects on cytoskeletal-associated targets. These experiments provide evidence that hnRNP K is the nexus of a novel post-transcriptional regulatory module controlling the synthesis of proteins that integrate all three cytoskeletal polymers to form the axon.
|Discrimination of grade 2 and 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia by means of analysis of water soluble proteins recovered from cervical biopsies. |
Uleberg KE, Munk AC, Brede C, Gudlaugsson E, van Diermen B, Skaland I, Malpica A, Janssen EA, Hjelle A, Baak JP.
Proteome science 9 36 2011
Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades 2 and 3 are usually grouped and treated in the same way as "high grade", in spite of their different risk to cancer progression and spontaneous regression rates. CIN2-3 is usually diagnosed in formaldehyde-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) punch biopsies. This procedure virtually eliminates the availability of water-soluble proteins which could have diagnostic and prognostic value.
To investigate whether a water-soluble protein-saving biopsy processing method followed by a proteomic analysis of supernatant samples using LC-MS/MS (LTQ Orbitrap) can be used to distinguish between CIN2 and CIN3.
Fresh cervical punch biopsies from 20 women were incubated in RPMI1640 medium for 24 hours at 4°C for protein extraction and subsequently subjected to standard FFPE processing. P16 and Ki67-supported histologic consensus review CIN grade (CIN2, n = 10, CIN3, n = 10) was assessed by independent gynecological pathologists. The biopsy supernatants were depleted of 7 high abundance proteins prior to uni-dimensional LC-MS/MS analysis for protein identifications.
The age of the patients ranged from 25-40 years (median 29.7), and mean protein concentration was 0.81 mg/ml (range 0.55 - 1.14). After application of multistep identification criteria, 114 proteins were identified, including proteins like vimentin, actin, transthyretin, apolipoprotein A-1, Heat Shock protein beta 1, vitamin D binding protein and different cytokeratins. The identified proteins are annotated to metabolic processes (36%), signal transduction (27%), cell cycle processes (15%) and trafficking/transport (9%). Using binary logistic regression, Cytokeratin 2 was found to have the strongest independent discriminatory power resulting in 90% overall correct classification.
114 proteins were identified in supernatants from fresh cervical biopsies and many differed between CIN2 and 3. Cytokeratin 2 is the strongest discriminator with 90% overall correct classifications.
|Collective cell migration requires suppression of actomyosin at cell-cell contacts mediated by DDR1 and the cell polarity regulators Par3 and Par6. |
Cristina Hidalgo-Carcedo,Steven Hooper,Shahid I Chaudhry,Peter Williamson,Kevin Harrington,Birgit Leitinger,Erik Sahai
Nature cell biology 13 2011
Collective cell migration occurs in a range of contexts: cancer cells frequently invade in cohorts while retaining cell-cell junctions. Here we show that collective invasion by cancer cells depends on decreasing actomyosin contractility at sites of cell-cell contact. When actomyosin is not downregulated at cell-cell contacts, migrating cells lose cohesion. We provide a molecular mechanism for this downregulation. Depletion of discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) blocks collective cancer-cell invasion in a range of two-dimensional, three-dimensional and 'organotypic' models. DDR1 coordinates the Par3/Par6 cell-polarity complex through its carboxy terminus, binding PDZ domains in Par3 and Par6. The DDR1-Par3/Par6 complex controls the localization of RhoE to cell-cell contacts, where it antagonizes ROCK-driven actomyosin contractility. Depletion of DDR1, Par3, Par6 or RhoE leads to increased actomyosin contactility at cell-cell contacts, a loss of cell-cell cohesion and defective collective cell invasion.Artículo Texto completo
|Rho signaling pathway and apical constriction in the early lens placode. |
Ricardo Moraes Borges,Marcelo Lazzaron Lamers,Fabio Luis Forti,Marinilce Fagundes Dos Santos,Chao Yun Irene Yan
Genesis (New York, N.Y. : 2000) 49 2011
Epithelial invagination in many model systems is driven by apical cell constriction, mediated by actin and myosin II contraction regulated by GTPase activity. Here we investigate apical constriction during chick lens placode invagination. Inhibition of actin polymerization and myosin II activity by cytochalasin D or blebbistatin prevents lens invagination. To further verify if lens placode invaginate through apical constriction, we analyzed the role of Rho-ROCK pathway. Rho GTPases expression at the apical portion of the lens placode occurs with the same dynamics as that of the cytoskeleton. Overexpression of the pan-Rho inhibitor C3 exotoxin abolished invagination and had a strong effect on apical myosin II enrichment and a mild effect on apical actin localization. In contrast, pharmacological inhibition of ROCK activity interfered significantly with apical enrichment of both actin and myosin. These results suggest that apical constriction in lens invagination involves ROCK but apical concentration of actin and myosin are regulated through different pathways upstream of ROCK. genesis 49:368-379, 2011.
