Tabla espec. clave
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|B, Ch, Qu, R||IHC, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 6 months at 2-8ºC in undiluted aliquots from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||40 µg|
Ficha datos de seguridad (MSDS)
Referencias bibliográficas | 43 Disponible | Ver todas las referencias
|Visión general referencias||Aplicación||Especie||Pub Med ID|
|A role for nonapeptides and dopamine in nest-building behaviour. |
Hall, ZJ; Healy, SD; Meddle, SL
Journal of neuroendocrinology 27 158-65 2015
During nest building in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), several regions in the social behaviour network and the dopaminergic reward system, which are two neural circuits involved in social behaviour, appear to be active in male and female nest-building finches. Because the nonapeptides, mesotocin and vasotocin and the neurotransmitter, dopamine, play important roles in avian social behaviour, we tested the hypothesis that mesotocinergic-vasotocinergic and dopaminergic neuronal populations in the social behaviour network and dopaminergic reward system, respectively, are active during nest building. We combined immunohistochemistry for Fos (an indirect marker of neuronal activity) and vasotocin, mesotocin or tyrosine hydroxylase on brain tissue from nest-building and non-nest-building male and female zebra finches and compared Fos immunoreactivity in these neuronal populations with the variation in nest-building behaviour. Fos immunoreactivity in all three types of neuronal populations increased with some aspect of nest building: (i) higher immunoreactivity in a mesotocinergic neuronal population of nest-building finches compared to controls; (ii) increased immunoreactivity in the vasotocinergic neuronal populations in relation to the amount of material picked up by nest-building males and the length of time that a male spent in the nest with his mate; and (iii) increased immunoreactivity in a dopaminergic neuronal population in relation to the length of time that a male nest-building finch spent in the nest with his mate. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for a role of the mesotocinergic-vasotocinergic and dopaminergic systems in avian nest building.
|Chronic nicotine activates stress/reward-related brain regions and facilitates the transition to compulsive alcohol drinking. |
Leão, RM; Cruz, FC; Vendruscolo, LF; de Guglielmo, G; Logrip, ML; Planeta, CS; Hope, BT; Koob, GF; George, O
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 35 6241-53 2015
Alcohol and nicotine are the two most co-abused drugs in the world. Previous studies have shown that nicotine can increase alcohol drinking in nondependent rats, yet it is unknown whether nicotine facilitates the transition to alcohol dependence. We tested the hypothesis that chronic nicotine will speed up the escalation of alcohol drinking in rats and that this effect will be accompanied by activation of sparsely distributed neurons (neuronal ensembles) throughout the brain that are specifically recruited by the combination of nicotine and alcohol. Rats were trained to respond for alcohol and made dependent using chronic, intermittent exposure to alcohol vapor, while receiving daily nicotine (0.8 mg/kg) injections. Identification of neuronal ensembles was performed after the last operant session, using immunohistochemistry. Nicotine produced an early escalation of alcohol drinking associated with compulsive alcohol drinking in dependent, but not in nondependent rats (air exposed), as measured by increased progressive-ratio responding and increased responding despite adverse consequences. The combination of nicotine and alcohol produced the recruitment of discrete and phenotype-specific neuronal ensembles (∼4-13% of total neuronal population) in the nucleus accumbens core, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, central nucleus of the amygdala, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, and posterior ventral tegmental area. Blockade of nicotinic receptors using mecamylamine (1 mg/kg) prevented both the behavioral and neuronal effects of nicotine in dependent rats. These results demonstrate that nicotine and activation of nicotinic receptors are critical factors in the development of alcohol dependence through the dysregulation of a set of interconnected neuronal ensembles throughout the brain.
|Patterns of Brain Activation and Meal Reduction Induced by Abdominal Surgery in Mice and Modulation by Rikkunshito. |
Wang, L; Mogami, S; Yakabi, S; Karasawa, H; Yamada, C; Yakabi, K; Hattori, T; Taché, Y
PloS one 10 e0139325 2015
Abdominal surgery inhibits food intake and induces c-Fos expression in the hypothalamic and medullary nuclei in rats. Rikkunshito (RKT), a Kampo medicine improves anorexia. We assessed the alterations in meal microstructure and c-Fos expression in brain nuclei induced by abdominal surgery and the modulation by RKT in mice. RKT or vehicle was gavaged daily for 1 week. On day 8 mice had no access to food for 6-7 h and were treated twice with RKT or vehicle. Abdominal surgery (laparotomy-cecum palpation) was performed 1-2 h before the dark phase. The food intake and meal structures were monitored using an automated monitoring system for mice. Brain sections were processed for c-Fos immunoreactivity (ir) 2-h after abdominal surgery. Abdominal surgery significantly reduced bouts, meal frequency, size and duration, and time spent on meals, and increased inter-meal interval and satiety ratio resulting in 92-86% suppression of food intake at 2-24 h post-surgery compared with control group (no surgery). RKT significantly increased bouts, meal duration and the cumulative 12-h food intake by 11%. Abdominal surgery increased c-Fos in the prelimbic, cingulate and insular cortexes, and autonomic nuclei, such as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, central amygdala, hypothalamic supraoptic (SON), paraventricular and arcuate nuclei, Edinger-Westphal nucleus (E-W), lateral periaqueduct gray (PAG), lateral parabrachial nucleus, locus coeruleus, ventrolateral medulla and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). RKT induced a small increase in c-Fos-ir neurons in the SON and E-W of control mice, and in mice with surgery there was an increase in the lateral PAG and a decrease in the NTS. These findings indicate that abdominal surgery inhibits food intake by increasing both satiation (meal duration) and satiety (meal interval) and activates brain circuits involved in pain, feeding behavior and stress that may underlie the alterations of meal pattern and food intake inhibition. RKT improves food consumption post-surgically that may involve modulation of pain pathway.
|Ultrastructural localization of tyrosine hydroxylase in tree shrew nucleus accumbens core and shell. |
McCollum, LA; Roberts, RC
Neuroscience 271 23-34 2014
Many behavioral, physiological, and anatomical studies utilize animal models to investigate human striatal pathologies. Although commonly used, rodent striatum may not present the optimal animal model for certain studies due to a lesser morphological complexity than that of non-human primates, which are increasingly restricted in research. As an alternative, the tree shrew could provide a beneficial animal model for studies of the striatum. The gross morphology of the tree shrew striatum resembles that of primates, with separation of the caudate and putamen by the internal capsule. The neurochemical anatomy of the ventral striatum, specifically the nucleus accumbens, has never been examined. This major region of the limbic system plays a role in normal physiological functioning and is also an area of interest for human striatal disorders. The current study uses immunohistochemistry of calbindin and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) to determine the ultrastructural organization of the nucleus accumbens core and shell of the tree shrew (Tupaia glis belangeri). Stereology was used to quantify the ultrastructural localization of TH, which displays weaker immunoreactivity in the core and denser immunoreactivity in the shell. In both regions, synapses with TH-immunoreactive axon terminals were primarily symmetric and showed no preference for targeting dendrites versus dendritic spines. The results were compared to previous ultrastructural studies of TH and dopamine in rat and monkey nucleus accumbens. Tree shrews and monkeys show no preference for the postsynaptic target in the shell, in contrast to rats which show a preference for synapsing with dendrites. Tree shrews have a ratio of asymmetric to symmetric synapses formed by TH-immunoreactive terminals that is intermediate between rats and monkeys. The findings from this study support the tree shrew as an alternative model for studies of human striatal pathologies.
|A population of glomerular glutamatergic neurons controls sensory information transfer in the mouse olfactory bulb. |
Tatti, R; Bhaukaurally, K; Gschwend, O; Seal, RP; Edwards, RH; Rodriguez, I; Carleton, A
Nature communications 5 3791 2014
In sensory systems, peripheral organs convey sensory inputs to relay networks where information is shaped by local microcircuits before being transmitted to cortical areas. In the olfactory system, odorants evoke specific patterns of sensory neuron activity that are transmitted to output neurons in olfactory bulb (OB) glomeruli. How sensory information is transferred and shaped at this level remains still unclear. Here we employ mouse genetics, 2-photon microscopy, electrophysiology and optogenetics, to identify a novel population of glutamatergic neurons (VGLUT3+) in the glomerular layer of the adult mouse OB as well as several of their synaptic targets. Both peripheral and serotoninergic inputs control VGLUT3+ neurons firing. Furthermore, we show that VGLUT3+ neuron photostimulation in vivo strongly suppresses both spontaneous and odour-evoked firing of bulbar output neurons. In conclusion, we identify and characterize here a microcircuit controlling the transfer of sensory information at an early stage of the olfactory pathway.
