Tabla espec. clave
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Ch, Fg, H, M, Mk, R, Lz, Vo, Zebrafish||IHC, IH(P), IP, WB||M||Ascites||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Ascites mouse monoclonal IgG1κ fluid containing 3% BSA. Contains no preservative.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at -20ºC from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µL|
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Referencias bibliográficas | 227 Disponible | Ver todas las referencias
|Visión general referencias||Aplicación||Especie||Pub Med ID|
|The temporal expression pattern of alpha-synuclein modulates olfactory neurogenesis in transgenic mice. |
Schreglmann, SR; Regensburger, M; Rockenstein, E; Masliah, E; Xiang, W; Winkler, J; Winner, B
PloS one 10 e0126261 2015
Adult neurogenesis mirrors the brain´s endogenous capacity to generate new neurons throughout life. In the subventricular zone/ olfactory bulb system adult neurogenesis is linked to physiological olfactory function and has been shown to be impaired in murine models of neuronal alpha-Synuclein overexpression. We analyzed the degree and temporo-spatial dynamics of adult olfactory bulb neurogenesis in transgenic mice expressing human wild-type alpha-Synuclein (WTS) under the murine Thy1 (mThy1) promoter, a model known to have a particularly high tg expression associated with impaired olfaction.Survival of newly generated neurons (NeuN-positive) in the olfactory bulb was unchanged in mThy1 transgenic animals. Due to decreased dopaminergic differentiation a reduction in new dopaminergic neurons within the olfactory bulb glomerular layer was present. This is in contrast to our previously published data on transgenic animals that express WTS under the control of the human platelet-derived growth factor β (PDGF) promoter, that display a widespread decrease in survival of newly generated neurons in regions of adult neurogenesis, resulting in a much more pronounced neurogenesis deficit. Temporal and quantitative expression analysis using immunofluorescence co-localization analysis and Western blots revealed that in comparison to PDGF transgenic animals, in mThy1 transgenic animals WTS is expressed from later stages of neuronal maturation only but at significantly higher levels both in the olfactory bulb and cortex.The dissociation between higher absolute expression levels of alpha-Synuclein but less severe impact on adult olfactory neurogenesis in mThy1 transgenic mice highlights the importance of temporal expression characteristics of alpha-Synuclein on the maturation of newborn neurons.
|Lack of additive role of ageing in nigrostriatal neurodegeneration triggered by α-synuclein overexpression. |
Bourdenx, M; Dovero, S; Engeln, M; Bido, S; Bastide, MF; Dutheil, N; Vollenweider, I; Baud, L; Piron, C; Grouthier, V; Boraud, T; Porras, G; Li, Q; Baekelandt, V; Scheller, D; Michel, A; Fernagut, PO; Georges, F; Courtine, G; Bezard, E; Dehay, B
Acta neuropathologica communications 3 46 2015
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons as well as the presence of proteinaceous inclusions named Lewy bodies. α-synuclein (α-syn) is a major constituent of Lewy bodies, and the first disease-causing protein characterized in PD. Several α-syn-based animal models of PD have been developed to investigate the pathophysiology of PD, but none of them recapitulate the full picture of the disease. Ageing is the most compelling and major risk factor for developing PD but its impact on α-syn toxicity remains however unexplored. In this study, we developed and exploited a recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector of serotype 9 overexpressing mutated α-syn to elucidate the influence of ageing on the dynamics of PD-related neurodegeneration associated with α-syn pathology in different mammalian species.Identical AAV pseudotype 2/9 vectors carrying the DNA for human mutant p.A53T α-syn were injected into the substantia nigra to induce neurodegeneration and synucleinopathy in mice, rats and monkeys. Rats were used first to validate the ability of this serotype to replicate α-syn pathology and second to investigate the relationship between the kinetics of α-syn-induced nigrostriatal degeneration and the progressive onset of motor dysfunctions, strikingly reminiscent of the impairments observed in PD patients. In mice, AAV2/9-hα-syn injection into the substantia nigra was associated with accumulation of α-syn and phosphorylated hα-syn, regardless of mouse strain. However, phenotypic mutants with either accelerated senescence or resistance to senescence did not display differential susceptibility to hα-syn overexpression. Of note, p-α-syn levels correlated with nigrostriatal degeneration in mice. In monkeys, hα-syn-induced degeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway was not affected by the age of the animals. Unlike mice, monkeys did not exhibit correlations between levels of phosphorylated α-syn and neurodegeneration.In conclusion, AAV2/9-mediated hα-syn induces robust nigrostriatal neurodegeneration in mice, rats and monkeys, allowing translational comparisons among species. Ageing, however, neither exacerbated nigrostriatal neurodegeneration nor α-syn pathology per se. Our unprecedented multi-species investigation thus favours the multiple-hit hypothesis for PD wherein ageing would merely be an aggravating, additive, factor superimposed upon an independent disease process.