|A protein profile study to discriminate CIN lesions from normal cervical epithelium. |
Uleberg, KE; Munk, AC; Skaland, I; Furlan, C; van Diermen, B; Gudlaugsson, E; Janssen, EA; Malpica, A; Feng, W; Hjelle, A; Baak, JP
Cellular oncology (Dordrecht) 34 443-50 2011
Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), a frequently encountered disease caused by Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is often diagnosed in formaldehyde-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) punch biopsies. Since it is known that this procedure strongly affects the water-soluble proteins contained in the cervical tissue we decided to investigate whether a water-soluble protein-saving biopsy processing method can be used to support the diagnosis of normal and CIN.Cervical punch biopsies from 55 women were incubated for 24 h at 4°C in RPMI1640 medium for protein analysis prior to usual FFPE processing and p16 and Ki67-supported histologic consensus diagnosis was assessed. The biopsy supernatants were subjected to surface-enhanced laser desorption-ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) for identifying differentially expressed proteins. Binary logistic regression and classification and regression trees (CART) were used to develop a classification model.The age of the patients ranged from 26 to 40 years (median 29.7). The consensus diagnoses were normal cervical tissue (n = 10) and CIN2-3 (n = 45). The mean protein concentration was 1.00 and 1.09 mg/ml in the normal and CIN2-3 group, respectively. The peak detection and clustering process resulted in 40 protein peaks. Many of these peaks differed between the two groups, but only three had independent discriminating power. The overall classification results were 88%.Water-soluble proteins sampled from punch biopsies are promising to assist the diagnosis of normal and CIN2-3.
|CD44 regulates tight-junction assembly and barrier function. |
Kirschner, N; Haftek, M; Niessen, CM; Behne, MJ; Furuse, M; Moll, I; Brandner, JM
The Journal of investigative dermatology 131 932-43 2011
Upon barrier disturbance, adult CD44 knockout (KO) mice show delayed recovery of epidermal barrier function. This correlates with the loss of apical polarization of lamellar body (LB) secretion. As tight junctions (TJs) are crucial for barrier function and regulate polarized targeting of vesicles, we hypothesized that CD44 regulates TJs and associated cell polarity complexes, which in turn contributes to altered skin barrier function in CD44 KO mice. We show a delay in embryonic barrier formation associated with a loss of apical LB localization in CD44 KO mice, which correlates with alterations in TJ proteins and Par3. Simultaneously, the activity of Rac1, a major regulator of TJ barrier function, was reduced. Importantly, normalization of barrier function at E18.5 coincided with the recovery of these proteins. Tape-stripping experiments revealed that the loss of CD44 also affected TJ proteins upon induced disturbance of the barrier in adult mice. In CD44 KO keratinocytes, cell polarization and TJ barrier function were impaired. An alteration of differentiation markers was also observed, but was less pronounced than alterations of TJ proteins. Taken together, the results reveal an important function for CD44 in the assembly and function of TJs, suggesting their involvement in the skin barrier phenotype of CD44 KO mice.
