|Replacement Information||05-516 is a recommended replacement for CBL751|
Tabla espec. clave
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, R, M||ELISA, FC, ICC, IHC, IP, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at -20ºC from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
Ficha datos de seguridad (MSDS)
Referencias bibliográficas | 53 Disponible | Ver todas las referencias
|Visión general referencias||Aplicación||Pub Med ID|
|Site-specific processing of Ras and Rap1 Switch I by a MARTX toxin effector domain. |
Antic, I; Biancucci, M; Zhu, Y; Gius, DR; Satchell, KJ
Nature communications 6 7396 2015
Ras (Rat sarcoma) protein is a central regulator of cell growth and proliferation. Mutations in the RAS gene are known to occur in human cancers and have been shown to contribute to carcinogenesis. In this study, we show that the multifunctional-autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTX) toxin-effector domain DUF5(Vv) from Vibrio vulnificus to be a site-specific endopeptidase that cleaves within the Switch 1 region of Ras and Rap1. DUF5(Vv) processing of Ras, which occurs both biochemically and in mammalian cell culture, inactivates ERK1/2, thereby inhibiting cell proliferation. The ability to cleave Ras and Rap1 is shared by DUF5(Vv) homologues found in other bacteria. In addition, DUF5(Vv )can cleave all Ras isoforms and KRas with mutations commonly implicated in malignancies. Therefore, we speculate that this new family of Ras/Rap1-specific endopeptidases (RRSPs) has potential to inactivate both wild-type and mutant Ras proteins expressed in malignancies.
|EGF-Induced Acetylation of Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins Is Dependent on KRAS Mutational Status in Colorectal Cancer Cells. |
Roda, D; Castillo, J; Telechea-Fernández, M; Gil, A; López-Rodas, G; Franco, L; González-Rodríguez, P; Roselló, S; Pérez-Fidalgo, JA; García-Trevijano, ER; Cervantes, A; Zaragozá, R
PloS one 10 e0130543 2015
KRAS mutational status is considered a negative predictive marker of the response to anti-EGFR therapies in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. However, conflicting data exist regarding the variable response to EGFR-targeted therapy. The effects of oncogenic KRAS on downstream targets were studied in cell lines with different KRAS mutations. Cells harboring a single KRASG13D allele showed the most tumorigenic profile, with constitutive activation of the downstream pathway, rendering them EGF-unresponsive. Conversely, KRASA146T cells showed a full EGF-response in terms of signal transduction pathways, cell proliferation, migration or adhesion. Moreover, the global acetylome of CRC cells was also dependent on KRAS mutational status. Several hnRNP family members were identified within the 36 acetylated-proteins. Acetylation status is known to be involved in the modulation of EGF-response. In agreement with results presented herein, hnRNPA1 and L acetylation was induced in response to EGF in KRASA146T cells, whereas acetyl-hnRNPA1 and L levels remained unchanged after growth factor treatment in KRASG13D unresponsive cells. Our results showed that hnRNPs induced-acetylation is dependent on KRAS mutational status. Nevertheless hnRNPs acetylation might also be the point where different oncogenic pathways converge.
|MEK-dependent negative feedback underlies BCR-ABL-mediated oncogene addiction. |
Asmussen, J; Lasater, EA; Tajon, C; Oses-Prieto, J; Jun, YW; Taylor, BS; Burlingame, A; Craik, CS; Shah, NP
Cancer discovery 4 200-15 2014
The clinical experience with BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) provides compelling evidence for oncogene addiction. Yet, the molecular basis of oncogene addiction remains elusive. Through unbiased quantitative phosphoproteomic analyses of CML cells transiently exposed to BCR-ABL TKI, we identified persistent downregulation of growth factor receptor (GF-R) signaling pathways. We then established and validated a tissue-relevant isogenic model of BCR-ABL-mediated addiction, and found evidence for myeloid GF-R signaling pathway rewiring that profoundly and persistently dampens physiologic pathway activation. We demonstrate that eventual restoration of ligand-mediated GF-R pathway activation is insufficient to fully rescue cells from a competing apoptotic fate. In contrast to previous work with BRAF(V600E) in melanoma cells, feedback inhibition following BCR-ABL TKI treatment is markedly prolonged, extending beyond the time required to initiate apoptosis. Mechanistically, BCR-ABL-mediated oncogene addiction is facilitated by persistent high levels of MAP-ERK kinase (MEK)-dependent negative feedback.We found that BCR–ABL can confer addiction in vitro by rewiring myeloid GF-R signaling through establishment of MEK-dependent negative feedback. Our findings predict that deeper, more durable responses to targeted agents across a range of malignancies may be facilitated by maintaining negative feedback concurrently with oncoprotein inhibition.
|MicroRNA-5p and -3p co-expression and cross-targeting in colon cancer cells. |
Choo, KB; Soon, YL; Nguyen, PN; Hiew, MS; Huang, CJ
Journal of biomedical science 21 95 2014
Two mature miRNA species may be generated from the 5' and 3' arms of a pre-miRNA precursor. In most cases, only one species remains while the complementary species is degraded. However, co-existence of miRNA-5p and -3p species is increasingly being reported. In this work, we aimed to systematically investigate co-expression of miRNA-5p/3p in colon cancer cells in a genome-wide analysis, and to examine cross-targeting of the dysregulated miRNAs and 5p/3p species.Four colon cancer cell lines were examined relative to two normal colon tissues. Of the 1,190 miRNAs analyzed, 92 and 36 were found to be up- or down-regulated, respectively, in cancer cells. Nineteen co-expressed miRNA-5p/3p pairs were further identified suggesting frequent 5p/3p co-accumulation in colon cancer cells. Of these, 14 pairs were co-up-regulated and 3 pairs were co-down-regulated indicating concerted 5p/3p dysregulation. Nine dysregulated miRNA pairs fell into three miRNA gene families, namely let-7, mir-8/200 and mir-17, which showed frequent cross-targeting in the metastasis process. Focusing on the let-7d-5p/3p pair, the respectively targeted IGF1R and KRAS were shown to be in a reverse relationship with expression of the respective miRNA, which was confirmed in transient transfection assays using let-7d mimic or inhibitor. Targeting of KRAS by let-7d was previous reported; targeting of IGF1R by let-7d-5p was confirmed in luciferase assays in this study. The findings of let-7d-5p/3p and multiple other miRNAs targeting IGF1R, KRAS and other metastasis-related factors suggest that 5p/3p miRNAs contribute to cross-targeting of multiple cancer-associated factors and processes possibly to evade functional abolishment when any one of the crucial factors are inactivated.miRNA-5p/3p species are frequently co-expressed and are coordinately regulated in colon cancer cells. In cancer cells, multiple cross-targeting by the miRNAs, including the co-existing 5p/3p species, frequently occurs in an apparent safe-proof scheme of miRNA regulation of important tumorigenesis processes. Further systematic analysis of co-existing miRNA-5p/3p pairs in clinical tissues is important in elucidating 5p/3p contributions to cancer pathogenesis.
|PLC-γ and PI3K link cytokines to ERK activation in hematopoietic cells with normal and oncogenic Kras. |
Diaz-Flores, E; Goldschmidt, H; Depeille, P; Ng, V; Akutagawa, J; Krisman, K; Crone, M; Burgess, MR; Williams, O; Houseman, B; Shokat, K; Sampath, D; Bollag, G; Roose, JP; Braun, BS; Shannon, K
Science signaling 6 ra105 2013
Oncogenic K-Ras proteins, such as K-Ras(G12D), accumulate in the active, guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound conformation and stimulate signaling through effector kinases. The presence of the K-Ras(G12D) oncoprotein at a similar abundance to that of endogenous wild-type K-Ras results in only minimal phosphorylation and activation of the canonical Raf-mitogen-activated or extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase kinase (MEK)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling cascades in primary hematopoietic cells, and these pathways remain dependent on growth factors for efficient activation. We showed that phospholipase C-γ (PLC-γ), PI3K, and their generated second messengers link activated cytokine receptors to Ras and ERK signaling in differentiated bone marrow cells and in a cell population enriched for leukemia stem cells. Cells expressing endogenous oncogenic K-Ras(G12D) remained dependent on the second messenger diacylglycerol for the efficient activation of Ras-ERK signaling. These data raise the unexpected possibility of therapeutically targeting proteins that function upstream of oncogenic Ras in cancer.
|Endomembrane H-Ras controls vascular endothelial growth factor-induced nitric-oxide synthase-mediated endothelial cell migration. |
Haeussler, DJ; Pimentel, DR; Hou, X; Burgoyne, JR; Cohen, RA; Bachschmid, MM
The Journal of biological chemistry 288 15380-9 2013
We demonstrate for the first time that endomembrane-delimited H-Ras mediates VEGF-induced activation of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) and migratory response of human endothelial cells. Using thiol labeling strategies and immunofluorescent cell staining, we found that only 31% of total H-Ras is S-palmitoylated, tethering the small GTPase to the plasma membrane but leaving the function of the large majority of endomembrane-localized H-Ras unexplained. Knockdown of H-Ras blocked VEGF-induced PI3K-dependent Akt (Ser-473) and eNOS (Ser-1177) phosphorylation and nitric oxide-dependent cell migration, demonstrating the essential role of H-Ras. Activation of endogenous H-Ras led to recruitment and phosphorylation of eNOS at endomembranes. The loss of migratory response in cells lacking endogenous H-Ras was fully restored by modest overexpression of an endomembrane-delimited H-Ras palmitoylation mutant. These studies define a newly recognized role for endomembrane-localized H-Ras in mediating nitric oxide-dependent proangiogenic signaling.