|Development of attenuated baroreflexes in obese Zucker rats coincides with impaired activation of nucleus tractus solitarius. |
Guimaraes, PS; Huber, DA; Campagnole-Santos, MJ; Schreihofer, AM
American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology 306 R681-92 2014
Adult obese Zucker rats (OZR; greater than 12 wk) develop elevated sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) with impaired baroreflexes compared with adult lean Zucker rats (LZR) and juvenile OZR (6-7 wk). In adult OZR, baroreceptor afferent nerves respond normally to changes in MAP, whereas electrical stimulation of baroreceptor afferent fibers produces smaller reductions in SNA and MAP compared with LZR. We hypothesized that impaired baroreflexes in OZR are linked to reduced activation of brain stem sites that mediate baroreflexes. In conscious adult rats, a hydralazine (HDZ)-induced reduction in MAP evoked tachycardia that was initially blunted in OZR, but equivalent to LZR within 5 min. In agreement, HDZ-induced expression of c-Fos in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) was comparable between groups. In contrast, phenylephrine (PE)-induced rise in MAP evoked markedly attenuated bradycardia with dramatically reduced c-Fos expression in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) of adult OZR compared with LZR. However, in juvenile rats, PE-induced hypertension evoked comparable bradycardia in OZR and LZR with similar or augmented c-Fos expression in NTS of the OZR. In urethane-anesthetized rats, microinjections of glutamate into NTS evoked equivalent decreases in SNA, heart rate (HR), and MAP in juvenile OZR and LZR, but attenuated decreases in SNA and MAP in adult OZR. In contrast, microinjections of glutamate into the caudal ventrolateral medulla, a target of barosensitive NTS neurons, evoked comparable decreases in SNA, HR, and MAP in adult OZR and LZR. These data suggest that OZR develop impaired glutamatergic activation of the NTS, which likely contributes to attenuated baroreflexes in adult OZR.
|Dopamine pathology in schizophrenia: analysis of total and phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase in the substantia nigra. |
Perez-Costas, E; Melendez-Ferro, M; Rice, MW; Conley, RR; Roberts, RC
Frontiers in psychiatry 3 31 2012
Despite the importance of dopamine neurotransmission in schizophrenia, very few studies have addressed anomalies in the mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA). Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme for the production of dopamine, and a possible contributor to the anomalies in the dopaminergic neurotransmission observed in schizophrenia.In this study, we had three objectives: (1) Compare TH expression (mRNA and protein) in the SN/VTA of schizophrenia and control postmortem samples. (2) Assess the effect of antipsychotic medications on the expression of TH in the SN/VTA. (3) Examine possible regional differences in TH expression anomalies within the SN/VTA.To achieve these objectives three independent studies were conducted: (1) A pilot study to compare TH mRNA and TH protein levels in the SN/VTA of postmortem samples from schizophrenia and controls. (2) A chronic treatment study was performed in rodents to assess the effect of antipsychotic medications in TH protein levels in the SN/VTA. (3) A second postmortem study was performed to assess TH and phosphorylated TH protein levels in two types of samples: schizophrenia and control samples containing the entire rostro-caudal extent of the SN/VTA, and schizophrenia and control samples containing only mid-caudal regions of the SN/VTA.Our studies showed impairment in the dopaminergic system in schizophrenia that could be mainly (or exclusively) located in the rostral region of the SN/VTA. Our studies also showed that TH protein levels were significantly abnormal in schizophrenia, while mRNA expression levels were not affected, indicating that TH pathology in this region may occur posttranscriptionally. Lastly, our antipsychotic animal treatment study showed that TH protein levels were not significantly affected by antipsychotic treatment, indicating that these anomalies are an intrinsic pathology rather than a treatment effect.
|Mapping of reinforcing and analgesic effects of the mu opioid agonist Endomorphin-1 in the ventral midbrain of the rat. |
Thomas C Jhou,Sheng-Ping Xu,Mary R Lee,Courtney L Gallen,Satoshi Ikemoto
Psychopharmacology 224 2012
Agonists at the mu opioid receptor (MOR) are widely recognized for their effects on reward and pain. Although prior studies have attributed some of these effects to MORs on GABA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), recent studies have identified a region of particularly strong MOR immunostaining residing caudal to the VTA, in a region denoted the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg).
|Stress stimulates production of catecholamines in rat adipocytes. |
R Kvetnansky,J Ukropec,M Laukova,B Manz,K Pacak,P Vargovic
Cellular and molecular neurobiology 32 2012
The sympathoadrenal system is the main source of catecholamines (CAs) in adipose tissues and therefore plays the key role in the regulation of adipose tissue metabolism. We recently reported existence of an alternative CA-producing system directly in adipose tissue cells, and here we investigated effect of various stressors-physical (cold) and emotional stress (immobilization) on dynamics of this system. Acute or chronic cold exposure increased intracellular norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI) concentration in isolated rat mesenteric adipocytes. Gene expression of CA biosynthetic enzymes did not change in adipocytes but was increased in stromal vascular fraction (SVF) after 28 day cold. Exposure of rats to a single IMO stress caused increases in NE and EPI levels, and also gene expression of CA biosynthetic enzymes in adipocytes. In SVF changes were similar but more pronounced. Animals adapted to a long-term cold exposure (28 days, 4°C) did not show those responses found after a single IMO stress either in adipocytes or SVF. Our data indicate that gene machinery accommodated in adipocytes, which is able to synthesize NE and EPI de novo, is significantly activated by stress. Cold-adapted animals keep their adaptation even after an exposure to a novel stressor. These findings suggest the functionality of CAs produced endogenously in adipocytes. Taken together, the newly discovered CA synthesizing system in adipocytes is activated in stress situations and might significantly contribute to regulation of lipolysis and other metabolic or thermogenetic processes.
|Disease-specific phenotypes in dopamine neurons from human iPS-based models of genetic and sporadic Parkinson's disease. |
Sánchez-Danés, A; Richaud-Patin, Y; Carballo-Carbajal, I; Jiménez-Delgado, S; Caig, C; Mora, S; Di Guglielmo, C; Ezquerra, M; Patel, B; Giralt, A; Canals, JM; Memo, M; Alberch, J; López-Barneo, J; Vila, M; Cuervo, AM; Tolosa, E; Consiglio, A; Raya, A
EMBO molecular medicine 4 380-95 2012
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) offer an unprecedented opportunity to model human disease in relevant cell types, but it is unclear whether they could successfully model age-related diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we generated iPSC lines from seven patients with idiopathic PD (ID-PD), four patients with familial PD associated to the G2019S mutation in the Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene (LRRK2-PD) and four age- and sex-matched healthy individuals (Ctrl). Over long-time culture, dopaminergic neurons (DAn) differentiated from either ID-PD- or LRRK2-PD-iPSC showed morphological alterations, including reduced numbers of neurites and neurite arborization, as well as accumulation of autophagic vacuoles, which were not evident in DAn differentiated from Ctrl-iPSC. Further induction of autophagy and/or inhibition of lysosomal proteolysis greatly exacerbated the DAn morphological alterations, indicating autophagic compromise in DAn from ID-PD- and LRRK2-PD-iPSC, which we demonstrate occurs at the level of autophagosome clearance. Our study provides an iPSC-based in vitro model that captures the patients' genetic complexity and allows investigation of the pathogenesis of both sporadic and familial PD cases in a disease-relevant cell type.
|Reelin demarcates a subset of pre-Bötzinger complex neurons in adult rat. |
Tan, W; Sherman, D; Turesson, J; Shao, XM; Janczewski, WA; Feldman, JL
The Journal of comparative neurology 520 606-19 2012
Identification of two markers of neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC), the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) and somatostatin (Sst) peptide, has been of great utility in understanding the essential role of the pre-BötC in breathing. Recently, the transcription factor dbx1 was identified as a critical, but transient, determinant of glutamatergic pre-BötC neurons. Here, to identify additional markers, we constructed and screened a single-cell subtractive cDNA library from pre-BötC inspiratory neurons. We identified the glycoprotein reelin as a potentially useful marker, because it is expressed in distinct populations of pre-BötC and inspiratory bulbospinal ventral respiratory group (ibsVRG) neurons. Reelin ibsVRG neurons were larger (27.1 ± 3.8 μm in diameter) and located more caudally (greater than 12.8 mm caudal to Bregma) than reelin pre-BötC neurons (15.5 ± 2.4 μm in diameter, less than 12.8 mm rostral to Bregma). Pre-BötC reelin neurons coexpress NK1R and Sst. Reelin neurons were also found in the parahypoglossal and dorsal parafacial regions, pontine respiratory group, and ventromedial medulla. Reelin-deficient (Reeler) mice exhibited impaired respones to hypoxia compared with littermate controls. We suggest that reelin is a useful molecular marker for pre-BötC neurons in adult rodents and may play a functional role in pre-BötC microcircuits.