|Nodal dependent differential localisation of dishevelled-2 demarcates regions of differing cell behaviour in the visceral endoderm. |
Trichas, G; Joyce, B; Crompton, LA; Wilkins, V; Clements, M; Tada, M; Rodriguez, TA; Srinivas, S
PLoS biology 9 e1001019 2011
The anterior visceral endoderm (AVE), a signalling centre within the simple epithelium of the visceral endoderm (VE), is required for anterior-posterior axis specification in the mouse embryo. AVE cells migrate directionally within the VE, thereby properly positioning the future anterior of the embryo and orientating the primary body axis. AVE cells consistently come to an abrupt stop at the border between the anterior epiblast and extra-embryonic ectoderm, which represents an end-point to their proximal migration. Little is known about the underlying basis for this barrier and how surrounding cells in the VE respond to or influence AVE migration. We use high-resolution 3D reconstructions of protein localisation patterns and time-lapse microscopy to show that AVE cells move by exchanging neighbours within an intact epithelium. Cell movement and mixing is restricted to the VE overlying the epiblast, characterised by the enrichment of Dishevelled-2 (Dvl2) to the lateral plasma membrane, a hallmark of Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) signalling. AVE cells halt upon reaching the adjoining region of VE overlying the extra-embryonic ectoderm, which displays reduced neighbour exchange and in which Dvl2 is excluded specifically from the plasma membrane. Though a single continuous sheet, these two regions of VE show distinct patterns of F-actin localisation, in cortical rings and an apical shroud, respectively. We genetically perturb PCP signalling and show that this disrupts the localisation pattern of Dvl2 and F-actin and the normal migration of AVE cells. In Nodal null embryos, membrane localisation of Dvl2 is reduced, while in mutants for the Nodal inhibitor Lefty1, Dvl2 is ectopically membrane localised, establishing a role for Nodal in modulating PCP signalling. These results show that the limits of AVE migration are determined by regional differences in cell behaviour and protein localisation within an otherwise apparently uniform VE. In addition to coordinating global cell movements across epithelia (such as during convergence extension), PCP signalling in interplay with TGFβ signalling can demarcate regions of differing behaviour within epithelia, thereby modulating the movement of cells within them.
|Role of mTOR in podocyte function and diabetic nephropathy in humans and mice. |
Gödel, M; Hartleben, B; Herbach, N; Liu, S; Zschiedrich, S; Lu, S; Debreczeni-Mór, A; Lindenmeyer, MT; Rastaldi, MP; Hartleben, G; Wiech, T; Fornoni, A; Nelson, RG; Kretzler, M; Wanke, R; Pavenstädt, H; Kerjaschki, D; Cohen, CD; Hall, MN; Rüegg, MA; Inoki, K; Walz, G; Huber, TB
The Journal of clinical investigation 121 2197-209 2011
Chronic glomerular diseases, associated with renal failure and cardiovascular morbidity, represent a major health issue. However, they remain poorly understood. Here we have reported that tightly controlled mTOR activity was crucial to maintaining glomerular podocyte function, while dysregulation of mTOR facilitated glomerular diseases. Genetic deletion of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) in mouse podocytes induced proteinuria and progressive glomerulosclerosis. Furthermore, simultaneous deletion of both mTORC1 and mTORC2 from mouse podocytes aggravated the glomerular lesions, revealing the importance of both mTOR complexes for podocyte homeostasis. In contrast, increased mTOR activity accompanied human diabetic nephropathy, characterized by early glomerular hypertrophy and hyperfiltration. Curtailing mTORC1 signaling in mice by genetically reducing mTORC1 copy number in podocytes prevented glomerulosclerosis and significantly ameliorated the progression of glomerular disease in diabetic nephropathy. These results demonstrate the requirement for tightly balanced mTOR activity in podocyte homeostasis and suggest that mTOR inhibition can protect podocytes and prevent progressive diabetic nephropathy.