|The RasGAP gene, RASAL2, is a tumor and metastasis suppressor. |
McLaughlin, SK; Olsen, SN; Dake, B; De Raedt, T; Lim, E; Bronson, RT; Beroukhim, R; Polyak, K; Brown, M; Kuperwasser, C; Cichowski, K
Cancer cell 24 365-78 2013
RAS genes are commonly mutated in cancer; however, RAS mutations are rare in breast cancer, despite frequent hyperactivation of Ras and ERK. Here, we report that the RasGAP gene, RASAL2, functions as a tumor and metastasis suppressor. RASAL2 is mutated or suppressed in human breast cancer, and RASAL2 ablation promotes tumor growth, progression, and metastasis in mouse models. In human breast cancer, RASAL2 loss is associated with metastatic disease; low RASAL2 levels correlate with recurrence of luminal B tumors; and RASAL2 ablation promotes metastasis of luminal mouse tumors. Additional data reveal a broader role for RASAL2 inactivation in other tumor types. These studies highlight the expanding role of RasGAPs and reveal an alternative mechanism of activating Ras in cancer.
|Integrative genomic and functional profiling of the pancreatic cancer genome. |
Shain, AH; Salari, K; Giacomini, CP; Pollack, JR
BMC genomics 14 624 2013
Pancreatic cancer is a deadly disease with a five-year survival of less than 5%. A better understanding of the underlying biology may suggest novel therapeutic targets. Recent surveys of the pancreatic cancer genome have uncovered numerous new alterations; yet systematic functional characterization of candidate cancer genes has lagged behind. To address this challenge, here we have devised a highly-parallel RNA interference-based functional screen to evaluate many genomically-nominated candidate pancreatic cancer genes simultaneously.For 185 candidate pancreatic cancer genes, selected from recurrently altered genomic loci, we performed a pooled shRNA library screen of cell growth/viability across 10 different cell lines. Knockdown-associated effects on cell growth were assessed by enrichment or depletion of shRNA hairpins, by hybridization to barcode microarrays. A novel analytical approach (COrrelated Phenotypes for On-Target Effects; COPOTE) was used to discern probable on-target knockdown, based on identifying different shRNAs targeting the same gene and displaying concordant phenotypes across cell lines. Knockdown data were integrated with genomic architecture and gene-expression profiles, and selected findings validated using individual shRNAs and/or independent siRNAs. The pooled shRNA library design delivered reproducible data. In all, COPOTE analysis identified 52 probable on-target gene-knockdowns. Knockdown of known oncogenes (KRAS, MYC, SMURF1 and CCNE1) and a tumor suppressor (CDKN2A) showed the expected contrasting effects on cell growth. In addition, the screen corroborated purported roles of PLEKHG2 and MED29 as 19q13 amplicon drivers. Most notably, the analysis also revealed novel possible oncogenic functions of nucleoporin NUP153 (ostensibly by modulating TGFβ signaling) and Kruppel-like transcription factor KLF5 in pancreatic cancer.By integrating physical and functional genomic data, we were able to simultaneously evaluate many candidate pancreatic cancer genes. Our findings uncover new facets of pancreatic cancer biology, with possible therapeutic implications. More broadly, our study provides a general strategy for the efficient characterization of candidate genes emerging from cancer genome studies.
|Elucidating distinct roles for NF1 in melanomagenesis. |
Maertens, O; Johnson, B; Hollstein, P; Frederick, DT; Cooper, ZA; Messiaen, L; Bronson, RT; McMahon, M; Granter, S; Flaherty, K; Wargo, JA; Marais, R; Cichowski, K
Cancer discovery 3 338-49 2013
BRAF mutations play a well-established role in melanomagenesis; however, without additional genetic alterations, tumor development is restricted by oncogene-induced senescence (OIS). Here, we show that mutations in the NF1 tumor suppressor gene cooperate with BRAF mutations in melanomagenesis by preventing OIS. In a genetically engineered mouse model, Nf1 mutations suppress Braf-induced senescence, promote melanocyte hyperproliferation, and enhance melanoma development. Nf1 mutations function by deregulating both phosphoinositide 3-kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathways. As such, Nf1/Braf-mutant tumors are resistant to BRAF inhibitors but are sensitive to combined inhibition of mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase and mTOR. Importantly, NF1 is mutated or suppressed in human melanomas that harbor concurrent BRAF mutations, NF1 ablation decreases the sensitivity of melanoma cell lines to BRAF inhibitors, and NF1 is lost in tumors from patients following treatment with these agents. Collectively, these studies provide mechanistic insight into how NF1 cooperates with BRAF mutations in melanoma and show that NF1/neurofibromin inactivation may have an impact on responses to targeted therapies.
|Identification of mutant K-Ras-dependent phenotypes using a panel of isogenic cell lines. |
Vartanian, S; Bentley, C; Brauer, MJ; Li, L; Shirasawa, S; Sasazuki, T; Kim, JS; Haverty, P; Stawiski, E; Modrusan, Z; Waldman, T; Stokoe, D
The Journal of biological chemistry 288 2403-13 2013
To assess the consequences of endogenous mutant K-Ras, we analyzed the signaling and biological properties of a small panel of isogenic cell lines. These include the cancer cell lines DLD1, HCT116, and Hec1A, in which either the WT or mutant K-ras allele has been disrupted, and SW48 colorectal cancer cells and human mammary epithelial cells in which a single copy of mutant K-ras was introduced at its endogenous genomic locus. We find that single copy mutant K-Ras causes surprisingly modest activation of downstream signaling to ERK and Akt. In contrast, a negative feedback signaling loop to EGFR and N-Ras occurs in some, but not all, of these cell lines. Mutant K-Ras also had relatively minor effects on cell proliferation and cell migration but more dramatic effects on cell transformation as assessed by growth in soft agar. Surprisingly, knock-out of the wild type K-ras allele consistently increased growth in soft agar, suggesting tumor-suppressive properties of this gene under these conditions. Finally, we examined the effects of single copy mutant K-Ras on global gene expression. Although transcriptional programs triggered by mutant K-Ras were generally quite distinct in the different cell lines, there was a small number of genes that were consistently overexpressed, and these could be used to monitor K-Ras inhibition in a panel of human tumor cell lines. We conclude that there are conserved components of mutant K-Ras signaling and phenotypes but that many depend on cell context and environmental cues.
|A phospholipase C-γ1-independent, RasGRP1-ERK-dependent pathway drives lymphoproliferative disease in linker for activation of T cells-Y136F mutant mice. |
Kortum, RL; Rouquette-Jazdanian, AK; Miyaji, M; Merrill, RK; Markegard, E; Pinski, JM; Wesselink, A; Nath, NN; Alexander, CP; Li, W; Kedei, N; Roose, JP; Blumberg, PM; Samelson, LE; Sommers, CL
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 190 147-58 2013
Mice expressing a germline mutation in the phospholipase C-γ1-binding site of linker for activation of T cells (LAT) show progressive lymphoproliferation and ultimately die at 4-6 mo age. The hyperactivated T cells in these mice show defective TCR-induced calcium flux but enhanced Ras/ERK activation, which is critical for disease progression. Despite the loss of LAT-dependent phospholipase C-γ1 binding and activation, genetic analysis revealed RasGRP1, and not Sos1 or Sos2, to be the major Ras guanine exchange factor responsible for ERK activation and the lymphoproliferative phenotype in these mice. Analysis of isolated CD4(+) T cells from LAT-Y136F mice showed altered proximal TCR-dependent kinase signaling, which activated a Zap70- and LAT-independent pathway. Moreover, LAT-Y136F T cells showed ERK activation that was dependent on Lck and/or Fyn, protein kinase C-θ, and RasGRP1. These data demonstrate a novel route to Ras activation in vivo in a pathological setting.
|A high-fat diet activates oncogenic Kras and COX2 to induce development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in mice. |
Philip, B; Roland, CL; Daniluk, J; Liu, Y; Chatterjee, D; Gomez, SB; Ji, B; Huang, H; Wang, H; Fleming, JB; Logsdon, CD; Cruz-Monserrate, Z
Gastroenterology 145 1449-58 2013
Obesity is a risk factor for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but it is not clear how obesity contributes to pancreatic carcinogenesis. The oncogenic form of KRAS is expressed during early stages of PDAC development and is detected in almost all of these tumors. However, there is evidence that mutant KRAS requires an additional stimulus to activate its full oncogenic activity and that this stimulus involves the inflammatory response. We investigated whether the inflammation induced by a high-fat diet, and the accompanying up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), increases Kras activity during pancreatic carcinogenesis in mice.We studied mice with acinar cell-specific expression of KrasG12D (LSL-Kras/Ela-CreERT mice) alone or crossed with COX2 conditional knockout mice (COXKO/LSL-Kras/Ela-CreERT). We also studied LSL-Kras/PDX1-Cre mice. All mice were fed isocaloric diets with different amounts of fat, and a COX2 inhibitor was administered to some LSL-Kras/Ela-CreERT mice. Pancreata were collected from mice and analyzed for Kras activity, levels of phosphorylated extracellular-regulated kinase, inflammation, fibrosis, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), and PDACs.Pancreatic tissues from LSL-Kras/Ela-CreERT mice fed high-fat diets (HFDs) had increased Kras activity, fibrotic stroma, and numbers of PanINs and PDACs than LSL-Kras/Ela-CreERT mice fed control diets; the mice fed the HFDs also had shorter survival times than mice fed control diets. Administration of a COX2 inhibitor to LSL-Kras/Ela-CreERT mice prevented these effects of HFDs. We also observed a significant reduction in survival times of mice fed HFDs. COXKO/LSL-Kras/Ela-CreERT mice fed HFDs had no evidence for increased numbers of PanIN lesions, inflammation, or fibrosis, as opposed to the increases observed in LSL-Kras/Ela-CreERT mice fed HFDs.In mice, an HFD can activate oncogenic Kras via COX2, leading to pancreatic inflammation and fibrosis and development of PanINs and PDAC. This mechanism might be involved in the association between risk for PDAC and HFDs.