|Prefrontal dopamine regulates fear reinstatement through the downregulation of extinction circuits. |
Hitora-Imamura, N; Miura, Y; Teshirogi, C; Ikegaya, Y; Matsuki, N; Nomura, H
eLife 4 2015
Prevention of relapses is a major challenge in treating anxiety disorders. Fear reinstatement can cause relapse in spite of successful fear reduction through extinction-based exposure therapy. By utilising a contextual fear-conditioning task in mice, we found that reinstatement was accompanied by decreased c-Fos expression in the infralimbic cortex (IL) with reduction of synaptic input and enhanced c-Fos expression in the medial subdivision of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeM). Moreover, we found that IL dopamine plays a key role in reinstatement. A reinstatement-inducing reminder shock induced c-Fos expression in the IL-projecting dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, and the blocking of IL D1 signalling prevented reduction of synaptic input, CeM c-Fos expression, and fear reinstatement. These findings demonstrate that a dopamine-dependent inactivation of extinction circuits underlies fear reinstatement and may explain the comorbidity of substance use disorders and anxiety disorders.
|Cardiac Dysregulation and Myocardial Injury in a 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Rat Model of Sympathetic Denervation. |
Jiang, YH; Jiang, P; Yang, JL; Ma, DF; Lin, HQ; Su, WG; Wang, Z; Li, X
PloS one 10 e0133971 2015
Cardiac sympathetic denervation is found in various cardiac pathologies; however, its relationship with myocardial injury has not been thoroughly investigated.Twenty-four rats were assigned to the normal control group (NC), sympathectomy control group (SC), and a sympathectomy plus mecobalamin group (SM). Sympathectomy was induced by injection of 6-OHDA, after which, the destruction and distribution of sympathetic and vagal nerve in the left ventricle (LV) myocardial tissue were determined by immunofluorescence and ELISA. Heart rate variability (HRV), ECG and echocardiography, and assays for myocardial enzymes in serum before and after sympathectomy were examined. Morphologic changes in the LV by HE staining and transmission electron microscope were used to estimate levels of myocardial injury and concentrations of inflammatory cytokines were used to reflect the inflammatory reaction.Injection of 6-OHDA decreased NE (933.1 ± 179 ng/L for SC vs. 3418.1± 443.6 ng/L for NC, P less than 0.01) and increased NGF (479.4± 56.5 ng/mL for SC vs. 315.85 ± 28.6 ng/mL for NC, P less than 0.01) concentrations. TH expression was reduced, while ChAT expression showed no change. Sympathectomy caused decreased HRV and abnormal ECG and echocardiography results, and histopathologic examinations showed myocardial injury and increased collagen deposition as well as inflammatory cell infiltration in the cardiac tissue of rats in the SC and SM groups. However, all pathologic changes in the SM group were less severe compared to those in the SC group.Chemical sympathectomy with administration of 6-OHDA caused dysregulation of the cardiac autonomic nervous system and myocardial injuries. Mecobalamin alleviated inflammatory and myocardial damage by protecting myocardial sympathetic nerves.
|Comprehensive functional characterization of murine infantile Batten disease including Parkinson-like behavior and dopaminergic markers. |
Dearborn, JT; Harmon, SK; Fowler, SC; O'Malley, KL; Taylor, GT; Sands, MS; Wozniak, DF
Scientific reports 5 12752 2015
Infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (INCL, Infantile Batten disease) is a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency in palmitoyl protein thioesterase-1 (PPT1). The PPT1-deficient mouse (Cln1(-/-)) is a useful phenocopy of human INCL. Cln1(-/-) mice display retinal dysfunction, seizures, motor deficits, and die at ~8 months of age. However, little is known about the cognitive and behavioral functions of Cln1(-/-) mice during disease progression. In the present study, younger (~1-2 months of age) Cln1(-/-) mice showed minor deficits in motor/sensorimotor functions while older (~5-6 months of age) Cln1(-/-) mice exhibited more severe impairments, including decreased locomotor activity, inferior cued water maze performance, decreased running wheel ability, and altered auditory cue conditioning. Unexpectedly, certain cognitive functions such as some learning and memory capabilities seemed intact in older Cln1(-/-) mice. Younger and older Cln1(-/-) mice presented with walking initiation defects, gait abnormalities, and slowed movements, which are analogous to some symptoms reported in INCL and parkinsonism. However, there was no evidence of alterations in dopaminergic markers in Cln1(-/-) mice. Results from this study demonstrate quantifiable changes in behavioral functions during progression of murine INCL and suggest that Parkinson-like motor/sensorimotor deficits in Cln1(-/-) mice are not mediated by dopamine deficiency.