|Cdk5rap2 regulates centrosome function and chromosome segregation in neuronal progenitors. |
Sofia B Lizarraga,Steven P Margossian,Marian H Harris,Dean R Campagna,An-Ping Han,Sherika Blevins,Raksha Mudbhary,Jane E Barker,Christopher A Walsh,Mark D Fleming
Development (Cambridge, England) 137 2010
Microcephaly affects approximately 1% of the population and is associated with mental retardation, motor defects and, in some cases, seizures. We analyzed the mechanisms underlying brain size determination in a mouse model of human microcephaly. The Hertwig's anemia (an) mutant shows peripheral blood cytopenias, spontaneous aneuploidy and a predisposition to hematopoietic tumors. We found that the an mutation is a genomic inversion of exon 4 of Cdk5rap2, resulting in an in-frame deletion of exon 4 from the mRNA. The finding that CDK5RAP2 human mutations cause microcephaly prompted further analysis of Cdk5rap2(an/an) mice and we demonstrated that these mice exhibit microcephaly comparable to that of the human disease, resulting from striking neurogenic defects that include proliferative and survival defects in neuronal progenitors. Cdk5rap2(an/an) neuronal precursors exit the cell cycle prematurely and many undergo apoptosis. These defects are associated with impaired mitotic progression coupled with abnormal mitotic spindle pole number and mitotic orientation. Our findings suggest that the reduction in brain size observed in humans with mutations in CDK5RAP2 is associated with impaired centrosomal function and with changes in mitotic spindle orientation during progenitor proliferation.Artículo Texto completo
|ASPP2 regulates epithelial cell polarity through the PAR complex. |
Weili Cong,Tomonori Hirose,Yutaka Harita,Akio Yamashita,Keiko Mizuno,Hisashi Hirano,Shigeo Ohno
Current biology : CB 20 2010
The PAR complex, consisting of the evolutionarily conserved PAR-3, PAR-6, and aPKC, regulates cell polarity in many cell types, including epithelial cells [1-4]. Consistently, genetic manipulation of its components affects tissue integrity in multiple biological systems [5-9]. However, the regulatory mechanisms of the PAR complex remain obscure. We report here that apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53 (ASPP2 or TP53BP2), which binds to the tumor suppressor p53 and stimulates its proapoptotic function [10-12], positively regulates epithelial cell polarity by associating with the PAR complex. ASPP2 interacts and colocalizes with PAR-3 at apical cell-cell junctions in the polarized epithelial cells. Depletion of ASPP2 in epithelial cells causes defects in cell polarity, such as the formation of tight junctions and the maintenance and development of apical membrane domains. Moreover, depletion of ASPP2 causes a defect in PAR-3 localization, as well as vice versa. Furthermore, disturbance in the interaction between ASPP2 and PAR-3 causes defects in cell polarity. We conclude that ASPP2 regulates epithelial cell polarity in cooperation with PAR-3 to form an active PAR complex. Our results, taken together with the known functions of ASPP2, suggest a close relationship between cell polarity and other cell regulatory mechanisms mediated by ASPP2.
|Primary cilia regulate mTORC1 activity and cell size through Lkb1. |
Boehlke, C; Kotsis, F; Patel, V; Braeg, S; Voelker, H; Bredt, S; Beyer, T; Janusch, H; Hamann, C; Gödel, M; Müller, K; Herbst, M; Hornung, M; Doerken, M; Köttgen, M; Nitschke, R; Igarashi, P; Walz, G; Kuehn, EW
Nature cell biology 12 1115-22 2010
The mTOR pathway is the central regulator of cell size. External signals from growth factors and nutrients converge on the mTORC1 multi-protein complex to modulate downstream targets, but how the different inputs are integrated and translated into specific cellular responses is incompletely understood. Deregulation of the mTOR pathway occurs in polycystic kidney disease (PKD), where cilia (filiform sensory organelles) fail to sense urine flow because of inherited mutations in ciliary proteins. We therefore investigated if cilia have a role in mTOR regulation. Here, we show that ablation of cilia in transgenic mice results in enlarged cells when compared with control animals. In vitro analysis demonstrated that bending of the cilia by flow is required for mTOR downregulation and cell-size control. Surprisingly, regulation of cell size by cilia is independent of flow-induced calcium transients, or Akt. However, the tumour-suppressor protein Lkb1 localises in the cilium, and flow results in increased AMPK phosphorylation at the basal body. Conversely, knockdown of Lkb1 prevents normal cell-size regulation under flow conditions. Our results demonstrate that the cilium regulates mTOR signalling and cell size, and identify the cilium-basal body compartment as a spatially restricted activation site for Lkb1 signalling.