|Reversible, interrelated mRNA and miRNA expression patterns in the transcriptome of Rasless fibroblasts: functional and mechanistic implications. |
Azrak, SS; Ginel-Picardo, A; Drosten, M; Barbacid, M; Santos, E
BMC genomics 14 731 2013
4-Hydroxy-tamoxifen (4OHT) triggers Cre-mediated K-Ras removal in [H-Ras-/-; N-Ras-/-; K-Ras lox/lox; RERT ert/ert] fibroblasts, generating growth-arrested "Rasless" MEFs which are able to recover their proliferative ability after ectopic expression of Ras oncoproteins or constitutively active BRAF or MEK1.Comparison of the transcriptional profiles of Rasless fibroblasts with those of MEFs lacking only H-Ras and N-Ras identified a series of differentially expressed mRNAs and microRNAs specifically linked to the disappearance of K-Ras from these cells. The rescue of cell cycle progression in Rasless cells by activated BRAF or MEK1 resulted in the reversal of most such transcriptional mRNA and microRNA alterations.Functional analysis of the differentially expressed mRNAs uncovered a significant enrichment in the components of pathways regulating cell division, DNA/RNA processing and response to DNA damage. Consistent with G1/S blockade, Rasless cells displayed repression of a series of cell cycle-related genes, including Cyclins, Cyclin-dependent kinases, Myc and E2F transcription targets, and upregulation of Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. The profile of differentially expressed microRNAs included a specific set of oncomiR families and clusters (repressed miR-17 ~ 92, miR-106a ~ 363, miR-106b ~ 25, miR-212 ~ 132, miR-183 ~ 182, and upregulated miR-335) known for their ability to target a specific set of cellular regulators and checkpoint sensors (including Rb, E2F and Cdkns) able to modulate the interplay between the pro- and anti-proliferative or stress-response pathways that are reversibly altered in Rasless cells.Our data suggest that the reversible proliferation phenotype of Rasless cells is the pleiotropic result of interplay among distinct pro- and anti-proliferative, and stress-response pathways modulated by a regulatory circuitry constituted by a specific set of differentially expressed mRNAs and microRNAs and preferentially targeting two cross-talking signalling axes: Myc-Rb-E2F-dependent and Cdkns-p53-dependent pathways.
|Bryostatin analogue-induced apoptosis in mantle cell lymphoma cell lines. |
Ana Lopez-Campistrous,Xiaohua Song,Adam J Schrier,Paul A Wender,Nancy A Dower,James C Stone
Experimental hematology 40 2012
The anti-cancer effects of bryostatin-1, a potent diacylglycerol analogue, have traditionally been attributed to its action on protein kinase C. However, we previously documented apoptosis in a B non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell line involving diacylglycerol analogue stimulation of Ras guanyl-releasing protein, a Ras activator, and Bim, a proapoptotic Bcl-2 family protein. To further explore the role of Bim, we examined several Bim-deficient B non-Hodgkin lymphoma cells for their responses to pico, a synthetic bryostatin-1-like compound. The Bim(-) mantle cell lymphoma cell lines Jeko-1, Mino, Sp53, UPN1, and Z138 and the Bim(+) cell line Rec-1, as well as the Burkitt lymphoma cells lines BL2 (Bim(-)) and Daudi (Bim(+)), were examined for their response to pico using assays for proliferation and apoptosis as well as biochemical methods for Ras guanyl-releasing proteins and Bcl-2 family members. With the exception of UPN1, mantle cell lymphoma cell lines underwent pico-induced apoptosis, as did BL2. In some cases, hallmarks of apoptosis were substantially diminished in the presence of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitors. Pico treatment generally led to increased expression of proapoptotic Bik, although the absolute levels of Bik varied considerably between cell lines. A pico-resistant variant of Z138 exhibited decreased Bik induction compared to parental Z138 cells. Pico also generally decreased expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-XL and Mcl1. Although, these changes in Bcl-2 family members seem unlikely to fully account for the differential behavior of the cell lines, our demonstration of a potent apoptotic process in most cell lines derived from mantle cell lymphoma encourages a re-examination of diacylglycerol analogues in the treatment of this subset of B non-Hodgkin lymphoma cases.
|The TGFβ receptor-interacting protein km23-1/DYNLRB1 plays an adaptor role in TGFβ1 autoinduction via its association with Ras. |
Jin, Q; Ding, W; Mulder, KM
The Journal of biological chemistry 287 26453-63 2012
We have previously elucidated the signaling events that are required for TGFβ1 autoinduction (Yue, J., and Mulder, K. M. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 30765-30773). Further, we have reported that the TGFβ receptor (TβR)-interacting protein km23-1 plays an important role in TGFβ signal transduction (Jin, Q., Ding, W., and Mulder, K. M. (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282, 19122-19132). Here we examined the role of km23-1 in TGFβ1 autoinduction in TGFβ-sensitive epithelial cells. siRNA blockade of km23-1 reduced TGFβ1 mRNA expression, as well as DNA binding and transcriptional activation of the relevant activator protein-1 site in the human TGFβ1 promoter. Further, knockdown of km23-1 inhibited TGFβ-mediated activation of ERK and JNK, phosphorylation of c-Jun, and transactivation of the c-Jun promoter. Sucrose gradient analyses indicate that km23-1 was present in lipid rafts together with Ras and TβRII after TGFβ treatment. Immunoprecipitation/blot analyses revealed the formation of a TGFβ-inducible complex between Ras and km23-1 in vivo within minutes of TGFβ addition. Moreover, we demonstrate for the first time that km23-1 is required for Ras activation by TGFβ. Our results indicate that km23-1 is required for TGFβ1 autoinduction through Smad2-independent Ras/ERK/JNK pathways. More importantly, our findings demonstrate that km23-1 functions as a critical adaptor coupling TβR activation to activation of Ras effector pathways downstream.
|β-amyloid inhibits protein prenylation and induces cholesterol sequestration by impairing SREBP-2 cleavage. |
Mohamed, A; Saavedra, L; Di Pardo, A; Sipione, S; Posse de Chaves, E
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 32 6490-500 2012
Accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) inside brain neurons is an early and crucial event in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Studies in brains of AD patients and mice models of AD suggested that cholesterol homeostasis is altered in neurons that accumulate Aβ. Here we directly investigated the role of intracellular oligomeric Aβ(42) (oAβ(42)) in neuronal cholesterol homeostasis. We report that oAβ(42) induces cholesterol sequestration without increasing cellular cholesterol mass. Several features of AD, such as endosomal abnormalities, brain accumulation of Aβ and neurofibrillary tangles, and influence of apolipoprotein E genotype, are also present in Niemann-Pick type C, a disease characterized by impairment of intracellular cholesterol trafficking. These common features and data presented here suggest that a pathological mechanism involving abnormal cholesterol trafficking could take place in AD. Cholesterol sequestration in Aβ-treated neurons results from impairment of intracellular cholesterol trafficking secondary to inhibition of protein prenylation. oAβ(42) reduces sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) cleavage, causing decrease of protein prenylation. Inhibition of protein prenylation represents a mechanism of oAβ(42)-induced neuronal death. Supply of the isoprenoid geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate to oAβ(42)-treated neurons recovers normal protein prenylation, reduces cholesterol sequestration, and prevents Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. Significant to AD, reduced levels of protein prenylation are present in the cerebral cortex of the TgCRND8 mouse model. In conclusion, we demonstrate a significant inhibitory effect of Aβ on protein prenylation and identify SREBP-2 as a target of oAβ(42), directly linking Aβ to cholesterol homeostasis impairment.
|An autism-associated variant of Epac2 reveals a role for Ras/Epac2 signaling in controlling basal dendrite maintenance in mice. |
Srivastava, Deepak P, et al.