|Viable neuronopathic Gaucher disease model in Medaka (Oryzias latipes) displays axonal accumulation of alpha-synuclein. |
Uemura, N; Koike, M; Ansai, S; Kinoshita, M; Ishikawa-Fujiwara, T; Matsui, H; Naruse, K; Sakamoto, N; Uchiyama, Y; Todo, T; Takeda, S; Yamakado, H; Takahashi, R
PLoS genetics 11 e1005065 2015
Homozygous mutations in the glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene result in Gaucher disease (GD), the most common lysosomal storage disease. Recent genetic studies have revealed that GBA mutations confer a strong risk for sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). To investigate how GBA mutations cause PD, we generated GBA nonsense mutant (GBA-/-) medaka that are completely deficient in glucocerebrosidase (GCase) activity. In contrast to the perinatal death in humans and mice lacking GCase activity, GBA-/- medaka survived for months, enabling analysis of the pathological progression. GBA-/- medaka displayed the pathological phenotypes resembling human neuronopathic GD including infiltration of Gaucher cell-like cells into the brains, progressive neuronal loss, and microgliosis. Detailed pathological findings represented lysosomal abnormalities in neurons and alpha-synuclein (α-syn) accumulation in axonal swellings containing autophagosomes. Unexpectedly, disruption of α-syn did not improve the life span, formation of axonal swellings, neuronal loss, or neuroinflammation in GBA-/- medaka. Taken together, the present study revealed GBA-/- medaka as a novel neuronopathic GD model, the pahological mechanisms of α-syn accumulation caused by GCase deficiency, and the minimal contribution of α-syn to the pathogenesis of neuronopathic GD.
|Inner retinal change in a novel rd1-FTL mouse model of retinal degeneration. |
Greferath, U; Anderson, EE; Jobling, AI; Vessey, KA; Martinez, G; de Iongh, RU; Kalloniatis, M; Fletcher, EL
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience 9 293 2015
While photoreceptor loss is the most devastating result of inherited retinal degenerations such as retinitis pigmentosa, inner retinal neurons also undergo significant alteration. Detailing these changes has become important as many vision restorative therapies target the remaining neurons. In this study, the rd1-Fos-Tau-LacZ (rd1-FTL) mouse model was used to explore inner retinal change at a late stage of retinal degeneration, after the loss of photoreceptor nuclei. The rd1-FTL model carries a mutation in the phosphodiesterase gene, Pde6b, and an axonally targeted transgenic beta galactosidase reporter system under the control of the c-fos promoter. Retinae of transgenic rd1-FTL mice and control FTL animals aged 2-12 months were processed for indirect fluorescence immunocytochemistry. At 2 months of age, a time when the majority of photoreceptor nuclei are lost, there was negligible c-fos reporter (FTL) expression, however, from 4 months, reporter expression was observed to increase within subpopulations of amacrine and ganglion cells within the central retina. These areas of inner retinal FTL expression coincided with regions that contained aberrant Müller cells. Specifically, these cells exhibited reduced glutamine synthetase and Kir4.1 immunolabelling, whilst showing evidence of proliferative gliosis (increased cyclinD1 and glial fibrillary acidic protein expression). These changes were limited to distinct regions where cone photoreceptor terminals were absent. Overall, these results highlight that distinct areas of the rd1-FTL central retina undergo significant glial alterations after cone photoreceptor loss. These areas coincide with up-regulation of the c-fos reporter in the inner retina, which may represent a change in neuronal function/plasticity. The rd1-FTL mouse is a useful model system to probe changes that occur in the inner retina at later stages of retinal degeneration.