|Dual use of immunohistochemistry for film densitometry and light microscopy. |
Melendez-Ferro, M; Rice, MW; Roberts, RC; Perez-Costas, E
Journal of neuroscience methods 208 86-91 2012
In the present study, we applied the principles of immunoblotting and light microscopy immunohistochemistry to develop a combined methodology that allows obtaining optical density data in films, as well as morphological and protein distribution data on slides using the same brain tissue section, thus maximizing the data obtained from a single sample. This is especially important when experiments are performed using very valuable or unique tissue samples, which is a very common case in the study of the human brain. The ideal methodology should combine the possibility of measuring levels of expression of a marker, and the capability to map accurately the distribution of that marker in the region of interest. To achieve this, two things are required: first, the technique needs to be sensitive enough to obtain optical density or intensity measurements of the marker, and second, a good preservation of the tissue is needed for the study of distribution patterns and morphological analysis. Here we show that our combined methodology produced reliable results for different tissue preservation conditions (fresh-frozen and fixed tissue), in different species (rat and human), in different brain areas (substantia nigra and striatum), and for the detection of different markers (tyrosine hydroxylase and μ-opioid receptor). This methodology also combines the accuracy of optical density data acquisition in film with obtaining histological slides from the same sample. In summary, the methodology proposed here is very versatile and does not require the use of specialized equipment, other than the routine equipment present in an anatomy laboratory.
|Differential distribution patterns from medial prefrontal cortex and dorsal raphe to the locus coeruleus in rats. |
Lu, Y; Simpson, KL; Weaver, KJ; Lin, RC
Anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007) 295 1192-201 2012
Locus coeruleus (LC) consists of a densely packed nuclear core and a surrounding plexus of dendritic zone, which is further divided into several subregions. Whereas many limbic-related structures topographically target specific subregions of the LC, the precise projections from two limbic areas, that is, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and dorsal raphe (DR), have not been investigated. The goal of the present study is to identify and compare the distribution patterns of mPFC and DR afferent terminals to the LC nuclear core as opposed to specific pericoerulear dendritic regions (Peri-LC). To address these issues, anterograde tracer injections were combined with dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH) immunofluorescent staining to reveal the distribution patterns around the LC nuclear complex. Our data suggest that both mPFC-LC and DR-LC projections exhibit selective afferent terminal patterns. More specifically, mPFC-LC projecting fibers mainly target the rostromedial Peri-LC, whereas DR-LC projecting fibers demonstrate a preference to the caudal juxtaependymal Peri-LC. Thus, our present findings provide further evidences that afferents to the LC are topographically organized. Understanding the relationship among different inputs to the LC may help to elucidate the organizing principle which likely governs the interactions between the broad afferent sources of the LC and its global efferent targets.
|Ozone inhalation activates stress-responsive regions of the CNS. |
Gackière F, Saliba L, Baude A, Bosler O, Strube C.
Journal of neurochemistry 117 961-72 2011
J. Neurochem. (2011) 117, 961-972. ABSTRACT: Ozone (O(3) ), a major component of air pollution, has considerable impact on public health. Besides the well-described respiratory tract inflammation and dysfunctions, there is accumulating evidence indicating that O(3) exposure affects brain functions. However, the mechanisms through which O(3) exerts toxic effects on the brain remain poorly understood. This work aimed at precisely characterizing CNS neuronal activation after O(3) inhalation using Fos staining in adult rat. We showed that, together with lung inflammation, O(3) exposure caused a sustained time- and dose-dependent neuronal activation in the dorsolateral regions of the nucleus tractus solitarius overlapping terminal fields of lung afferents running in vagus nerves. Furthermore, we highlighted neuronal activation in interconnected central structures such as the caudal ventrolateral medulla, the parabrachial nucleus, the central nucleus of the amygdala, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus. In contrast, we did not detect any neuronal activation in the thoracic spinal cord where lung afferents running in spinal nerves terminate. Overall, our results demonstrate that O(3) challenge evokes a lung inflammation that induces the activation of nucleus tractus solitarius neurons through the vagus nerves and promotes neuronal activation in stress-responsive regions of the CNS.
|The impact of maternal separation on the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-expressing midbrain neurons during different stages of ontogenesis. |
A Chocyk,A Przyborowska,D Dudys,I Majcher,M Ma?kowiak,K W?dzony
Neuroscience 182 2011
Early life stressors have life-long functional and anatomical consequences. Though many neurotransmitters are involved in the functional impact of early life stress, dopamine seems to be important because of its roles in motor control, adaptation to stressful conditions, mood, cognition, attention and reward. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the way that early life stress, in the form of maternal separation (MS), affects the populations of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-IR) dopaminergic neurons in rat midbrain structures during ontogenesis. We included in the study the sub-regions of the substantia nigra (SN) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA). In both the control and MS rats, we found that the estimated total number of TH-expressing neurons fluctuated during ontogenesis. Moreover, MS influenced the number of TH-IR cells, especially in the SN pars reticulata (SNr) and VTA. Shortly after the termination of MS, on postnatal day (PND) 15, a decrease in the estimated total number of TH-IR neurons was observed in the SNr and VTA (in both males and females). On PND 35, MS caused a transient increase in the number of TH-IR cells only in the SNr of female rats. On PND 70, MS affected the number of TH-IR neurons in the VTA of females; specifically, an increase in the number of these cells was observed. Additionally, MS did not alter TH-IR cell sizes or the total levels of TH (measured by Western blot analysis) in the SN and VTA for all stages of ontogenesis in both males and females. The results from the study herein indicate that early life stress has enduring effects on the populations of midbrain TH-expressing dopaminergic neurons (especially in female rats), which are critically important for dopamine-regulated brain function throughout ontogenesis.
|Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents are dispensable for olfaction. |
Billig GM, Pál B, Fidzinski P, Jentsch TJ
Nature neuroscience 2011
Canonical olfactory signal transduction involves the activation of cyclic AMP-activated cation channels that depolarize the cilia of receptor neurons and raise intracellular calcium. Calcium then activates Cl(-) currents that may be up to tenfold larger than cation currents and are believed to powerfully amplify the response. We identified Anoctamin2 (Ano2, also known as TMEM16B) as the ciliary Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel of olfactory receptor neurons. Ano2 is expressed in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and in the vomeronasal organ (VNO), which also expresses the related Ano1 channel. Disruption of Ano2 in mice virtually abolished Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents in the MOE and VNO. Ano2 disruption reduced fluid-phase electro-olfactogram responses by only ∼40%, did not change air-phase electro-olfactograms and did not reduce performance in olfactory behavioral tasks. In contrast with the current view, cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channels do not need a boost by Cl(-) channels to achieve near-physiological levels of olfaction.
|Confocal immunofluorescence study of rat aortic body chemoreceptors and associated neurons in situ and in vitro. |
Nikol A Piskuric,Cathy Vollmer,Colin A Nurse
The Journal of comparative neurology 519 2011
Aortic bodies (ABs) are putative peripheral arterial chemoreceptors, distributed near the aortic arch. Though presumed to be analogous to the well-studied carotid bodies (CBs), their anatomical organization, innervation, and function are poorly understood. By using multilabel confocal immunofluorescence, we investigated the cellular organization, innervation, and neurochemistry of ABs in whole mounts of juvenile rat vagus and recurrent laryngeal (V-RL) nerves and in dissociated cell culture. Clusters of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-IR) glomus cells were routinely identified within these nerves. Unlike the CB, many neuronal cell bodies and processes, identified by peripherin (PR) and neurofilament/growth-associated protein (NF70/GAP-43) immunoreactivity, were closely associated with AB glomus clusters, especially near the V-RL bifurcation. Some neuronal cell bodies were immunopositive for P2X2 and P2X3 purinoceptor subunits, which were also found in nerve terminals surrounding glomus cells. Immunoreactivity against the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) was detected in local neurons, glomus cells, and apposed nerve terminals. Few neurons were immunopositive for TH or neuronal nitric oxide synthase. A similar pattern of purinoceptor immunoreactivity was observed in tissue sections of adult rat V-RL nerves, except that glomus cells were weakly P2X3-IR. Dissociated monolayer cultures of juvenile rat V-RL nerves yielded TH-IR glomus clusters in intimate association with PR- or NF70/GAP-43-IR neurons and their processes, and glial fibrillary acidic protein-IR type II (sustentacular) cells. Cocultures survived for several days, wherein neurons expressed voltage-activated ionic currents and generated action potentials. Thus, this coculture model is attractive for investigating the role of glomus cells and local neurons in AB function.