PLoS Biol., 10: e1001350 (2012) 2012
The architecture of dendritic arbors determines circuit connectivity, receptive fields, and computational properties of neurons, and dendritic structure is impaired in several psychiatric disorders. While apical and basal dendritic compartments of pyramidal neurons are functionally specialized and differentially regulated, little is known about mechanisms that selectively maintain basal dendrites. Here we identified a role for the Ras/Epac2 pathway in maintaining basal dendrite complexity of cortical neurons. Epac2 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the Ras-like small GTPase Rap, and it is highly enriched in the adult mouse brain. We found that in vivo Epac2 knockdown in layer 2/3 cortical neurons via in utero electroporation reduced basal dendritic architecture, and that Epac2 knockdown in mature cortical neurons in vitro mimicked this effect. Overexpression of an Epac2 rare coding variant, found in human subjects diagnosed with autism, also impaired basal dendritic morphology. This mutation disrupted Epac2's interaction with Ras, and inhibition of Ras selectively interfered with basal dendrite maintenance. Finally, we observed that components of the Ras/Epac2/Rap pathway exhibited differential abundance in the basal versus apical dendritic compartments. These findings define a role for Epac2 in enabling crosstalk between Ras and Rap signaling in maintaining basal dendrite complexity, and exemplify how rare coding variants, in addition to their disease relevance, can provide insight into cellular mechanisms relevant for brain connectivity.
|Ink4a/Arf loss promotes tumor recurrence following Ras inhibition. |
Vanbrocklin, MW; Robinson, JP; Lastwika, KJ; McKinney, AJ; Gach, HM; Holmen, SL
Neuro-oncology 14 34-42 2012
Aberrant activation of rat sarcoma (Ras) signaling contributes to the development of a variety of human cancers, including gliomas. To determine the dependence of high-grade gliomas on continued Ras signaling, we developed a doxycycline-regulated Kirsten Ras (KRas) glioma mouse model. We previously demonstrated that KRas is required for the maintenance of glioblastoma multiforme tumors arising in the context of activated Akt signaling in vivo; inhibition of KRas expression resulted in apoptotic tumor regression and significantly increased survival. We utilized a well-established glioma mouse model to determine the reliance of gliomas on continued KRas signaling in the context of Ink4a/Arf deficiency, a common occurrence in human gliomas. Despite the dependency of primary gliomas on continued KRas signaling, a significant percentage of tumors progressed to a KRas-independent state in the absence of Ink4a/Arf expression, demonstrating that these tumor suppressors play a critical role in the suppression of glioma recurrence. While even advanced stages of gliomas may remain dependent upon KRas signaling for maintenance and growth, our findings demonstrate that loss of Ink4a/Arf facilitates the acquisition of oncogene independence and tumor recurrence. Furthermore, reactivation of the Ras mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in the absence of virally delivered KRas expression is a common mechanism of recurrence in this context.
|R-Ras is required for murine dendritic cell maturation and CD4+ T-cell priming. |
Singh, G; Hashimoto, D; Yan, X; Helft, J; Park, PJ; Ma, G; Qiao, RF; Kennedy, CR; Chen, SH; Merad, M; Chan, AM
Blood 119 1693-701 2012
R-Ras is a member of the RAS superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins. The physiologic function of R-Ras has not been fully elucidated. We found that R-Ras is expressed by lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues and drastically up-regulated when bone marrow progenitors are induced to differentiate into dendritic cells (DCs). To address the role of R-Ras in DC functions, we generated a R-Ras-deficient mouse strain. We found that tumors induced in Rras(-/-) mice formed with shorter latency and attained greater tumor volumes. This finding has prompted the investigation of a role for R-Ras in the immune system. Indeed, Rras(-/-) mice were impaired in their ability to prime allogeneic and antigen-specific T-cell responses. Rras(-/-) DCs expressed lower levels of surface MHC class II and CD86 in response to lipopolysaccharide compared with wild-type DCs. This was correlated with a reduced phosphorylation of p38 and Akt. Consistently, R-Ras-GTP level was increased within 10 minutes of lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Furthermore, Rras(-/-) DCs have attenuated capacity to spread on fibronectin and form stable immunologic synapses with T cells. Altogether, these findings provide the first demonstration of a role for R-Ras in cell-mediated immunity and further expand on the complexity of small G-protein signaling in DCs.
|Oxidation of HRas cysteine thiols by metabolic stress prevents palmitoylation in vivo and contributes to endothelial cell apoptosis. |
Burgoyne, JR; Haeussler, DJ; Kumar, V; Ji, Y; Pimental, DR; Zee, RS; Costello, CE; Lin, C; McComb, ME; Cohen, RA; Bachschmid, MM
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 26 832-41 2012
Here we demonstrate a new paradigm in redox signaling, whereby oxidants resulting from metabolic stress directly alter protein palmitoylation by oxidizing reactive cysteine thiolates. In mice fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet and in cultured endothelial cells (ECs) treated with high palmitate and high glucose (HPHG), there was decreased HRas palmitoylation on Cys181/184 (61±24% decrease for cardiac tissue and 38±7.0% in ECs). This was due to oxidation of Cys181/184, detected using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI TOF)-TOF. Decrease in HRas palmitoylation affected its compartmentalization and Ras binding domain binding activity, with a shift from plasma membrane tethering to Golgi localization. Loss of plasma membrane-bound HRas decreased growth factor-stimulated ERK phosphorylation (84±8.6% decrease) and increased apoptotic signaling (24±6.5-fold increase) after HPHG treatment that was prevented by overexpressing wild-type but not C181/184S HRas. The essential role of HRas in metabolic stress was made evident by the similar effects of expressing an inactive dominant negative N17-HRas or a MEK inhibitor. Furthermore, the relevance of thiol oxidation was demonstrated by overexpressing manganese superoxide dismutase, which improved HRas palmitoylation and ERK phosphorylation, while lessening apoptosis in HPHG treated ECs.
|Consumption of oxygen: a mitochondrial-generated progression signal of advanced cancer. |
Cook, CC; Kim, A; Terao, S; Gotoh, A; Higuchi, M
Cell death & disease 3 e258 2012
Changes in mitochondrial genome such as mutation, deletion and depletion are common in cancer and can determine advanced phenotype of cancer; however, detailed mechanisms have not been elucidated. We observed that loss of mitochondrial genome reversibly induced overexpression and activation of proto-oncogenic Ras, especially K-Ras 4A, responsible for the activation of AKT and ERK leading to advanced phenotype of prostate and breast cancer. Ras activation was induced by the overexpression of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), the rate-limiting enzyme of the mevalonate pathway. Hypoxia is known to induce proteasomal degradation of HMGR. Well differentiated prostate and breast cancer cells with high mitochondrial DNA content consumed a large amount of oxygen and induced hypoxia. Loss of mitochondrial genome reduced oxygen consumption and increased in oxygen concentration in the cells. The hypoxic-to-normoxic shift led to the overexpression of HMGR through inhibiting proteasomal degradation. Therefore, reduction of mitochondrial genome content induced overexpression of HMGR through hypoxic to normoxic shift and subsequently the endogenous induction of the mevalonate pathway activated Ras that mediates advanced phenotype. Reduction of mitochondrial genome content was associated with the aggressive phenotype of prostate cancer in vitro cell line model and tissue specimens in vivo. Our results elucidate a coherent mechanism that directly links the mitochondrial genome with the advanced progression of the disease.
|Induction of the Ras activator Son of Sevenless 1 by environmental pollutants mediates their effects on cellular proliferation. |
Stéphane Pierre,Anne-Sophie Bats,Aline Chevallier,Linh-Chi Bui,Ariane Ambolet-Camoit,Michèle Garlatti,Martine Aggerbeck,Robert Barouki,Xavier Coumoul
Biochemical pharmacology 81 2011
TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin), a highly persistent environmental pollutant and a human carcinogen, is the ligand with the highest affinity for the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) that induces via the AhR, xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme genes as well as several other genes. This pollutant elicits a variety of systemic toxic effects, which include cancer promotion and diverse cellular alterations that modify cell cycle progression and cell proliferation. Large-scale studies have shown that the expression of Son of Sevenless 1 (SOS1), the main mediator of Ras activation, is one of the targets of dioxin in human cultured cells. In this study, we investigated the regulation of the previously uncharacterized SOS1 gene promoter by the AhR and its ligands in the human hepatocarcinoma cell line, HepG2. We found that several environmental pollutants (AhR ligands) induce SOS1 gene expression by increasing its transcription. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that the AhR binds directly and activates the SOS1 gene promoter. We also showed that dioxin treatment leads to an activated Ras-GTP state, to ERK activation and to accelerated cellular proliferation. All these effects were mediated by SOS1 induction as shown by knock down experiments. Our data indicate that dioxin-induced cellular proliferation is mediated, at least partially, by SOS1 induction. Remarkably, our studies also suggest that SOS1 induction leads to functional effects similar to those elicited by the well-characterized oncogenic Ras mutations.
|Amplification of CRKL induces transformation and epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor resistance in human non-small cell lung cancers. |
Cheung, HW; Du, J; Boehm, JS; He, F; Weir, BA; Wang, X; Butaney, M; Sequist, LV; Luo, B; Engelman, JA; Root, DE; Meyerson, M; Golub, TR; Jänne, PA; Hahn, WC
Cancer discovery 1 608-25 2011
We previously identified a region of recurrent amplification on chromosome 22q11.21 in a subset of primary lung adenocarcinomas. Here we show that CRKL, encoding for an adaptor protein, is amplified and overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells that harbor 22q11.21 amplifications. Overexpression of CRKL in immortalized human airway epithelial cells promoted anchorage-independent growth and tumorigenicity. Oncogenic CRKL activates the SOS1-RAS-RAF-ERK and SRC-C3G-RAP1 pathways. Suppression of CRKL in NSCLC cells that harbor CRKL amplifications induced cell death. Overexpression of CRKL in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant cells induces resistance to gefitinib by activating extracellular signal-regulated kinase and AKT signaling. We identified CRKL amplification in an EGFR inhibitor-treated lung adenocarcinoma that was not present before treatment. These observations demonstrate that CRKL overexpression induces cell transformation, credential CRKL as a therapeutic target for a subset of NSCLC that harbor CRKL amplifications, and implicate CRKL as an additional mechanism of resistance to EGFR-directed therapy.These studies credential CRKL as an oncogene in a subset of NSCLC. Overexpression of CRKL induces cell transformation and resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor treatment and suggest that therapeutic interventions targeting CRKL may confer a clinical benefit in a defined subset of NSCLCs.