|Spindle orientation bias in gut epithelial stem cell compartments is lost in precancerous tissue. |
Aaron J Quyn,Paul L Appleton,Francis A Carey,Robert J C Steele,Nick Barker,Hans Clevers,Rachel A Ridgway,Owen J Sansom,Inke S Näthke
Cell stem cell 6 2010
The importance of asymmetric divisions for stem cell function and maintenance is well established in the developing nervous system and the skin; however, its role in gut epithelium and its importance for tumorigenesis is still debated. We demonstrate alignment of mitotic spindles perpendicular to the apical surface specifically in the stem cell compartments of mouse and human intestine and colon. This orientation correlates with the asymmetric retention of label-retaining DNA. Both the preference for perpendicular spindle alignment and asymmetric label retention are lost in precancerous tissue heterozygous for the adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor (Apc). This loss correlates with cell shape changes specifically in the stem cell compartment. Our data suggest that loss of asymmetric division in stem cells might contribute to the oncogenic effect of Apc mutations in gut epithelium.
|Epicardial spindle orientation controls cell entry into the myocardium. |
Wu, M; Smith, CL; Hall, JA; Lee, I; Luby-Phelps, K; Tallquist, MD
Developmental cell 19 114-25 2010
During heart morphogenesis, epicardial cells undergo an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and migrate into the subepicardium. The cellular signals controlling this process are poorly understood. Here, we show that epicardial cells exhibit two distinct mitotic spindle orientations, directed either parallel or perpendicular to the basement membrane. Cells undergoing perpendicular cell division subsequently enter the myocardium. We found that loss of beta-catenin led to a disruption of adherens junctions and a randomization of mitotic spindle orientation. Loss of adherens junctions also disrupted Numb localization within epicardial cells, and disruption of Numb and Numblike expression in the epicardium led to randomized mitotic spindle orientations. Taken together, these data suggest that directed mitotic spindle orientation contributes to epicardial EMT and implicate a junctional complex of beta-catenin and Numb in the regulation of spindle orientation.Artículo Texto completo
|Cdx2 regulates endo-lysosomal function and epithelial cell polarity. |
Gao N, Kaestner KH
Genes Dev 24 1295-305. 2010
In contrast to our significant understanding of signaling cascades that determine cell polarity in lower eukaryotic or immortalized cells, little is known about the transcriptional program that governs mammalian epithelial polarization in vivo. Here we show, using conditional gene ablation and three-dimensional tissue culture, that the homeobox transcription factor Cdx2 controls apical-basolateral polarity in mouse enterocytes and human colonic epithelial cells. Cdx2 regulates a comprehensive gene network involved in endo-lysosomal maturation and protein transport. In the absence of Cdx2, defective protein trafficking impairs apical-basal transport and induces ectopic lumen formation. These defects are partially recapitulated by suppression of key apical transport components, Rab11a and Kif3b, which are regulated by Cdx2. Furthermore, Cdx2 deficiency affects components that control the organization of microvillus actin cytoskeleton, leading to severe microvillus atrophy. These results demonstrate that Cdx2 regulates epithelial cell polarity and morphogenesis through control of apical protein transport and endo-lysosomal function.
|Phosphorylation of the par polarity complex protein Par3 at serine 962 is mediated by aurora a and regulates its function in neuronal polarity. |
Khazaei MR, Puschel AW
The Journal of biological chemistry 284 33571-9 2009
The Aurora kinases are a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that perform important functions during the cell cycle. Recently, it was shown that Drosophila Aurora A also regulates the asymmetric localization of Numb to the basal and the partitioning-defective (Par) complex to the apical cortex of neuroblasts by phosphorylating Par6. Here, we show that Aurora A is required for neuronal polarity. Suppression of Aurora A by RNA interference results in the loss of neuronal polarity. Aurora A interacts directly with the atypical protein kinase C binding domain of Par3 and phosphorylates it at serine 962. The phosphorylation of Par3 at serine 962 contributes to its function in the establishment of neuronal polarity.Artículo Texto completo
|A cell polarity protein aPKClambda is required for eye lens formation and growth. |
Sugiyama, Y; Akimoto, K; Robinson, ML; Ohno, S; Quinlan, RA
Developmental biology 336 246-56 2009
The organisation of individual cells into a functional three-dimensional tissue is still a major question in developmental biology. Modulation of epithelial cell shape is a critical driving force in forming tissues. This is well illustrated in the eye lens where epithelial cells elongate extensively during their differentiation into fibre cells. It is at the lens equator that epithelial cells elongate along their apical-basal axis. During this process the elongating epithelial cells and their earliest fibre cell derivatives remain anchored at their apical tips, forming a discrete region or modiolus, which we term the lens fulcrum. How this is achieved has received scant attention and is little understood. Here, we show that conditional depletion of aPKClambda, a central effector of the PAR polarity complex, disrupts the apical junctions in elongating epithelial cells so that the lens fulcrum fails to form. This results in disorganised fibre cell alignment that then causes cataract. Interestingly, aPKClambda depletion also promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition of the lens epithelial cells, reducing their proliferation, leading ultimately to a small lens and microphthalmia. These observations indicate that aPKClambda, a regulator of polarity and apical junctions, is required for development of a lens that is the correct size and shape.