|Direct projections from the caudal vestibular nuclei to the ventrolateral medulla in the rat. |
G R Holstein,V L Friedrich,T Kang,E Kukielka,G P Martinelli
Neuroscience 175 2011
While the basic pathways mediating vestibulo-ocular, -spinal, and -collic reflexes have been described in detail, little is known about vestibular projections to central autonomic sites. Previous studies have primarily focused on projections from the caudal vestibular region to solitary, vagal and parabrachial nuclei, but have noted a sparse innervation of the ventrolateral medulla. Since a direct pathway from the vestibular nuclei to the rostral ventrolateral medulla would provide a morphological substrate for rapid modifications in blood pressure, heart rate and respiration with changes in posture and locomotion, the present study examined anatomical evidence for this pathway using anterograde and retrograde tract tracing and immunofluorescence detection in brainstem sections of the rat medulla. The results provide anatomical evidence for direct pathways from the caudal vestibular nuclear complex to the rostral and caudal ventrolateral medullary regions. The projections are conveyed by fine and highly varicose axons that ramify bilaterally, with greater terminal densities present ipsilateral to the injection site and more rostrally in the ventrolateral medulla. In the rostral ventrolateral medulla, these processes are highly branched and extremely varicose, primarily directed toward the somata and proximal dendrites of non-catecholaminergic neurons, with minor projections to the distal dendrites of catecholaminergic cells. In the caudal ventrolateral medulla, the axons of vestibular nucleus neurons are more modestly branched with fewer varicosities, and their endings are contiguous with both the perikarya and dendrites of catecholamine-containing neurons. These data suggest that vestibular neurons preferentially target the rostral ventrolateral medulla, and can thereby provide a morphological basis for a short latency vestibulo-sympathetic pathway.
|Expression and functional properties of TRPM2 channels in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra of the rat. |
Chung, KK; Freestone, PS; Lipski, J
Journal of neurophysiology 106 2865-75 2011
Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) channels are sensitive to oxidative stress, and their activation can lead to cell death. Although these channels have been extensively studied in expression systems, their role in the brain, particularly in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), remains unknown. In this study, we assessed the expression and functional properties of TRPM2 channels in rat dopaminergic SNc neurons, using acute brain slices. RT-PCR analysis revealed TRPM2 mRNA expression in the SNc region. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated expression of TRPM2 protein in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons. Channel function was tested with whole cell patch-clamp recordings and calcium (fura-2) imaging. Intracellular application of ADP-ribose (50-400 μM) evoked a dose-dependent, desensitizing inward current and intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) rise. These responses were strongly inhibited by the nonselective TRPM2 channel blockers clotrimazole and flufenamic acid. Exogenous application of H(2)O(2) (1-5 mM) evoked a rise in [Ca(2+)](i) and an outward current mainly due to activation of ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels. Inhibition of K(+) conductance with Cs(+) and tetraethylammonium unmasked an inward current. The inward current and/or [Ca(2+)](i) rise were partially blocked by clotrimazole and N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid (ACA). The H(2)O(2)-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise was abolished in "zero" extracellular Ca(2+) concentration and was enhanced at higher baseline [Ca(2+)](i), consistent with activation of TRPM2 channels in the cell membrane. These results provide evidence for the functional expression of TRPM2 channels in dopaminergic SNc neurons. Given the involvement of oxidative stress in degeneration of SNc neurons in Parkinson's disease, further studies are needed to determine the pathophysiological role of these channels in the disease process.
|Inter-hemispheric asymmetry of nigrostriatal dopaminergic lesion: a possible compensatory mechanism in Parkinson's disease. |
Blesa, J; Juri, C; García-Cabezas, MÁ; Adánez, R; Sánchez-González, MÁ; Cavada, C; Obeso, JA
Frontiers in systems neuroscience 5 92 2011
The onset of Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by focal motor features in one body part, which are usually correlated with greater dopaminergic depletion in the contralateral posterior putamen. The role of dopamine (DA) hemispheric differences in the onset and progression of motor symptoms of PD, however, remains undefined. Previous studies have demonstrated that unilateral manipulations of one nigrostriatal system affect contralateral DA turnover, indicating a functional and compensatory inter-dependence of the two nigrostriatal systems. In preliminary data obtained by our group from asymmetric PD patients, a higher asymmetry index as measured by 6-[(18)F]fluoro-L-dopa ((18) F-DOPA) positron emission tomography (PET) was associated with a higher threshold (i.e., greater dopaminergic loss) for the onset of motor symptoms in the less-affected side. To further elucidate the underlying basis for this, we carried out a complementary study in monkeys using PET to assess and correlate the degree of dopaminergic striatal depletion with motor activity. Control and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-intoxicated monkeys with symmetrical lesions were characterized behaviorally and with (18)F-DOPA PET. In parallel, an acute lesion was inflicted in the nigrostriatal projection unilaterally in one monkey, generating a 30% dopaminergic depletion in the ipsilateral striatum, which was not associated with any noticeable parkinsonian feature or deficit. The monkey remained asymptomatic for several months. Subsequently, this monkey received systemic MPTP, following which motor behavior and PET were repeatedly evaluated during progression of parkinsonian signs. The brains of all monkeys were processed using immunohistochemical methods. Our results suggest that the onset of motor signs is related to and influenced by the dopaminergic status of the less-affected, contralateral striatum. Although this work is still preliminary, the study agrees with our general hypothesis of hemispheric inter-dependence in the compensation of striatal DA deficit in PD.
|Neurochemical characterization of the tree shrew dorsal striatum. |
Rice, MW; Roberts, RC; Melendez-Ferro, M; Perez-Costas, E
Frontiers in neuroanatomy 5 53 2011
The striatum is a major component of the basal ganglia and is associated with motor and cognitive functions. Striatal pathologies have been linked to several disorders, including Huntington's, Tourette's syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and schizophrenia. For the study of these striatal pathologies different animal models have been used, including rodents and non-human primates. Rodents lack on morphological complexity (for example, the lack of well defined caudate and putamen nuclei), which makes it difficult to translate data to the human paradigm. Primates, and especially higher primates, are the closest model to humans, but there are ever-increasing restrictions to the use of these animals for research. In our search for a non-primate animal model with a striatum that anatomically (and perhaps functionally) can resemble that of humans, we turned our attention to the tree shrew. Evolutionary genetic studies have provided strong data supporting that the tree shrews (Scadentia) are one of the closest groups to primates, although their brain anatomy has only been studied in detail for specific brain areas. Morphologically, the tree shrew striatum resembles the primate striatum with the presence of an internal capsule separating the caudate and putamen, but little is known about its neurochemical composition. Here we analyzed the expression of calcium-binding proteins, the presence and distribution of the striosome and matrix compartments (by the use of calbindin, tyrosine hydroxylase, and acetylcholinesterase immunohistochemistry), and the GABAergic system by immunohistochemistry against glutamic acid decarboxylase and Golgi impregnation. In summary, our results show that when compared to primates, the tree shrew dorsal striatum presents striking similarities in the distribution of most of the markers studied, while presenting some marked divergences when compared to the rodent striatum.