|The transcription factor Gfi1 regulates G-CSF signaling and neutrophil development through the Ras activator RasGRP1. |
de la Luz Sierra M, Sakakibara S, Gasperini P, Salvucci O, Jiang K, McCormick PJ, Segarra M, Stone J, Maric D, Zhu J, Qian X, Lowy DR, Tosato G
Blood 115 3970-9. Epub 2010 Mar 4. 2010
The transcription factor growth factor independence 1 (Gfi1) and the growth factor granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) are individually essential for neutrophil differentiation from myeloid progenitors. Here, we provide evidence that the functions of Gfi1 and G-CSF are linked in the regulation of granulopoiesis. We report that Gfi1 promotes the expression of Ras guanine nucleotide releasing protein 1 (RasGRP1), an exchange factor that activates Ras, and that RasGRP1 is required for G-CSF signaling through the Ras/mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK/Erk) pathway. Gfi1-null mice have reduced levels of RasGRP1 mRNA and protein in thymus, spleen, and bone marrow, and Gfi1 transduction in myeloid cells promotes RasGRP1 expression. When stimulated with G-CSF, Gfi1-null myeloid cells are selectively defective at activating Erk1/2, but not signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) or STAT3, and fail to differentiate into neutrophils. Expression of RasGRP1 in Gfi1-deficient cells rescues Erk1/2 activation by G-CSF and allows neutrophil maturation by G-CSF. These results uncover a previously unknown function of Gfi1 as a regulator of RasGRP1 and link Gfi1 transcriptional control to G-CSF signaling and regulation of granulopoiesis.
|Regulation of glucocorticoid receptor transcription and nuclear translocation during single and repeated immobilization stress. |
Noguchi, T; Makino, S; Matsumoto, R; Nakayama, S; Nishiyama, M; Terada, Y; Hashimoto, K
Endocrinology 151 4344-55 2010
We have previously reported reduced glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA levels in the hippocampus and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) during repeated immobilization, which is potentially associated with persistent activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. We used in situ hybridization and Western blot to examine the transcriptional regulation of the GR gene, GR nuclear translocation, and expression of cytosolic heat shock protein 90 (hsp90), a chaperone protein essential for GR nuclear translocation, in the hippocampus, PVN, and anterior pituitary (AP) during single immobilization (sIMO) and the final immobilization on d 7 after daily IMO for 6 days (rIMO). As with GR mRNA, GR heteronuclear RNA levels decreased in the hippocampus and PVN and increased in the AP during sIMO and rIMO, indicating that the GR mRNA levels in these regions were regulated at the transcriptional level. In both sIMO and rIMO, nuclear GR levels were significantly increased in the hippocampus, medial basal hypothalamus (MBH), and AP. However, GR nuclear translocation was reduced in the hippocampus, unchanged in the MBH, and enhanced in the AP during rIMO, as compared with sIMO. Cytosolic hsp90 expression was unchanged in the hippocampus and MBH, whereas it significantly increased in the AP at 30 min during rIMO but not during sIMO. These results suggest that the site-specific changes in GR nuclear translocation during sIMO vs. rIMO are partially linked to hsp90 responses to immobilization. The reduced nuclear translocation of GR in the hippocampus during rIMO may reflect decreased glucocorticoid-mediated negative feedback on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis.
|Salirasib inhibits the growth of hepatocarcinoma cell lines in vitro and tumor growth in vivo through ras and mTOR inhibition. |
Charette, N; De Saeger, C; Lannoy, V; Horsmans, Y; Leclercq, I; Stärkel, P
Molecular cancer 9 256 2010
Dysregulation of epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor signaling play important roles in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), leading to frequent activation of their downstream targets, the ras/raf/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) pathways. Salirasib is an S-prenyl-cysteine analog that has been shown to block ras and/or mTOR activation in several non hepatic tumor cell lines. We investigated in vitro the effect of salirasib on cell growth as well as its mechanism of action in human hepatoma cell lines (HepG2, Huh7, and Hep3B) and its in vivo effect in a subcutaneous xenograft model with HepG2 cells.Salirasib induced a time and dose dependent growth inhibition in hepatocarcinoma cells through inhibition of proliferation and partially through induction of apoptosis. A 50 percent reduction in cell growth was obtained in all three cell lines at a dose of 150 μM when they were cultured with serum. By contrast, salirasib was more potent at reducing cell growth after stimulation with EGF or IGF2 under serum-free conditions, with an IC50 ranging from 60 μM to 85 μM. The drug-induced anti-proliferative effect was associated with downregulation of cyclin A and to a lesser extent of cyclin D1, and upregulation of p21 and p27. Apoptosis induction was related to a global pro-apoptotic balance with caspase 3 activation, cytochrome c release, death receptor upregulation, and a reduced mRNA expression of the apoptosis inhibitors cFLIP and survivin. These effects were associated with ras downregulation and mTOR inhibition, without reduction of ERK and Akt activation. In vivo, salirasib reduced tumour growth from day 5 onwards. After 12 days of treatment, mean tumor weight was diminished by 56 percent in the treated animals.Our results show for the first time that salirasib inhibits the growth of human hepatoma cell lines through inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis, which is associated with ras and mTOR inhibition. The therapeutic potential of salirasib in human HCC was further confirmed in a subcutaneous xenograft model.Artículo Texto completo
|Activated BRAF induces gliomas in mice when combined with Ink4a/Arf loss or Akt activation. |
Robinson, JP; VanBrocklin, MW; Guilbeault, AR; Signorelli, DL; Brandner, S; Holmen, SL
Oncogene 29 335-44 2010
Mutations in receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) growth factor receptors (epidermal growth factor receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, MET and ERBB2), which result in downstream activation of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and PI(3)K/Akt pathway, are found in almost all high-grade gliomas and MAPK signaling is necessary for continued glioma maintenance. In addition, BRAF is mutated in the majority of low-grade gliomas and its expression and activity is significantly increased in the majority of high-grade gliomas. Although the importance of RTKs and RAS signaling in glioma development has been shown, the role of BRAF has yet to be characterized. We evaluated the effect of activated BRAF in glioma formation using the retroviral replication-competent avian leukosis virus long terminal repeat, splice acceptor (RCAS)/TVA system to transfer genes encoding activated forms of BRAF, KRas, Akt and Cre to nestin-expressing neural progenitor cells in Ink4a/Arf(lox/lox) mice in vivo. Although expression of activated BRAF alone is not sufficient for tumorigenesis, the combination of activated BRAF and Akt or BRAF with Ink4a/Arf loss is transforming. Interestingly, activated BRAF generates gliomas with characteristics similar to activated KRas in the context of Akt but not Ink4a/Arf loss. Our studies show a role for BRAF activation and signaling in glioma development and as potential target for glioma therapy.
|Requirement of Cdk4 for v-Ha-ras-Induced Breast Tumorigenesis and Activation of the v-ras-Induced Senescence Program by the R24C Mutation. |
Reddy, HK; Graña, X; Dhanasekaran, DN; Litvin, J; Reddy, EP
Genes & cancer 1 69-80 2010
Activating mutations in CDK4 and inactivation of its key kinase inhibitor, p16INK4A, have been implicated in the genesis and progression of human cancer. Previous work has demonstrated that CDK4 expression is required for Neu-induced but not Wnt-induced breast tumorigenesis in mice. However, the role that CDK4 plays in ras-mediated breast tumor development is not well defined. To gain an understanding of the role of Cdk4 in ras-induced breast tumorigenesis, MMTV-v-Ha-ras transgenic mice were bred with Cdk4(+/neo) and Cdk4(R24C/R24C) mice to generate Cdk4(neo/neo):MMTV-v-Ha-ras, Cdk4(+/+):MMTV-v-Ha-ras, and Cdk4(R24C/R24C):MMTV-v-Ha-ras mice. The studies presented here demonstrate that Cdk4 expression is essential for Ras-mediated breast tumorigenesis. Surprisingly, the results also show that coexpression of mutant ras and Cdk4R24C genes in breast epithelial cells leads to an activation of senescent pathways that delay tumorigenesis. Analysis of the phosphorylated form of H2AX, a marker for DNA damage, indicated its increased presence in the tumors of Cdk4(R24C/R24C):MMTV-v-Ha-ras mice. These observations indicate that the increased apoptosis and senescence seen in breast tumors of these mice might be due to increased DNA damage response in cells expressing activated forms of ras and Cdk4(R24C).