|An essential role of the universal polarity protein, aPKClambda, on the maintenance of podocyte slit diaphragms. |
Hirose, T; Satoh, D; Kurihara, H; Kusaka, C; Hirose, H; Akimoto, K; Matsusaka, T; Ichikawa, I; Noda, T; Ohno, S
PloS one 4 e4194 2009
Glomerular visceral epithelial cells (podocytes) contain interdigitated processes that form specialized intercellular junctions, termed slit diaphragms, which provide a selective filtration barrier in the renal glomerulus. Analyses of disease-causing mutations in familial nephrotic syndromes and targeted mutagenesis in mice have revealed critical roles of several proteins in the assembly of slit diaphragms. The nephrin-podocin complex is the main constituent of slit diaphragms. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating these proteins to maintain the slit diaphragms are still largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the PAR3-atypical protein kinase C (aPKC)-PAR6beta cell polarity proteins co-localize to the slit diaphragms with nephrin. Furthermore, selective depletion of aPKClambda in mouse podocytes results in the disassembly of slit diaphragms, a disturbance in apico-basal cell polarity, and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). The aPKC-PAR3 complex associates with the nephrin-podocin complex in podocytes through direct interaction between PAR3 and nephrin, and the kinase activity of aPKC is required for the appropriate distribution of nephrin and podocin in podocytes. These observations not only establish a critical function of the polarity proteins in the maintenance of slit diaphragms, but also imply their potential involvement in renal failure in FSGS.
|The interaction of mPar3 with the ubiquitin ligase Smurf2 is required for the establishment of neuronal polarity. |
Schwamborn, JC; Khazaei, MR; Püschel, AW
The Journal of biological chemistry 282 35259-68 2007
The Par polarity complex consisting of the evolutionarily conserved proteins mPar3, mPar6, and aPKC regulates cell polarity in many cell types including neurons. Here we show that mPar3 is required for the establishment of neuronal polarity and links the Smurf2 to Kinesin-2. The HECT domain E3 ubiquitin ligase Smurf2 ensures that neurons extend only a single axon by initiating the degradation of inactive Rap1B through the ubiquitin/proteasome system. Its interaction with mPar3 is required to localize Smurf2 to growth cones and restrict Rap1B to the axon. Interfering with the binding of mPar3 to Kinesin-2 or Smurf2 to mPar3 and knockdown of mPar3 by RNAi disrupt the establishment of neuronal polarity through the failure to restrict Rap1B to a single neurite.
|The polarity protein Par-3 directly interacts with p75NTR to regulate myelination. |
Chan, Jonah R, et al.