|Activation of neurons in the hypothalamic dorsomedial nucleus via hypothalamic projections of the nucleus of the solitary tract following refeeding of fasted rats. |
Renner E, Szabó-Meltzer KI, Puskás N, Tóth ZE, Dobolyi A, Palkovits M
Eur J Neurosci 31 302-14. Epub 2010 Jan 13. 2010
We report that satiation evokes neuronal activity in the ventral subdivision of the hypothalamic dorsomedial nucleus (DMH) as indicated by increased c-fos expression in response to refeeding in fasted rats. The absence of significant Fos activation following food presentation without consumption suggests that satiation but not craving for food elicits the activation of ventral DMH neurons. The distribution pattern of the prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP)-immunoreactive (ir) network showed remarkable correlations with the distribution of activated neurons within the DMH. The PrRP-ir fibers and terminals were immunolabeled with tyrosine hydroxylase, suggesting their origin in lower brainstem instead of local, hypothalamic PrRP cells. PrRP-ir fibers arising from neurons of the nucleus of the solitary tract could be followed to the hypothalamus. Unilateral transections of these fibers at pontine and caudal hypothalamic levels resulted in a disappearance of the dense PrRP-ir network in the ventral DMH while PrRP immunoreactivity was increased in transected fibers caudal to the knife cuts as well as in perikarya of the nucleus of the solitary tract ipsilateral to the transections. In accord with these changes, the number of Fos-expressing neurons following refeeding declined in the ipsilateral but remained high in the contralateral DMH. However, the Fos response in the ventral DMH was not attenuated following chemical lesion (neonatal monosodium glutamate treatment) of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, another possible source of DMH inputs. These findings suggest that PrRP projections from the nucleus of the solitary tract contribute to the activation of ventral DMH neurons during refeeding, possibly by transferring information on cholecystokinin-mediated satiation.
|Intermittent prenatal MDMA exposure alters physiological but not mood related parameters in adult rat offspring. |
Csaba Adori,Dóra Zelena,Júlia Tímár,Zsuzsa Gyarmati,Agnes Domokos,Melinda Sobor,Zsuzsanna Fürst,Gábor Makara,György Bagdy
Behavioural brain research 206 2010
The recreational party drug ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine MDMA) is particularly popular among young adults who are in the childbearing age and thus there is a substantial risk of prenatal MDMA exposure. We applied an intermittent treatment protocol with an early first injection on pregnant Wistar rats (15 mg/kg MDMA s.c. on the E4, E11 and E18 days of gestation) to examine the potential physiological, endocrine and behavioral effects on adult male and female offspring. Prenatal MDMA-treatment provoked reduced body weight of offspring from the birth as far as the adulthood. Adult MDMA-offspring had a reduced blood-glucose concentration and hematocrit, altered relative spleen and thymus weight, had lower performance on wire suspension test and on the first trial of rotarod test. In contrast, no alteration in the locomotor activity was found. Anxiety and depression related behavioral parameters in elevated plus maze, sucrose preference or forced swimming tests were normal. MDMA-offspring had elevated concentration of the ACTH-precursor proopiomelanocortin and male MDMA-offspring exhibited elevated blood corticosterone concentration. No significant alteration was detected in the serotonergic marker tryptophan-hydroxylase and the catcholaminergic marker tyrosine-hydroxylase immunoreactive fiber densities in MDMA-offspring. The mothers exhibited reduced densities of serotonergic but not catecholaminergic fibers after the MDMA treatment. Our findings suggest that an intermittent prenatal MDMA exposure with an early first injection and a relatively low cumulative dose provokes mild but significant alterations in physical-physiological parameters and reduces motor skill learning in adulthood. In contrast, these adult offspring do not produce anxiety or depression like behavior.
|Insulin reveals Akt signaling as a novel regulator of norepinephrine transporter trafficking and norepinephrine homeostasis. |
Robertson, SD; Matthies, HJ; Owens, WA; Sathananthan, V; Christianson, NS; Kennedy, JP; Lindsley, CW; Daws, LC; Galli, A
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 30 11305-16 2010
Noradrenergic signaling in the CNS plays an essential role in circuits involving attention, mood, memory, and stress as well as providing pivotal support for autonomic function in the peripheral nervous system. The high-affinity norepinephrine (NE) transporter (NET) is the primary mechanism by which noradrenergic synaptic transmission is terminated. Data indicate that NET function is regulated by insulin, a hormone critical for the regulation of metabolism. Given the high comorbidity of metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity with mental disorders such as depression and schizophrenia, we sought to determine how insulin signaling regulates NET function and thus noradrenergic homeostasis. Here, we show that acute insulin treatment, through the downstream kinase protein kinase B (Akt), significantly decreases NET surface expression in mouse hippocampal slices and superior cervical ganglion neuron boutons (sites of synaptic NE release). In vivo manipulation of insulin/Akt signaling, with streptozotocin, a drug that induces a type 1-like diabetic state in mice, also results in aberrant NET function and NE homeostasis. Notably, we also demonstrate that Akt inhibition or stimulation, independent of insulin, is capable of altering NET surface availability. These data suggest that aberrant states of Akt signaling such as in diabetes and obesity have the potential to alter NET function and noradrenergic tone in the brain. Furthermore, they provide one potential molecular mechanism by which Akt, a candidate gene for mood disorders such as schizophrenia and depression, can impact brain monoamine homeostasis.
|M-tropic HIV envelope protein gp120 exhibits a different neuropathological profile than T-tropic gp120 in rat striatum. |
Bachis, A; Cruz, MI; Mocchetti, I
The European journal of neuroscience 32 570-8 2010
Most early human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains are macrophage (M)-tropic HIV variants and use the chemokine receptor CCR5 for infection. Neuronal loss and dementia are less severe among individuals infected with M-tropic strains. However, after several years, the T-cell (T)-tropic HIV strain, which uses the CXCR4 variant, can emerge in conjunction with brain abnormalities, suggesting strain-specific differences in neuropathogenicity. The molecular and cellular mechanisms of such diversity remain under investigation. We have previously demonstrated that HIV envelope protein gp120IIIB, which binds to CXCR4, causes neuronal apoptosis in rodents. Thus, we have used a similar experimental model to examine the neurotoxic effects of M-tropic gp120BaL. gp120BaL was microinjected in the rat striatum and neuronal apoptosis was examined in the striatum, as well as in anatomically connected areas, such as the somatosensory cortex and the substantia nigra. gp120BaL promoted neuronal apoptosis and tissue loss that were confined to the striatum. Apoptosis was associated with microglial activation and increased levels of interleukin-1beta. Intriguingly, gp120BaL increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the striatum. Overall, our data show that gp120BaL demonstrates a different neuropathological profile than gp120IIIB. A better understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms mediating HIV neurotoxicity is vital for developing effective neuroprotective therapies against AIDS-associated dementia complex.Artículo Texto completo
|Trehalose ameliorates dopaminergic and tau pathology in parkin deleted/tau overexpressing mice through autophagy activation. |
Rodríguez-Navarro, Jose A, et al.
Neurobiol. Dis., 39: 423-38 (2010) 2010
Tauopathies are neurodegenerative diseases, sporadic or familial, mainly characterized by dementia and parkinsonism associated to atrophy of the frontotemporal cortex and the basal ganglia, with deposition of abnormal tau in brain. Hereditary tauopathies are related with mutations of the tau gene. Up to the present, these diseases have not been helped by any disease-modifying treatment, and patients die a few years after the onset of symptoms. We have developed and characterized a mouse model of tauopathy with parkinsonism, overexpressing human mutated tau protein with deletion of parkin (PK(-/-)/Tau(VLW)). At 3 months of age, these mice present abnormal dopamine-related behavior, severe dropout of dopamine neurons in the ventral midbrain, reduced dopamine levels in the striatum and abundant phosphorylated tau-positive neuritic plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, astrogliosis, and, at 12 months old, plaques of murine beta-amyloid in the hippocampus. Trehalose is a natural disaccharide that increases the removal of abnormal proteins through enhancement of autophagy. In this work, we tested if 1% trehalose in the drinking water reverts the PK(-/-)/Tau(VLW) phenotype. The treatment with trehalose of 3-month-old PK(-/-)/Tau(VLW) mice for 2.5 months reverted the dropout of dopamine neurons, which takes place in the ventral midbrain of vehicle treated PK(-/-)/Tau(VLW) and the reduced dopamine-related proteins levels in the midbrain and striatum. The number of phosphorylated tau-positive neuritic plaques and the levels of phosphorylated tau decreased, as well as astrogliosis in brain regions. The autophagy markers in the brain, the autophagic vacuoles isolated from the liver, and the electron microscopy data indicate that these effects of trehalose are mediated by autophagy. The treatment with trehalose for 4 months of 3-month-old PK(-/-)/Tau(VLW) mice maintained the amelioration of the tau pathology and astrogliosis but failed to revert DA-related pathology in the striatum. Furthermore, the 3-week treatment with trehalose of 14-month-old PK(-/-)/Tau(VLW) mice, at the limit of their life expectancy, improved the motor behavior and anxiety of these animals, and reduced their levels of phosphorylated tau and the number of murine beta-amyloid plaques. Trehalose is neuroprotective in this model of tauopathy. Since trehalose is free of toxic effects at high concentrations, this study opens the way for clinical studies of the effects of trehalose in human tauopathies.