|Cross-regulation of the Nanog and Cdx2 promoters. |
Lingyi Chen,Akiko Yabuuchi,Sarah Eminli,Ayumu Takeuchi,Chi-Wei Lu,Konrad Hochedlinger,George Q Daley
Cell research 19 2009
The first cell fate choice in the mammalian embryo, the segregation of the inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE), is regulated by the mutually antagonistic effects of the transcription factors, Oct4 and Cdx2, while the pluripotency factor, Nanog, is essential to specify the epiblast. We have analyzed the promoters of Nanog and Cdx2, and have found that these two transcription factors are likewise regulated reciprocally. Using an embryonic stem cell line with conditional TE differentiation, we show that Nanog overexpression suppresses the upregulation of TE markers, while Nanog knockdown upregulates the expression of TE markers. We further show that Nanog and Cdx2 bind to and repress each other's promoters. However, whereas Nanog knockout results in detectable Cdx2 expression in the ICM, we observe no overt disruption of blastocyst development, indicating that Nanog plays a subservient role to Oct4 in segregation of the ICM and TE.
|Crude subcellular fractionation of cultured mammalian cell lines. |
Paul Holden,William A Horton
BMC research notes 2 2009
The expression and study of recombinant proteins in mammalian culture systems can be complicated during the cell lysis procedure by contaminating proteins from cellular compartments distinct from those within which the protein of interest resides and also by solubility issues that may arise from the use of a single lysis buffer. Partial subcellular fractionation using buffers of increasing stringency, rather than whole cell lysis is one way in which to avoid or reduce this contamination and ensure complete recovery of the target protein. Currently published protocols involve time consuming centrifugation steps which may require expensive equipment and commercially available kits can be prohibitively expensive when handling large or multiple samples.Artículo Texto completo
|LDLs stimulate p38 MAPKs and wound healing through SR-BI independently of Ras and PI3 kinase. |
Bulat, N; Waeber, G; Widmann, C
Journal of lipid research 50 81-9 2009
Intracellular signals elicited by LDLs are likely to play a role in the pathogenesis associated with increased LDL blood levels. We have previously determined that LDL stimulation of human skin fibroblasts, used as a model system for adventitial fibroblasts, activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), followed by IL-8 production and increased wound-healing capacity of the cells. The proximal events triggering these responses had not been characterized, however. Here we show that MAPK kinases MKK3 and MKK6, but not MKK4, are the upstream kinases responsible for the activation of the p38 MAPKs and stimulation of wound closure in response to LDLs. Phosphoinositide 3 kinases (PI3Ks) and Ras have been suggested to participate in lipoprotein-induced MAPK activation. However, specific PI3K inhibitors or expression of a dominant-negative form of Ras failed to blunt LDL-induced p38 MAPK activation. The classical LDL receptor does not participate in LDL signaling, but the contribution of other candidate lipoprotein receptors has not been investigated. Using cells derived from scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) knockout mice or the BLT-1 SR-BI inhibitor, we now show that this receptor is required for LDLs to stimulate p38 MAPKs and to promote wound healing. Identification of MKK3/6 and SR-BI as cellular relays in LDL-mediated p38 activation further defines the signaling events that could participate in LDL-mediated pathophysiological responses.
|Tissue-specific ablation of Prkar1a causes schwannomas by suppressing neurofibromatosis protein production. |
Georgette N Jones,Chhavy Tep,William H Towns,Georgeta Mihai,Ian D Tonks,Graham F Kay,Petra M Schmalbrock,Anat O Stemmer-Rachamimov,Sung Ok Yoon,Lawrence S Kirschner
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 10 2008
Signaling events leading to Schwann cell tumor initiation have been extensively characterized in the context of neurofibromatosis (NF). Similar tumors are also observed in patients with the endocrine neoplasia syndrome Carney complex, which results from inactivating mutations in PRKAR1A. Loss of PRKAR1A causes enhanced protein kinase A activity, although the pathways leading to tumorigenesis are not well characterized. Tissue-specific ablation of Prkar1a in neural crest precursor cells (TEC3KO mice) causes schwannomas with nearly 80% penetrance by 10 months. These heterogeneous neoplasms were clinically characterized as genetically engineered mouse schwannomas, grades II and III. At the molecular level, analysis of the tumors revealed almost complete loss of both NF proteins, despite the fact that transcript levels were increased, implying posttranscriptional regulation. Although Erk and Akt signaling are typically enhanced in NF-associated tumors, we observed no activation of either of these pathways in TEC3KO tumors. Furthermore, the small G proteins Ras, Rac1, and RhoA are all known to be involved with NF signaling. In TEC3KO tumors, all three molecules showed modest increases in total protein, but only Rac1 showed significant activation. These data suggest that dysregulated protein kinase A activation causes tumorigenesis through pathways that overlap but are distinct from those described in NF tumorigenesis.Artículo Texto completo
|Clonal selection in malignant transformation of human fibroblasts transduced with defined cellular oncogenes. |
Mahale, AM; Khan, ZA; Igarashi, M; Nanjangud, GJ; Qiao, RF; Yao, S; Lee, SW; Aaronson, SA
Cancer research 68 1417-26 2008
Recent evidence has implied that disruption of a limited number of defined cellular pathways is necessary and sufficient for neoplastic conversion of a variety of normal human cell types in tissue culture. We show instead that malignancy in such models results from an iterative process of clonal selection in vitro and/or in vivo. Normal human fibroblasts underwent malignant transformation after transduction with telomerase, cyclin-dependent kinase 4, dominant-negative p53, and activated Ras or MEK. Furthermore, culture conditions favoring overgrowth resulted in clonal selection, which with added Ras or MEK oncogenes led to the emergence of tumorigenic clones. Such tumors showed variable degrees of malignancy with some even exhibiting metastasis. SV40 small t antigen (ST) has been reported to be necessary and sufficient to convert human fibroblasts with these pathway aberrations to a polyclonal tumor. However, we observed that clonal tumors emerged even with ST addition. Genomic instability was markedly increased by p53 and Rb pathway abrogation. Under the same conditions, fibroblasts with these alterations failed to induce tumors, implying that genomic instability may be necessary but not sufficient for malignant transformation. These findings indicate that the minimum number of events required for malignant transformation of human fibroblasts is greater than has been enumerated by such oncogene addition strategies and support a stochastic cancer progression model initiated by four defined cellular alterations.
|Activation of Erk1/2 and Akt following unilateral ureteral obstruction. |
Rodríguez-Peña, AB; Grande, MT; Eleno, N; Arévalo, M; Guerrero, C; Santos, E; López-Novoa, JM
Kidney international 74 196-209 2008
Chronic unilateral ureteral obstruction is a well characterized model of renal injury leading to tubulointerstitial fibrosis and distinct patterns of cell proliferation and apoptosis in the obstructed kidney. In this study we assessed the contribution of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK)-ERK1/2 and the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathways to early renal changes following unilateral obstruction. Increased activation of small Ras GTPase and its downstream effectors ERK1/2 and Akt was detected in ligated kidneys. The use of specific pharmacological inhibitors to either ERK1/2 or Akt activation led to decreased levels of fibroblast-myofibroblast markers in the interstitium while inhibition of PI3K reduced the number of proliferating cells and the amount of interstitial extracellular matrix deposition. Treatment with an ERK1/2 inhibitor diminished the number of apoptotic tubule and interstitial cells. Our results suggest a role for the MAPK-ERK1/2 and PI3K-Akt systems in early changes induced by ureteral obstruction and that inhibition of these signaling pathways may provide a novel approach to prevent progression of renal fibrosis.
|Ras-MAPK signaling promotes trophectoderm formation from embryonic stem cells and mouse embryos. |
Lu, CW; Yabuuchi, A; Chen, L; Viswanathan, S; Kim, K; Daley, GQ
Nature genetics 40 921-6 2008
In blastocyst chimeras, embryonic stem (ES) cells contribute to embryonic tissues but not extraembryonic trophectoderm. Conditional activation of HRas1(Q61L) in ES cells in vitro induces the trophectoderm marker Cdx2 and enables derivation of trophoblast stem (TS) cell lines that, when injected into blastocysts, chimerize placental tissues. Erk2, the downstream effector of Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, is asymmetrically expressed in the apical membranes of the 8-cell-stage embryo just before morula compaction. Inhibition of MAPK signaling in cultured mouse embryos compromises Cdx2 expression, delays blastocyst development and reduces trophectoderm outgrowth from embryo explants. These data show that ectopic Ras activation can divert ES cells toward extraembryonic trophoblastic fates and implicate Ras-MAPK signaling in promoting trophectoderm formation from mouse embryos.