Science, 314: 832-6 (2006) 2006
|PAR3 is essential for cyst-mediated epicardial development by establishing apical cortical domains. |
Hirose, T; Karasawa, M; Sugitani, Y; Fujisawa, M; Akimoto, K; Ohno, S; Noda, T
Development (Cambridge, England) 133 1389-98 2006
Epithelial cysts are one of the fundamental architectures for mammalian organogenesis. Although in vitro studies using cultured epithelial cells have revealed proteins required for cyst formation, the mechanisms that orchestrate the functions of these proteins in vivo remain to be clarified. We show that the targeted disruption of the mouse Par3 gene results in midgestational embryonic lethality with defective epicardial development. The epicardium is mainly derived from epicardial cysts and essential for cardiomyocyte proliferation during cardiac morphogenesis. PAR3-deficient epicardial progenitor (EPP) cells do not form cell cysts and show defects in the establishment of apical cortical domains, but not in basolateral domains. In PAR3-deficient EPP cells, the localizations of aPKC, PAR6beta and ezrin to the apical cortical domains are disturbed. By contrast, ZO1 and alpha4/beta1 integrins normally localize to cell-cell junctions and basal domains, respectively. Our observations indicate that EPP cell cyst formation requires PAR3 to interpret the polarity cues from cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions so that each EPP cell establishes apical cortical domains. These results also provide a clear example of the proper organization of epithelial tissues through the regulation of individual cell polarity.
|Junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs): more molecules with dual functions? |
Ebnet, Klaus, et al.
J. Cell. Sci., 117: 19-29 (2004) 2004
Junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs) are members of an immunoglobulin subfamily expressed by leukocytes and platelets as well as by epithelial and endothelial cells, in which they localize to cell-cell contacts and are specifically enriched at tight junctions. The recent identification of extracellular ligands and intracellular binding proteins for JAMs suggests two functions for JAMs. JAMs associate through their extracellular domains with the leukocyte beta2 integrins LFA-1 and Mac-1 as well as with the beta1 integrin alpha4beta1. All three integrins are involved in the regulation of leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions. Through their cytoplasmic domains, JAMs directly associate with various tight junction-associated proteins including ZO-1, AF-6, MUPP1 and the cell polarity protein PAR-3. PAR-3 is part of a ternary protein complex that contains PAR-3, atypical protein kinase C and PAR-6. This complex is highly conserved through evolution and is involved in the regulation of cell polarity in organisms from Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila to vertebrates. These findings point to dual functions for JAMs: they appear to regulate both leukocyte/platelet/endothelial cell interactions in the immune system and tight junction formation in epithelial and endothelial cells during the acquisition of cell polarity.
|Roles of nectins in cell adhesion, migration and polarization. |
Nakanishi, Hiroyuki and Takai, Yoshimi
Biol. Chem., 385: 885-92 (2004) 2004
Nectins are Ca2+-independent immunoglobulin (Ig)-like cell-cell adhesion molecules, which comprise a family consisting of four members. Nectins have five activities: (1) they show Ca2+-independent cell-cell adhesion activity by homo- and hetero-trans-interactions through their extracellular regions; (2) they bind afadin, an actin filament (F-actin)-binding protein, through their cytoplasmic tails and are connected to the actin cytoskeleton; (3) they induce activation of Cdc42 and Rac small G proteins through their cytoplasmic tails; (4) they bind Par-3, a cell polarity protein, through their cytoplasmic tails; and (5) they heterophilically trans-interact with Necls, nectin-like molecules, through their extracellular regions. Through these activities, nectins regulate a variety of cellular functions, including adhesion, migration, and polarization. Here we describe these activities and functions of nectins.
|Par proteins: partners in polarization. |
Macara, Ian G
Curr. Biol., 14: R160-2 (2004) 2004
Proteins can be localized either by inclusion or exclusion, and the Par polarity proteins illustrate both mechanisms. Cdc42 recruits Par-6 to a limited region of the plasma membrane. Par-6 recruits Par-3, which is actively removed from other regions by Par-1 and Par-5. Inclusion and exclusion together ensure efficient segregation of the polarity proteins.
|Hippocampal neuronal polarity specified by spatially localized mPar3/mPar6 and PI 3-kinase activity. |
Shi, Song-Hai, et al.
Cell, 112: 63-75 (2003) 2003
How a neuron becomes polarized remains an outstanding question. Here, we report that selection of the future axon among neurites of a cultured hippocampal neuron requires the activity of growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), as well as atypical protein kinase C (aPKC). The PI 3-kinase activity, highly localized to the tip of the newly specified axon of stage 3 neurons, is essential for the proper subcellular localization of mPar3, the mammalian homolog of C. elegans polarity protein Par3. Polarized distribution of not only mPar3 but also mPar6 is important for axon formation; ectopic expression of mPar6 or mPar3, or just the N terminus of mPar3, leaves neurons with no axon specified. Thus, neuronal polarity is likely to be controlled by the mPar3/mPar6/aPKC complex and the PI 3-kinase signaling pathway, both serving evolutionarily conserved roles in specifying cell polarity.
|Protein kinase C lambda/iota (PKClambda/iota): a PKC isotype essential for the development of multicellular organisms. |
Suzuki, Atsushi, et al.