|1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine exposure fails to produce delayed degeneration of substantia nigra neurons in monkeys. |
Garrido-Gil P, Belzunegui S, San Sebastián W, Izal-Azcárate A, López B, Marcilla I, Luquin MR
J Neurosci Res 87 586-97. 2009
We assessed the presence of degenerating neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) of parkinsonian monkeys. For this purpose, we used two histological markers of cellular death, Fluoro Jade B (FJB) staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL). Eight monkeys were subacutelly treated with four to six 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) injections (1-1.5 mg/kg, cumulative dose) and sacrificed 1 week and 11 months after last MPTP injection. Eight additional monkeys were chronically exposed to MPTP (4.5-15.3 mg/kg, cumulative dose) and sacrificed 6-35 months after last MPTP dose. Three intact monkeys served as controls. The number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)- and TUNEL-positive cells was quantified in SNpc and VTA and colocalization of FJB-positive and TUNEL-positive cells with neuronal (TH, NeuN, MAP2) and glial markers (human ferritin, GFAP) assessed on doubly labelled tissue sections. Only MPTP monkeys with 1-week survival displayed few doubly FJB-TH-labelled cells. Both groups of subacute MPTP monkeys, but not chronic MPTP monkeys, showed a significant increased number of TUNEL-positive cells in SNpc. TUNEL-positive cells exhibited morphological features and histological markers indicative of glial cells, whereas TUNEL/NeuN or TUNEL/MAP-2 colocalization was not observed. Our results indicate that MPTP treatment produced a nonapoptotic cell death of dopaminergic cells and the activation of the apoptotic cascade in glial cells. More importantly, we failed to demonstrate the existence of a delayed neurodegenerative process in the dopaminergic neurons after concluding MPTP injection thus, casting doubt on the validity of the "progressive model" created by repeated MPTP administration to monkeys.
|Brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulates early postnatal developmental cell death of dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra in vivo. |
Oo, TF; Marchionini, DM; Yarygina, O; O'Leary, PD; Hughes, RA; Kholodilov, N; Burke, RE
Molecular and cellular neurosciences 41 440-7 2009
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was the first purified molecule identified to directly support the development of mesencephalic dopamine neurons. However, its physiologic role has remained unknown. Based on patterns of expression, it is unlikely to serve as a target-derived neurotrophic factor, but it may instead act locally in the mesencephalon, either released by afferent projections, or in autocrine fashion. To assess a possible local role, we blocked BDNF signaling in the substantia nigra (SN) of postnatal rats by injection of either neutralizing antibodies or a peptide antagonist. These treatments increased the magnitude of developmental cell death in the SN, indicating that endogenous local BDNF does play a regulatory role. However, we also find that elimination of BDNF in brain throughout postnatal development in BDNF(fl/fl):Nestin-Cre mice has no effect on the adult number of SN dopamine neurons. We postulate that other forms of trophic support may compensate for the elimination of BDNF during early development. Although the number of SN dopamine neurons is unchanged, their organization is disrupted. We conclude that BDNF plays a physiologic role in the postnatal development of SN dopamine neurons.
|Differential expression of Nk1 and NK3 neurokinin receptors in neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarius and the dorsal vagal motor nucleus of the rat and mouse. |
I Le Brun, A Dufour, M Crest, G Szabó, F Erdelyi, A Baude, I Le Brun, A Dufour, M Crest, G Szabó, F Erdelyi, A Baude
Neuroscience 152 56-64 2008
Tachykinins (substance P, neurokinin A and neurokinin B) influence autonomic functions by modulating neuron activity in nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) through activation of neurokinin receptors NK1 and NK3. Our purpose was to identify and define by neurochemical markers, the subpopulations of NK1 and NK3 expressing neurons in NTS and DMV of rat and mouse. Because the distribution of the NK1 and NK3 expressing neurons overlaps, co-expression for both receptors was tested. By double labeling, we show that NK1 and NK3 were not co-expressed in NTS neurons. In the DMV, most of neurons (87%) were immunoreactive for only one of the receptors and 34% of NK1 neurons, 7% of NK3 neurons and 12% of NK1-NK3 neurons were cholinergic neurons. None of the neurons immunoreactive for NK1 or NK3 were positive for tyrosine hydroxylase, suggesting that catecholaminergic cells of the NTS (A2 and C2 groups) did not express neurokinin receptors. The presence of NK1 and NK3 was examined in GABAergic interneurons of the NTS and DMV by using GAD65-EGFP transgenic mouse. Immunoreactivity for NK1 or NK3 was found in a subpopulation of GAD65-EGFP cells. A majority (60%) of NK3 cells, but only 11% of the NK1 cells, were GAD65-EGFP cells. In conclusion, tachykinins, through differential expression of neurokinin receptors, may influence the central regulation of vital functions by acting on separate neuron subpopulations in NTS and DMV. Of particular interest, tachykinins may be involved in inhibitory mechanisms by acting directly on local GABAergic interneurons. Our results support a larger contribution of NK3 compared with NK1 in mediating inhibition in NTS and DMV.
|The medial paralemniscal nucleus and its afferent neuronal connections in rat. |
Tamás Varga,Miklós Palkovits,Ted Björn Usdin,Arpád Dobolyi
The Journal of comparative neurology 511 2008
Previously, we described a cell group expressing tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) in the lateral pontomesencephalic tegmentum, and referred to it as the medial paralemniscal nucleus (MPL). To identify this nucleus further in rat, we have now characterized the MPL cytoarchitectonically on coronal, sagittal, and horizontal serial sections. Neurons in the MPL have a columnar arrangement distinct from adjacent areas. The MPL is bordered by the intermediate nucleus of the lateral lemniscus nucleus laterally, the oral pontine reticular formation medially, and the rubrospinal tract ventrally, whereas the A7 noradrenergic cell group is located immediately mediocaudal to the MPL. TIP39-immunoreactive neurons are distributed throughout the cytoarchitectonically defined MPL and constitute 75% of its neurons as assessed by double labeling of TIP39 with a fluorescent Nissl dye or NeuN. Furthermore, we investigated the neuronal inputs to the MPL by using the retrograde tracer cholera toxin B subunit. The MPL has afferent neuronal connections distinct from adjacent brain regions including major inputs from the auditory cortex, medial part of the medial geniculate body, superior colliculus, external and dorsal cortices of the inferior colliculus, periolivary area, lateral preoptic area, hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus, lateral and dorsal hypothalamic areas, subparafascicular and posterior intralaminar thalamic nuclei, periaqueductal gray, and cuneiform nucleus. In addition, injection of the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine into the auditory cortex and the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus confirmed projections from these areas to the distinct MPL. The afferent neuronal connections of the MPL suggest its involvement in auditory and reproductive functions.Artículo Texto completo
|Neurotoxic lesions at the ventral mesopontine junction change sleep time and muscle activity during sleep: an animal model of motor disorders in sleep. |
Y-Y Lai, K-C Hsieh, D Nguyen, J Peever, J M Siegel
Neuroscience 154 431-43 2008
There is no adequate animal model of restless legs syndrome (RLS) and periodic leg movements disorder (PLMD), disorders affecting 10% of the population. Similarly, there is no model of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) that explains its symptoms and its link to Parkinsonism. We previously reported that the motor inhibitory system in the brainstem extends from the medulla to the ventral mesopontine junction (VMPJ). We now examine the effects of damage to the VMPJ in the cat. Based on the lesion sites and the changes in sleep pattern and behavior, we saw three distinct syndromes resulting from such lesions; the rostrolateral, rostromedial and caudal VMPJ syndromes. The change in sleep pattern was dependent on the lesion site, but was not significantly correlated with the number of dopaminergic neurons lost. An increase in wakefulness and a decrease in slow wave sleep (SWS) and REM sleep were seen in the rostrolateral VMPJ-lesioned animals. In contrast, the sleep pattern was not significantly changed in the rostromedial and caudal VMPJ-lesioned animals. All three groups of animals showed a significant increase in periodic and isolated leg movements in SWS and increased tonic muscle activity in REM sleep. Beyond these common symptoms, an increase in phasic motor activity in REM sleep, resembling that seen in human RBD, was found in the caudal VMPJ-lesioned animals. In contrast, the increase in motor activity in SWS in rostral VMPJ-lesioned animals is similar to that seen in human RLS/PLMD patients. The proximity of the VMPJ region to the substantia nigra suggests that the link between RLS/PLMD and Parkinsonism, as well as the progression from RBD to Parkinsonism may be mediated by the spread of damage from the regions identified here into the substantia nigra.