|Localization of reelin signaling pathway components in murine midbrain and striatum. |
Sharaf, A; Rahhal, B; Spittau, B; Roussa, E
Cell and tissue research 359 393-407 2015
We investigated the distribution patterns of the extracellular matrix protein Reelin and of crucial Reelin signaling components in murine midbrain and striatum. The cellular distribution of the Reelin receptors VLDLr and ApoER2, the intracellular downstream mediator Dab1, and the alternative Reelin receptor APP were analyzed at embryonic day 16, at postnatal stage 15 (P15), and in 3-month-old mice. Reelin was expressed intracellularly and extracellularly in midbrain mesencephalic dopaminergic (mDA) neurons of newborns. In the striatum, Calbindin D-28k(+) neurons exhibited Reelin intracellularly at E16 and extracellularly at P15 and 3 months. ApoER2 and VLDLr were expressed in mDA neurons at E16 and P15 and in oligodendrocytes at 3 months, whereas Dab1 and APP immunoreactivity was observed in mDA at all stages analyzed. In the striatum, Calbindin D-28k(+)/GAD67(+) inhibitory neurons expressed VLDLr, ApoER2, and Dab1 at P15, but only Dab1 at E16 and 3 months. APP was always expressed in mouse striatum in which it colocalized with Calbindin D-28k. Our data underline the importance of Reelin signalling during embryonic development and early postnatal maturation of the mesostriatal and mesocorticolimbic system, and suggest that the striatum and not the midbrain is the primary source of Reelin for midbrain neurons. The loss of ApoER2 and VLDLr expression in the mature midbrain and striatum implies that Reelin functions are restricted to migratory events and early postnatal maturation and are dispensable for the maintenance of dopaminergic neurons.
|Catecholaminergic innervation of central and peripheral auditory circuitry varies with reproductive state in female midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus. |
Forlano, PM; Ghahramani, ZN; Monestime, CM; Kurochkin, P; Chernenko, A; Milkis, D
PloS one 10 e0121914 2015
In seasonal breeding vertebrates, hormone regulation of catecholamines, which include dopamine and noradrenaline, may function, in part, to modulate behavioral responses to conspecific vocalizations. However, natural seasonal changes in catecholamine innervation of auditory nuclei is largely unexplored, especially in the peripheral auditory system, where encoding of social acoustic stimuli is initiated. The plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, has proven to be an excellent model to explore mechanisms underlying seasonal peripheral auditory plasticity related to reproductive social behavior. Recently, we demonstrated robust catecholaminergic (CA) innervation throughout the auditory system in midshipman. Most notably, dopaminergic neurons in the diencephalon have widespread projections to auditory circuitry including direct innervation of the saccule, the main endorgan of hearing, and the cholinergic octavolateralis efferent nucleus (OE) which also projects to the inner ear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that gravid, reproductive summer females show differential CA innervation of the auditory system compared to non-reproductive winter females. We utilized quantitative immunofluorescence to measure tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH-ir) fiber density throughout central auditory nuclei and the sensory epithelium of the saccule. Reproductive females exhibited greater density of TH-ir innervation in two forebrain areas including the auditory thalamus and greater density of TH-ir on somata and dendrites of the OE. In contrast, non-reproductive females had greater numbers of TH-ir terminals in the saccule and greater TH-ir fiber density in a region of the auditory hindbrain as well as greater numbers of TH-ir neurons in the preoptic area. These data provide evidence that catecholamines may function, in part, to seasonally modulate the sensitivity of the inner ear and, in turn, the appropriate behavioral response to reproductive acoustic signals.
|A distinct subtype of dopaminergic interneuron displays inverted structural plasticity at the axon initial segment. |
Chand, AN; Galliano, E; Chesters, RA; Grubb, MS
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 35 1573-90 2015
The axon initial segment (AIS) is a specialized structure near the start of the axon that is a site of neuronal plasticity. Changes in activity levels in vitro and in vivo can produce structural AIS changes in excitatory cells that have been linked to alterations in excitability, but these effects have never been described in inhibitory interneurons. In the mammalian olfactory bulb (OB), dopaminergic interneurons are particularly plastic, undergoing constitutive turnover throughout life and regulating tyrosine hydroxylase expression in an activity-dependent manner. Here we used dissociated cultures of rat and mouse OB to show that a subset of bulbar dopaminergic neurons possess an AIS and that these AIS-positive cells are morphologically and functionally distinct from their AIS-negative counterparts. Under baseline conditions, OB dopaminergic AISs were short and located distally along the axon but, in response to chronic 24 h depolarization, lengthened and relocated proximally toward the soma. These activity-dependent changes were in the opposite direction to both those we saw in non-GABAergic OB neurons and those reported previously for excitatory cell types. Inverted AIS plasticity in OB dopaminergic cells was bidirectional, involved all major components of the structure, was dependent on the activity of L-type CaV1 calcium channels but not on the activity of the calcium-activated phosphatase calcineurin, and was opposed by the actions of cyclin-dependent kinase 5. Such distinct forms of AIS plasticity in inhibitory interneurons and excitatory projection neurons may allow considerable flexibility when neuronal networks must adapt to perturbations in their ongoing activity.