J. Biochem., 133: 9-16 (2003) 2003
PKClambda/iota belongs to the third group of the PKC family, atypical PKC (aPKC), together with PKCzeta based on its sequence divergence from conventional and novel PKCs observed not only in the N-terminal regulatory domain but also in the kinase domain. Although one of the most distinct features of aPKC is its single, unrepeated cysteine-rich domain, recent studies have revealed that the N-terminal regulatory domain has additional aPKC-specific structural motifs involved in various protein-protein interactions, which are important for the regulation and the subcellular targeting of aPKC. The identification of aPKC-specific binding proteins has significantly facilitated our understanding of the activation mechanism as well as the physiological function of aPKC at the molecular level. In particular, the finding that the mammalian homologs of the Caenorhabditis elegans proteins, PAR-3 and PAR-6, bind aPKC unexpectedly opens a new avenue for exploring a thus far completely unrecognized critical function of aPKC, that is, as a component of an evolutionarily conserved cell polarity machinery. Together with the great progress in the genome project as well as in the genetic analysis of model organisms, these advances are leading us into the new era of aPKC study in which functional divergence between PKClambda/iota and zeta can be discussed in elaborately.
|Atypical protein kinase C is involved in the evolutionarily conserved par protein complex and plays a critical role in establishing epithelia-specific junctional structures. |
Suzuki, A, et al.
J. Cell Biol., 152: 1183-96 (2001) 2001
We have previously shown that during early Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis PKC-3, a C. elegans atypical PKC (aPKC), plays critical roles in the establishment of cell polarity required for subsequent asymmetric cleavage by interacting with PAR-3 [Tabuse, Y., Y. Izumi, F. Piano, K.J. Kemphues, J. Miwa, and S. Ohno. 1998. Development (Camb.). 125:3607--3614]. Together with the fact that aPKC and a mammalian PAR-3 homologue, aPKC-specific interacting protein (ASIP), colocalize at the tight junctions of polarized epithelial cells (Izumi, Y., H. Hirose, Y. Tamai, S.-I. Hirai, Y. Nagashima, T. Fujimoto, Y. Tabuse, K.J. Kemphues, and S. Ohno. 1998. J. Cell Biol. 143:95--106), this suggests a ubiquitous role for aPKC in establishing cell polarity in multicellular organisms. Here, we show that the overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of aPKC (aPKCkn) in MDCK II cells causes mislocalization of ASIP/PAR-3. Immunocytochemical analyses, as well as measurements of paracellular diffusion of ions or nonionic solutes, demonstrate that the biogenesis of the tight junction structure itself is severely affected in aPKCkn-expressing cells. Furthermore, these cells show increased interdomain diffusion of fluorescent lipid and disruption of the polarized distribution of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, suggesting that epithelial cell surface polarity is severely impaired in these cells. On the other hand, we also found that aPKC associates not only with ASIP/PAR-3, but also with a mammalian homologue of C. elegans PAR-6 (mPAR-6), and thereby mediates the formation of an aPKC-ASIP/PAR-3-PAR-6 ternary complex that localizes to the apical junctional region of MDCK cells. These results indicate that aPKC is involved in the evolutionarily conserved PAR protein complex, and plays critical roles in the development of the junctional structures and apico-basal polarization of mammalian epithelial cells.
|A mammalian PAR-3-PAR-6 complex implicated in Cdc42/Rac1 and aPKC signalling and cell polarity |
Lin, D, et al
Nat Cell Biol, 2:540-7 (2000) 2000
|An atypical PKC directly associates and colocalizes at the epithelial tight junction with ASIP, a mammalian homologue of Caenorhabditis elegans polarity protein PAR-3 |
Izumi, Y, et al
J Cell Biol, 143:95-106 (1998) 1998