|A dlx2- and pax6-dependent transcriptional code for periglomerular neuron specification in the adult olfactory bulb. |
Brill, MS; Snapyan, M; Wohlfrom, H; Ninkovic, J; Jawerka, M; Mastick, GS; Ashery-Padan, R; Saghatelyan, A; Berninger, B; Götz, M
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 28 6439-52 2008
Distinct olfactory bulb (OB) interneurons are thought to become specified depending on from which of the different subregions lining the lateral ventricle wall they originate, but the role of region-specific transcription factors (TFs) in the generation of OB interneurons diversity is still poorly understood. Despite the crucial roles of the Dlx family of TFs for patterning and neurogenesis in the ventral telencephalon during embryonic development, their role in adult neurogenesis has not yet been addressed. Here we show that in the adult brain, Dlx 1 and Dlx2 are expressed in progenitors of the lateral but not the dorsal subependymal zone (SEZ), thus exhibiting a striking regional specificity. Using retroviral vectors to examine the function of Dlx2 in a cell-autonomous manner, we demonstrate that this TF is necessary for neurogenesis of virtually all OB interneurons arising from the lateral SEZ. Beyond its function in generic neurogenesis, Dlx2 also plays a crucial role in neuronal subtype specification in the OB, promoting specification of adult-born periglomerular neurons (PGNs) toward a dopaminergic fate. Strikingly, Dlx2 requires interaction with Pax6, because Pax6 deletion blocks Dlx2-mediated PGN specification. Thus, Dlx2 wields a dual function by first instructing generic neurogenesis from adult precursors and subsequently specifying PGN subtypes in conjunction with Pax6.
|Preferential vulnerability of mesencephalic dopamine neurons to glutamate transporter dysfunction. |
Imane Nafia, Diane B Re, Frédérique Masmejean, Christophe Melon, Philippe Kachidian, Lydia Kerkerian-Le Goff, André Nieoullon, Laurence Had-Aissouni
Journal of neurochemistry 105 484-96 2008
Nigral depletion of the main brain antioxidant GSH is the earliest biochemical event involved in Parkinson's disease pathogenesis. Its causes are completely unknown but increasing number of evidence suggests that glutamate transporters [excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs)] are the main route by which GSH precursors may enter the cell. In this study, we report that dopamine (DA) neurons, which express the excitatory amino acid carrier 1, are preferentially affected by EAAT dysfunction when compared with non-DA neurons. In rat embryonic mesencephalic cultures, l-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate, a substrate inhibitor of EAATs, is directly and preferentially toxic for DA neurons by decreasing the availability of GSH precursors and lowering their resistance threshold to glutamate excitotoxicity through NMDA-receptors. In adult rat, acute intranigral injection of l-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate induces a large regionally selective and dose-dependent loss of DA neurons and alpha-synuclein aggregate formation. These data highlight for the first time the importance of excitatory amino acid carrier 1 function for the maintenance of antioxidant defense in DA neurons and suggest its dysfunction as a candidate mechanism for the selective death of DA neurons such as occurring in Parkinson's disease.
|A transplantable human medullary thyroid carcinoma as a model for RET tyrosine kinase-driven tumorigenesis. |
Johanson, V; Ahlman, H; Bernhardt, P; Jansson, S; Kölby, L; Persson, F; Stenman, G; Swärd, C; Wängberg, B; Stridsberg, M; Nilsson, O
Endocrine-related cancer 14 433-44 2007
Hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is caused by germline mutations in the RET proto-oncogene, resulting in constitutive activation of the RET tyrosine kinase. A substantial proportion of sporadic MTCs also have RET mutations, making the RET tyrosine kinase a potential therapeutic target in MTC. We have established a transplantable MTC in nude mice from a sporadic human MTC carrying a RET C634R mutation. Transplanted tumors had an exponential growth rate with an approximate doubling time of about 3 weeks, and expressed a neuroendocrine phenotype characteristic of MTC, e.g., expression of calcitonin, chromogranin A (CgA), synaptophysin, synaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2), vesicular monoamine transporter-1 and -2, carcinoembryonic antigen, cytokeratin 8/18, epithelial cadherin, and neural cell adhesion molecule. Plasma calcitonin and CgA levels were elevated in tumor-bearing mice and correlated with tumor size. Cytogenetic analysis, including spectral karyotyping, confirmed the human origin of the xenografted tumors and demonstrated an abnormal, near triploid karyotype. Treatment of tumor-bearing nude mice with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor ZD6474, which specifically inhibits RET, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and vascular endothelium growth factor receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinases, resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of tumor growth. Oral ZD6474 given once daily (250 mg/kg, 5 days/week) reduced tumor volume to 11% when compared with controls after 4 weeks. Our results show that this transplantable MTC, designated GOT2, represents a novel and useful model for studies of MTC and RET tyrosine kinase-dependent tumor growth.
|Expression of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plasma membrane transporter-1 in monkey and human retina. |
Casini, G; Rickman, DW; Brecha, NC
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 47 1682-90 2006
To determine the expression pattern of the predominant gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plasma membrane transporter GAT-1 in Old World monkey (Macaca mulatta) and human retina.GAT-1 was localized in retinal sections by using immunohistochemical techniques with fluorescence and confocal microscopy. Double-labeling studies were performed with the GAT-1 antibody using antibodies to GABA, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and the bipolar cell marker Mab115A10.The pattern of GAT-1 immunostaining was similar in human and monkey retinas. Numerous small immunoreactive somata were in the inner nuclear layer (INL) and were present rarely in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of all retinal regions. Medium GAT-1 somata were in the ganglion cell layer in the parafoveal and peripheral retinal regions. GAT-1 fibers were densely distributed throughout the IPL. Varicose processes, originating from both the IPL and somata in the INL, arborized in the outer plexiform layer (OPL), forming a sparse network in all retinal regions, except the fovea. Sparsely occurring GAT-1 processes were in the nerve fiber layer in parafoveal regions and near the optic nerve head but not in the optic nerve. In the INL, 99% of the GAT-1 somata contained GABA, and 66% of the GABA immunoreactive somata expressed GAT-1. GAT-1 immunoreactivity was in all VIP-containing cells, but it was absent in TH-immunoreactive amacrine cells and in Mab115A10 immunoreactive bipolar cells.GAT-1 in primate retinas is expressed by amacrine and displaced amacrine cells. The predominant expression of GAT-1 in the inner retina is consistent with the idea that GABA transporters influence neurotransmission and thus participate in visual information processing in the retina.
|Dopamine enhances motor and neuropathological consequences of polyglutamine expanded huntingtin. |
Cyr, M; Sotnikova, TD; Gainetdinov, RR; Caron, MG
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 20 2541-3 2006
An expansion in the CAG repeat of the IT15 (huntingtin) gene underlies the development of Huntington's disease (HD), but the basis for the specific vulnerability of dopamine-receptive striatal neurons remains unclear. To examine the potential role of the dopamine system in the emergence of pathological conditions in HD, we generated a double mutant mouse strain with both enhanced dopamine transmission and endogenous expression of a mutant huntingtin gene. This strain was generated by crossing the dopamine transporter knock-out mouse, which exhibits a 5-fold elevation in extracellular dopamine levels in the striatum and locomotor hyperactivity, to a knock-in mouse model of HD containing 92 CAG repeats. These double mutant mice exhibited an increased stereotypic activity at 6 months of age, followed by a progressive decline of their locomotor hyperactivity. Expression of the mutated huntingtin did not alter dopamine or its metabolite levels in normal or dopamine transporter knock-out mice. However, the mutant huntingtin protein aggregated much earlier and to a greater extent in the striatum and other dopaminergic brain regions in the hyperdopaminergic mouse model of HD. Furthermore, the formation of neuropil aggregates in the striatum and other regions of hyperdopaminergic HD mice was observed at 4 months of age, well before similar events occurred in normal HD mice (12 months). These findings indicate that dopamine contributes to the deleterious effects of mutated huntingtin on striatal function, and this is accompanied by enhanced formation of huntingtin aggregates.