|shRNA targeting α-synuclein prevents neurodegeneration in a Parkinson's disease model. |
Zharikov, AD; Cannon, JR; Tapias, V; Bai, Q; Horowitz, MP; Shah, V; El Ayadi, A; Hastings, TG; Greenamyre, JT; Burton, EA
The Journal of clinical investigation 125 2721-35 2015
Multiple convergent lines of evidence implicate both α-synuclein (encoded by SCNA) and mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). Occupational exposure to the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone increases PD risk; rotenone-exposed rats show systemic mitochondrial defects but develop specific neuropathology, including α-synuclein aggregation and degeneration of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons. Here, we inhibited expression of endogenous α-synuclein in the adult rat substantia nigra by adeno-associated virus-mediated delivery of a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting the endogenous rat Snca transcript. Knockdown of α-synuclein by ~35% did not affect motor function or cause degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons in control rats. However, in rotenone-exposed rats, progressive motor deficits were substantially attenuated contralateral to α-synuclein knockdown. Correspondingly, rotenone-induced degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons, their dendrites, and their striatal terminals was decreased ipsilateral to α-synuclein knockdown. These data show that α-synuclein knockdown is neuroprotective in the rotenone model of PD and indicate that endogenous α-synuclein contributes to the specific vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons to systemic mitochondrial inhibition. Our findings are consistent with a model in which genetic variants influencing α-synuclein expression modulate cellular susceptibility to environmental exposures in PD patients. shRNA targeting the SNCA transcript should be further evaluated as a possible neuroprotective therapy in PD.
|Dopaminergic and glutamatergic microdomains in a subset of rodent mesoaccumbens axons. |
Zhang, S; Qi, J; Li, X; Wang, HL; Britt, JP; Hoffman, AF; Bonci, A; Lupica, CR; Morales, M
Nature neuroscience 18 386-92 2015
Mesoaccumbens fibers are thought to co-release dopamine and glutamate. However, the mechanism is unclear, and co-release by mesoaccumbens fibers has not been documented. Using electron microcopy, we found that some mesoaccumbens fibers have vesicular transporters for dopamine (VMAT2) in axon segments that are continuous with axon terminals that lack VMAT2, but contain vesicular glutamate transporters type 2 (VGluT2). In vivo overexpression of VMAT2 did not change the segregation of the two vesicular types, suggesting the existence of highly regulated mechanisms for maintaining this segregation. The mesoaccumbens axon terminals containing VGluT2 vesicles make asymmetric synapses, commonly associated with excitatory signaling. Using optogenetics, we found that dopamine and glutamate were released from the same mesoaccumbens fibers. These findings reveal a complex type of signaling by mesoaccumbens fibers in which dopamine and glutamate can be released from the same axons, but are not normally released at the same site or from the same synaptic vesicles.
|Nigral overexpression of alpha-synuclein in the absence of parkin enhances alpha-synuclein phosphorylation but does not modulate dopaminergic neurodegeneration. |
Van Rompuy, AS; Oliveras-Salvá, M; Van der Perren, A; Corti, O; Van den Haute, C; Baekelandt, V
Molecular neurodegeneration 10 23 2015
Alpha-synuclein is a key protein in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Mutations in the parkin gene are the most common cause of early-onset autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease, probably through a loss-of-function mechanism. However, the molecular mechanism by which loss of parkin function leads to the development of the disease and the role of alpha-synuclein in parkin-associated Parkinson's disease is still not elucidated. Conflicting results were reported about the effect of the absence of parkin on alpha-synuclein-mediated neurotoxicity using a transgenic approach. In this study, we investigated the effect of loss of parkin on alpha-synuclein neuropathology and toxicity in adult rodent brain using viral vectors. Therefore, we overexpressed human wild type alpha-synuclein in the substantia nigra of parkin knockout and wild type mice using two different doses of recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors.No difference was observed in nigral dopaminergic cell loss between the parkin knockout mice and wild type mice up to 16 weeks after viral vector injection. However, the level of alpha-synuclein phosphorylated at serine residue 129 in the substantia nigra was significantly increased in the parkin knockout mice compared to the wild type mice while the total expression level of alpha-synuclein was similar in both groups. The increased alpha-synuclein phosphorylation was confirmed in a parkin knockdown cell line.These findings support a functional relationship between parkin and alpha-synuclein phosphorylation in rodent brain.