|Follicle-stimulating hormone induces multiple signaling cascades: evidence that activation of Rous sarcoma oncogene, RAS, and the epidermal growth factor receptor are critical for granulosa cell differentiation. |
Wayne, CM; Fan, HY; Cheng, X; Richards, JS
Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 21 1940-57 2007
FSH regulates ovarian granulosa cell differentiation not only by activating adenylyl cyclase and protein kinase A (PKA) but also by other complex mechanisms. Using primary rat granulosa cell cultures, we provide novel evidence that FSH rapidly activates two small GTP-binding proteins RAP1 and RAS. FSH activation of RAP1 requires cAMP-mediated activation of exchange factor activated by cAMP/RAPGEF3 whereas FSH activation of RAS and downstream signaling cascades involves multiple factors. Specifically, FSH activation of RAS required Rous sarcoma oncogene (SRC) family tyrosine kinase (SFK) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase activities but not PKA. FSH-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was blocked by dominant-negative RAS as well as by inhibitors of EGFR tyrosine kinase, metalloproteinases involved in growth factor shedding, and SFKs. In contrast, FSH-induced phosphorylation of protein kinase B (PKB/AKT) and the Forkhead transcription factor, FOXO1a occurred by SFK-dependent but RAS-independent mechanisms. The SFKs, c-SRC and FYN, and the SRC-related tyrosine kinase ABL were present and phosphorylated rapidly in response to FSH. Lastly, the EGF-like factor amphiregulin (AREG) activated RAS and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in granulosa cells by mechanisms that were selectively blocked by an EGFR antagonist but not by an SFK antagonist. However, AREG-mediated phosphorylation of PKB and FOXO1a required both EGFR and SFK activation. Moreover, we show that FSH induces AREG and that activation of the EGFR impacts granulosa cell differentiation and the expression of genes characteristic of the luteal cell phenotype. Thus, FSH orchestrates the coordinate activation of three diverse membrane-associated signaling cascades (adenylyl cyclase, RAS, and SFKs) that converge downstream to activate specific kinases (PKA, ERK1/2, and PKB/FOXO1a) that control granulosa cell function and differentiation.
|Proteasome-dependent down-regulation of activated nuclear hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors determines dynamic responses to corticosterone. |
Conway-Campbell, BL; McKenna, MA; Wiles, CC; Atkinson, HC; de Kloet, ER; Lightman, SL
Endocrinology 148 5470-7 2007
Timing is a critical factor in neuroendocrinology. Despite this, the temporal aspects of glucocorticoid signaling in the regulation of in vivo targets have been largely overlooked. Here, we present data showing that plasma glucocorticoid levels differ greatly from the constant signal predominantly used in cell culture experiments. Using an automated blood sampling system, we found that under basal conditions in nonstressed rats, corticosterone release occurs in discrete pulses of various amplitudes dependent on the circadian cycle. This basal pattern changes to a prolonged elevated nonpulsatile release in response to stressful stimuli. We have been able to recapitulate these different patterns of corticosterone presentation (short pulse vs. prolonged elevation) in adrenalectomized rats, and show that each pattern results in differential activation of hippocampal glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors. Finally, we provide evidence for a rapid proteasome-dependent clearance of activated glucocorticoid receptors, but not mineralocorticoid receptors, as a novel mechanism to allow dynamic interaction with rapidly changing physiological and environmental conditions.
|Modulation of F-actin rearrangement by the cyclic AMP/cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) pathway is mediated by MAPK-activated protein kinase 5 and requires PKA-induced nuclear export of MK5. |
Gerits, N; Mikalsen, T; Kostenko, S; Shiryaev, A; Johannessen, M; Moens, U
The Journal of biological chemistry 282 37232-43 2007
The MAPK-activated protein kinases belong to the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases. Within this group, MK2, MK3, and MK5 constitute three structurally related enzymes with distinct functions. Few genuine substrates for MK5 have been identified, and the only known biological role is in ras-induced senescence and in tumor suppression. Here we demonstrate that activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) or ectopic expression of the catalytic subunit Calpha in PC12 cells results in transient nuclear export of MK5, which requires the kinase activity of both Calpha and MK5 and the ability of Calpha to enter the nucleus. Calpha and MK5, but not MK2, interact in vivo, and Calpha increases the kinase activity of MK5. Moreover, Calpha augments MK5 phosphorylation, but not MK2, whereas MK5 does not seem to phosphorylate Calpha. Activation of PKA can induce actin filament accumulation at the plasma membrane and formation of actin-based filopodia. We demonstrate that small interfering RNA-triggered depletion of MK5 interferes with PKA-induced F-actin rearrangement. Moreover, cytoplasmic expression of an activated MK5 variant is sufficient to mimic PKA-provoked F-actin remodeling. Our results describe a novel interaction between the PKA pathway and MAPK signaling cascades and suggest that MK5, but not MK2, is implicated in PKA-induced microfilament rearrangement.
|Characterization of R-ras3/m-ras null mice reveals a potential role in trophic factor signaling. |
Nuñez Rodriguez, N; Lee, IN; Banno, A; Qiao, HF; Qiao, RF; Yao, Z; Hoang, T; Kimmelman, AC; Chan, AM
Molecular and cellular biology 26 7145-54 2006
R-Ras3/M-Ras is a member of the RAS superfamily of small-molecular-weight GTP-binding proteins. Previous studies have demonstrated high levels of expression in several regions of the central nervous system, and a constitutively active form of M-Ras promotes cytoskeletal reorganization, cellular transformation, survival, and differentiation. However, the physiological functions of M-Ras during embryogenesis and postnatal development have not been elucidated. By using a specific M-Ras antibody, we demonstrated a high level of M-Ras expression in astrocytes, in addition to neurons. Endogenous M-Ras was activated by several trophic factors in astrocytes, including epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor, and hepatocyte growth factor. Interestingly, M-Ras activation by EGF was more sustained compared to prototypic Ras. A mouse strain deficient in M-Ras was generated to investigate its role in development. M-Ras null mice appeared phenotypically normal, and there was a lack of detectable morphological and neurological defects. In addition, primary astrocytes derived from Mras(-/-) mice did not appear to display substantial alterations in the activation of both the mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways in response to trophic factors.Artículo Texto completo
|The Rho GTPase effector ROCK regulates cyclin A, cyclin D1, and p27Kip1 levels by distinct mechanisms. |
Croft, DR; Olson, MF
Molecular and cellular biology 26 4612-27 2006
The members of the Rho GTPase family are well known for their regulation of actin cytoskeletal structures. In addition, they influence progression through the cell cycle. The RhoA and RhoC proteins regulate numerous effector proteins, with a central and vital signaling role mediated by the ROCK I and ROCK II serine/threonine kinases. The requirement for ROCK function in the proliferation of numerous cell types has been revealed by studies utilizing ROCK-selective inhibitors such as Y-27632. However, the mechanisms by which ROCK signaling promotes cell cycle progression have not been thoroughly characterized. Using a conditionally activated ROCK-estrogen receptor fusion protein, we found that ROCK activation is sufficient to stimulate G1/S cell cycle progression in NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Further analysis revealed that ROCK acts via independent pathways to alter the levels of cell cycle regulatory proteins: cyclin D1 and p21(Cip1) elevation via Ras and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, increased cyclin A via LIM kinase 2, and reduction of p27(Kip1) protein levels. Therefore, the influence of ROCK on cell cycle regulatory proteins occurs by multiple independent mechanisms.
|The Ras-MAPK signal transduction pathway, cancer and chromatin remodeling. |
Dunn, Katherine L, et al.
Biochem. Cell Biol., 83: 1-14 (2005) 2005
Stimulation of the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathway results in a multitude of events including expression of the immediate-early genes, c-fos and c-myc. Downstream targets of this stimulated pathway are the mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinases (MSK) 1 and 2, which are histone H3 kinases. In chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, it has been shown that the mitogen-induced phosphorylated H3 is associated with the immediate-early genes and that MSK1/2 activity and H3 phosphorylation have roles in chromatin remodeling and transcription of these genes. In oncogene-transformed fibroblasts in which the Ras-MAPK pathway is constitutively active, histone H1 and H3 phosphorylation is increased and the chromatin of these cells has a more relaxed structure than the parental cells. In this review we explore the deregulation of the Ras-MAPK pathway in cancer, with an emphasis on breast cancer. We discuss the features of MSK1 and 2 and the impact of a constitutively activated Ras-MAPK pathway on chromatin remodeling and gene expression.
|Oncogenic Ras in tumour progression and metastasis. |
Biol. Chem., 386: 193-205 (2005) 2005
The ras genes give rise to a family of related GTP-binding proteins that exhibit potent transforming potential. Mutational activation of Ras proteins promotes oncogenesis by disturbing a multitude of cellular processes, such as gene expression, cell cycle progression and cell proliferation, as well as cell survival, and cell migration. Ras signalling pathways are well known for their involvement in tumour initiation, but less is known about their contribution to invasion and metastasis. This review summarises the role and mechanisms of Ras signalling, especially the role of the Ras effector cascade Raf/MEK/ERK, as well as the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway in Ras-mediated transformation and tumour progression. In addition, it discusses the impact of Rho GTPases on Ras-mediated transformation and metastasis.
|Ras plasma membrane signalling platforms. |
Hancock, John F and Parton, Robert G
Biochem. J., 389: 1-11 (2005) 2005
The plasma membrane is a complex, dynamic structure that provides platforms for the assembly of many signal transduction pathways. These platforms have the capacity to impose an additional level of regulation on cell signalling networks. In this review, we will consider specifically how Ras proteins interact with the plasma membrane. The focus will be on recent studies that provide novel spatial and dynamic insights into the micro-environments that different Ras proteins utilize for signal transduction. We will correlate these recent studies suggesting Ras proteins might operate within a heterogeneous plasma membrane with earlier biochemical work on Ras signal transduction.
|GTP hydrolysis mechanism of Ras-like GTPases. |
Li, Guangpu and Zhang, Xuejun C
J. Mol. Biol., 340: 921-32 (2004) 2004
The Ras-like GTPases regulate diverse cellular functions via the chemical cycle of binding and hydrolyzing GTP molecules. They alternate between GTP- and GDP-bound conformations. The GTP-bound conformation is biologically active and promotes a cellular function, such as signal transduction, cytoskeleton organization, protein synthesis/translocation, or a membrane budding/fusion event. GTP hydrolysis turns off the GTPase switch by converting it to the inactive GDP-bound conformation. The fundamental GTP hydrolysis mechanism by these GTPases has generated considerable interest over the last two decades but remained to be firmly established. This review provides an update on the catalytic mechanism with discussions on recent developments from kinetic, structural, and model studies in the context of the various GTP hydrolysis models proposed over the years.