|Postganglionic nerve stimulation induces temporal inhibition of excitability in rabbit sinoatrial node. |
Fedorov, VV; Hucker, WJ; Dobrzynski, H; Rosenshtraukh, LV; Efimov, IR
American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology 291 H612-23 2006
Vagal stimulation results in complex changes of pacemaker excitability in the sinoatrial node (SAN). To investigate the vagal effects in the rabbit SAN, we used optical mapping, which is the only technology that allows resolving simultaneous changes in the activation pattern and action potentials morphologies. With the use of immunolabeling, we identified the SAN as a neurofilament 160-positive but connexin 43-negative region (n = 5). Normal excitation originated in the SAN center with a cycle length (CL) of 405 +/- 14 ms (n = 14), spread anisotropically along the crista terminalis (CT), and failed to conduct toward the septum. Postganglionic nerve stimulation (PNS, 400-800 ms) reduced CL by 74 +/- 7% transiently and shifted the leading pacemaker inferiorly (78%) or superiorly (22%) from the SAN center by 2-10 mm. In the intercaval region between the SAN center and the septal block zone, PNS produced an 8 +/- 1-mm(2) region of transient hyperpolarization and inexcitability. The first spontaneous or paced excitation following PNS could not enter this region for 500-1,500 ms. Immunolabeling revealed that the PNS-induced inexcitable region is located between the SAN center and the block zone and has a 2.5-fold higher density of choline acetyltransferase than CT but is threefold lower than the SAN center. The fact that the inexcitability region does not coincide with the most innervated area indicates that the properties of the myocytes themselves, as well as intercellular coupling, must play a role in the inexcitability induction. Optically mapping revealed that PNS resulted in transient loss of pacemaker cell excitability and unidirectional entrance conduction block in the periphery of SAN.
|Differential effects of l-DOPA on monoamine metabolism, cell survival and glutathione production in midbrain neuronal-enriched cultures from parkin knockout and wild-type mice |
Casarejos, M J, et al
J Neurochem, 94:1005-14 (2005) 2005
|Locomotor activity and evoked dopamine release are reduced in mice overexpressing A30P-mutated human alpha-synuclein. |
Leonid Yavich, Mari Oksman, Heikki Tanila, Petri Kerokoski, Mikko Hiltunen, Thomas van Groen, Jukka Puoliväli, Pekka T Männistö, Arturo García-Horsman, Ewen MacDonald, Konrad Beyreuther, Tobias Hartmann, Pekka Jäkälä
Neurobiology of disease 20 303-13 2005
We have generated a transgenic mouse line overexpressing mutated human A30P alpha-synuclein under the control of the prion-related protein promoter. Immunohistology revealed mutated human A30P alpha-synuclein protein in numerous brain areas, but no gross morphological changes, Lewy bodies, or loss of dopaminergic cell bodies. The transgenic mice displayed decreased locomotion, impaired motor coordination, and balance. In vivo voltammetry showed that A30P mice responded to longer stimulation of the ascending dopaminergic pathways with less dopamine release in striatum and had a slower rate of dopamine decline after repeated stimulations or after alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine-HCl treatment. However, dopamine re-uptake or transporter levels were similar in transgenic and control mice. Our data provide evidence that overexpression of mutated human A30P alpha-synuclein in mice leads to a reduced size of the dopamine storage pool. This is in agreement with the previously postulated involvement of alpha-synuclein in the turnover of transmitter vesicles and may explain the observed motor deficits in A30P mice.
|The primate thalamus is a key target for brain dopamine. |
Sánchez-González, MA; García-Cabezas, MA; Rico, B; Cavada, C
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 25 6076-83 2005
The thalamus relays information to the cerebral cortex from subcortical centers or other cortices; in addition, it projects to the striatum and amygdala. The thalamic relay function is subject to modulation, so the flow of information to the target regions may change depending on behavioral demands. Modulation of thalamic relay by dopamine is not currently acknowledged, perhaps because dopamine innervation is reportedly scant in the rodent thalamus. We show that dopaminergic axons profusely target the human and macaque monkey thalamus using immunolabeling with three markers of the dopaminergic phenotype (tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine, and the dopamine transporter). The dopamine innervation is especially prominent in specific association, limbic, and motor thalamic nuclei, where the densities of dopaminergic axons are as high as or higher than in the cortical area with the densest dopamine innervation. We also identified the dopaminergic neurons projecting to the macaque thalamus using retrograde tract-tracing combined with immunohistochemistry. The origin of thalamic dopamine is multiple, and thus more complex, than in any other dopaminergic system defined to date: dopaminergic neurons of the hypothalamus, periaqueductal gray matter, ventral mesencephalon, and the lateral parabrachial nucleus project bilaterally to the monkey thalamus. We propose a novel dopaminergic system that targets the primate thalamus and is independent from the previously defined nigrostriatal, mesocortical, and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems. Investigating this "thalamic dopaminergic system" should further our understanding of higher brain functions and conditions such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and drug addiction.
|Selective and persistent activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase by nitric oxide in glial cells induces neuronal degeneration in glutathione-depleted midbrain cultures. |
Canals, Santiago, et al.
Mol. Cell. Neurosci., 24: 1012-26 (2003) 2003
Intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels determine whether nitric oxide (NO) is neurotrophic for dopamine neurons or triggers a cell death cascade in primary midbrain cultures. We have investigated herein the role of the extracellular-signal regulated protein kinase (ERK) 1/2 pathway in this GSH switching effect. The short-lived NO donor DEA/NO induces a transient activation of ERK-1/2 that totally disappears 2 h after NO administration. The depletion of GSH increases and the supplementation of GSH suppresses ERK-1/2 activation in response to NO treatment. More interestingly, GSH depletion changes the kinetic of phosphorylation leading to a second prolonged phase of ERK-1/2 activation from 2 to 16 h after NO addition. This change of kinetic is ultimately responsible for NO toxicity under GSH-depleted conditions, because selective blockade of the second and persistent phase of activation prevents cell death. In addition, the only transient ERK activation, induced by NO under normal GSH conditions, did not cause ERK-dependent cell death. Immunocytochemical colocalization studies demonstrate that ERK activation takes place exclusively in glial cells, mainly in astrocytes and less frequently in oligodendrocytes and glial progenitors. Furthermore, glial cell elimination or inactivation in the culture, by gliotoxic drugs, abrogates NO-induced ERK activation. Our results indicate that neurotrophism of NO switches into neurotoxicity after GSH depletion due to persistent activation of the ERK-1/2 signaling pathway in glial cells. The implication of these results in pathological conditions like Parkinson's disease, where GSH depletion and NO overproduction have been documented, are discussed.
|Regulation of natural cell death in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra by striatal glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in vivo. |
Tinmarla Frances Oo, Nikolai Kholodilov, Robert E Burke
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 23 5141-8 2003
Dopamine (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra undergo a developmental cell death event that is biphasic, with peaks just after birth and at postnatal day 14. As envisioned by neurotrophic theory, this cell death is likely to be regulated by target interactions because it is augmented by their disruption. However, the nature of the trophic molecules mediating this regulation are unknown. We showed in vitro that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is able to suppress apoptotic death in DA neurons in postnatal primary culture. We now demonstrate in vivo that administration of GDNF into the striatal target is able to suppress apoptosis. Consistent with a possible physiologic role for endogenous striatal GDNF in regulating this event, two anti-GDNF neutralizing antibodies augment cell death. These antibodies augment cell death only during the first (immediately postnatal) phase of the biphasic death event. We conclude that GDNF is the leading candidate for a target-derived neurotrophic factor for the regulation of the early phase of natural cell death in DA neurons.
|Neural crest stem cells persist in the adult gut but undergo changes in self-renewal, neuronal subtype potential, and factor responsiveness. |
Kruger, Genevieve M, et al.
Neuron, 35: 657-69 (2002) 2002
We found neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) in the adult gut. Postnatal gut NCSCs were isolated by flow-cytometry and compared to fetal gut NCSCs. They self-renewed extensively in culture but less than fetal gut NCSCs. Postnatal gut NCSCs made neurons that expressed a variety of neurotransmitters but lost the ability to make certain subtypes of neurons that are generated during fetal development. Postnatal gut NCSCs also differed in their responsiveness to lineage determination factors, affecting cell fate determination in vivo and possibly explaining their reduced neuronal subtype potential. These perinatal changes in gut NCSCs parallel perinatal changes in hematopoietic stem cells, suggesting that stem cells in different tissues undergo similar developmental transitions. The persistence of NCSCs in the adult PNS opens up new possibilities for regeneration after injury or disease.
|Anti-Tyrosine Hydroxylase, clone 2/40/15 - Data Sheet|