|Oncogenic Ras and its role in tumor cell invasion and metastasis. |
Campbell, Paul M and Der, Channing J
Semin. Cancer Biol., 14: 105-14 (2004) 2004
The processes by which cancer cells leave the tumor and enter adjacent tissue is known as invasion, whereas metastasis refers to secondary tumor colonization of tissue at a distance from the primary lesion. These two events are the most lethal of cancer phenomena and the signaling mechanisms that govern them are complex. The Ras signaling pathways are well represented in their involvement in tumor initiation, but considerably less is known about their contribution to invasion and metastasis. In this review, we discuss the current evidence for mutant Ras proteins as significant players in these aspects of cancer progression.
|Synergistic growth of stem cell factor and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor involves kinase-dependent and -independent contributions from c-Kit. |
Lennartsson, J; Shivakrupa, R; Linnekin, D
The Journal of biological chemistry 279 44544-53 2004
Stem cell factor (SCF) binds and activates the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit, and this interaction is critical for normal hematopoiesis. SCF also synergizes with a variety of growth factors, including those binding members of the cytokine receptor superfamily. The mechanisms mediating this synergy remain to be defined. The present study investigates both structural and biochemical cross-talk between c-Kit and the receptor for granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). We have found that c-Kit forms a complex with the beta-chain of the GM-CSF receptor, and this interaction involves the first part of the c-Kit kinase domain. Although inhibition of c-Kit kinase activity completely blocked SCF-induced proliferation, there was still greater than additive growth induced by SCF in combination with GM-CSF. In contrast, an inhibitory antibody against the extracellular domain of c-Kit (K-27) completely inhibited growth in response to SCF alone or in combination with GM-CSF. These results support a kinase-independent component of the synergistic growth induced by SCF and GM-CSF that may relate to interaction of these receptors. It is also clear that a significant part of the synergistic growth is dependent of c-Kit kinase activity. Although synergistic increases in phosphorylation of c-Kit and the beta-chain of the GM-CSF receptor were not observed, SCF and GM-CSF in combination prolonged the duration of Erk1/2 phosphorylation in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent manner. Consistent with these findings, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is synergistically activated by SCF and GM-CSF together. Hence, c-Kit makes both kinase-independent and -dependent contributions to the proliferative synergy induced by SCF in combination with GM-CSF.
|Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) stimulates growth and IGF-I secretion in human intestinal smooth muscle by Ras-dependent activation of p38 MAP kinase and Erk1/2 pathways |
Kuemmerle, J. F. and Zhou, H.
J Biol Chem, 277:20563-71 (2002) 2002
|Adhesion-related kinase repression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone gene expression requires Rac activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway |
Allen, M. P., et al
J Biol Chem, 277:38133-40 (2002) 2002
|The RasGAP N-terminal fragment generated by caspase cleavage protects cells in a Ras/PI3K/Akt-dependent manner that does not rely on NFkappa B activation. |
Yang, JY; Widmann, C
The Journal of biological chemistry 277 14641-6 2002
RasGAP, a regulator of Ras GTPase family members, is cleaved at low levels of caspase activity into an N-terminal fragment (fragment N) that generates potent anti-apoptotic signals. At higher levels of caspase activity, fragment N is further cleaved into two fragments that strongly potentiate apoptosis. RasGAP could thus function as a sensor of caspase activity to determine whether a cell should survive or not. Here we show that fragment N protects cells by activating the Ras-PI3K-Akt pathway. Surprisingly, even though nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) can be activated by Akt, it plays no role in the anti-apoptotic functions of fragment N. This indicates that Akt effectors are differentially regulated when fragment N is generated.
|Methods for Analysis of Matrix Metalloproteinase Regulation of Neutrophil-Endothelial Cell Adhesion. |
Fernandez-Patron, C; Zouki, C; Whittal, RM; Chan, JS; Davidge, ST; Filep J,
Biological procedures online 4 38-48 2002
Recent evidence indicates novel role for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), in particular gelatinase A (MMP-2), in the regulation of vascular biology that are unrelated to their well-known proteolytic breakdown of matrix proteins. We have previously reported that MMP-2 can modulate vascular reactivity by cleavage of the Gly32-Leu33 bound in big endothelin-1 (ET-1) yielding a novel vasoactive peptide ET-1[1-32]. These studies were conducted to investigate whether gelatinolytic MMPs could affect neutrophil-endothelial cell attachment. ET-1[1-32] produced by MMP-2 up-regulated CD11b/CD18 expression on human neutrophils, thereby promoted their adhesion to cultured endothelial cells. ET-1[1-32] evoked release of gelatinase B (MMP-9), which in turn cleaved big ET-1 to yield ET-1[1-32], thus revealing a self-amplifying loop for ET-1[1-32] generation. ET-1[1-32] was rather resistant to cleavage by neutrophil proteases and further metabolism of ET-1[1-32] was not a prerequisite for its biological actions on neutrophils. The neutrophil responses to ET-1[1-32] were mediated via activation of ET(A)receptors through activation of the Ras/Raf-1/MEK/ERK signaling pathway. These results suggest a novel role for gelatinase A and B in the regulation of neutrophil functions and their interactions with endothelial cells. Here we describe the methods in detail as they relate to our previously published work.
|Paclitaxel induces prolonged activation of the Ras/MEK/ERK pathway independently of activating the programmed cell death machinery. |
Okano J, and Rustgi, A K
J. Biol. Chem., 276: 19555-64 (2001) 2001
Paclitaxel is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent and is known to induce programmed cell death (apoptosis) in a variety of cell types, but the precise underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. To elucidate these mechanisms, we challenged human esophageal squamous cancer cell lines with paclitaxel and investigated its effects upon signal transduction pathways. Physiologically relevant concentrations of paclitaxel (1-1,000 nm) induced apoptosis. All three mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 MAPK, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were activated upon paclitaxel treatment. Interestingly, JNK activation and p38 MAPK activation were delayed and peaked at 48 h, whereas ERK activity was sustained over 72 h. In addition, Ras activation and MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) phosphorylation were observed in concordance with ERK activation. While ERK activation was completely ablated by MEK inhibitors, immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis revealed that neither MEK-1 nor MEK-2 was involved, but instead another member of the MEK family may potentially participate. Although pretreatment with a general caspase inhibitor, benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone rescued the cell death, it did not prevent Ras or ERK activation. Furthermore, inhibition of JNK, p38 MAPK, or MEK did not alter PARP cleavage and the cell death induced by paclitaxel. These results in aggregate suggest that the delayed activation of JNK, p38 MAPK, and ERK was not linked to activation of the cell death machinery.
|Pheochromocytoma cell lines from heterozygous neurofibromatosis knockout mice. |
J F Powers, M J Evinger, P Tsokas, S Bedri, J Alroy, M Shahsavari, A S Tischler
Cell and tissue research 302 309-20 2000
Transplantable tumors and cell lines have been developed from pheochromocytomas arising in mice with a heterozygous knockout mutation of the neurofibromatosis gene, Nf1. Nf1 encodes a ras-GTPase-activating protein, neurofibromin, and mouse pheochromocytoma (MPC) cells in primary cultures typically show extensive spontaneous neuronal differentiation that may result from the loss of the remaining wild-type allele and defective regulation of ras signaling. However, all MPC cell lines express neurofibromin, suggesting that preservation of the wild-type allele may be required to permit the propagation of MPC cells in vitro. MPC lines differ from PC12 cells in that they express both endogenous phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) and full-length PNMT reporter constructs. PNMT expression is increased by dexamethasone and by cell-cell contact in suspension cultures. Mouse pheochromocytomas are a new tool for studying genes and signaling pathways that regulate cell growth and differentiation in adrenal medullary neoplasms and are a unique model for studying the regulation of PNMT expression.
|Production and characterization of anti-RAS p21 monoclonal antibodies. |
Hamer, P J, et al.
Hybridoma, 9: 573-87 (1990) 1990
Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) Ras 10 and Ras 11 were raised to an activated human Harvey-ras p21 and shown to react with recombinant p21 as well as p21 derived from human and rodent cells. Characterization studies by ELISA, immunoprecipitation and Western blot procedures demonstrated that MAb Ras 10 (IgG2a) and Ras 11 (IgG2b) react with normal p21, activated p21, and p21 from each of the Harvey, Kirsten and N-ras families. Studies illustrated that MAb Ras 10 and Ras 11 can also be used in flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry to specifically detect cellular p21. ELISA, immunoprecipitation and Western blot studies comparing rat anti-p21 MAb Y13-259 with Ras 10 and Ras 11 demonstrated that Ras 10 and Ras 11 had a greater sensitivity for ras protein detection than Y13-259. Collectively, these studies illustrate that MAb Ras 10 and Ras 11 can be applied to a variety of assay formats to detect ras proteins and, therefore, may be valuable tools in detecting and measuring of ras protein expression in normal, neoplastic and pre-neoplastic cells.