|Norepinephrine activates dopamine D4 receptors in the rat lateral habenula. |
Root, DH; Hoffman, AF; Good, CH; Zhang, S; Gigante, E; Lupica, CR; Morales, M
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 35 3460-9 2015
The lateral habenula (LHb) is involved in reward and aversion and is reciprocally connected with dopamine (DA)-containing brain regions, including the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We used a multidisciplinary approach to examine the properties of DA afferents to the LHb in the rat. We find that greater than 90% of VTA tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) neurons projecting to the LHb lack vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) mRNA, and there is little coexpression of TH and VMAT2 protein in this mesohabenular pathway. Consistent with this, electrical stimulation of LHb did not evoke DA-like signals, assessed with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. However, electrophysiological currents that were inhibited by L741,742, a DA-D4-receptor antagonist, were observed in LHb neurons when DA uptake or degradation was blocked. To prevent DA activation of D4 receptors, we repeated this experiment in LHb slices from DA-depleted rats. However, this did not disrupt D4 receptor activation initiated by the dopamine transporter inhibitor, GBR12935. As the LHb is also targeted by noradrenergic afferents, we examined whether GBR12935 activation of DA-D4 receptors occurred in slices depleted of norepinephrine (NE). Unlike DA, NE depletion prevented the activation of DA-D4 receptors. Moreover, direct application of NE elicited currents in LHb neurons that were blocked by L741,742, and GBR12935 was found to be a more effective blocker of NE uptake than the NE-selective transport inhibitor nisoxetine. These findings demonstrate that NE is released in the rat LHb under basal conditions and that it activates DA-D4 receptors. Therefore, NE may be an important regulator of LHb function.
|Wild-type ALK and activating ALK-R1275Q and ALK-F1174L mutations upregulate Myc and initiate tumor formation in murine neural crest progenitor cells. |
Montavon, G; Jauquier, N; Coulon, A; Peuchmaur, M; Flahaut, M; Bourloud, KB; Yan, P; Delattre, O; Sommer, L; Joseph, JM; Janoueix-Lerosey, I; Gross, N; Mühlethaler-Mottet, A
Oncotarget 5 4452-66 2014
The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene is overexpressed, mutated or amplified in most neuroblastoma (NB), a pediatric neural crest-derived embryonal tumor. The two most frequent mutations, ALK-F1174L and ALK-R1275Q, contribute to NB tumorigenesis in mouse models, and cooperate with MYCN in the oncogenic process. However, the precise role of activating ALK mutations or ALK-wt overexpression in NB tumor initiation needs further clarification. Human ALK-wt, ALK-F1174L, or ALK-R1275Q were stably expressed in murine neural crest progenitor cells (NCPC), MONC-1 or JoMa1, immortalized with v-Myc or Tamoxifen-inducible Myc-ERT, respectively. While orthotopic implantations of MONC- 1 parental cells in nude mice generated various tumor types, such as NB, osteo/ chondrosarcoma, and undifferentiated tumors, due to v-Myc oncogenic activity, MONC-1-ALK-F1174L cells only produced undifferentiated tumors. Furthermore, our data represent the first demonstration of ALK-wt transforming capacity, as ALK-wt expression in JoMa1 cells, likewise ALK-F1174L, or ALK-R1275Q, in absence of exogenous Myc-ERT activity, was sufficient to induce the formation of aggressive and undifferentiated neural crest cell-derived tumors, but not to drive NB development. Interestingly, JoMa1-ALK tumors and their derived cell lines upregulated Myc endogenous expression, resulting from ALK activation, and both ALK and Myc activities were necessary to confer tumorigenic properties on tumor-derived JoMa1 cells in vitro.
|LRRK2 R1441G mice are more liable to dopamine depletion and locomotor inactivity. |
Liu, HF; Lu, S; Ho, PW; Tse, HM; Pang, SY; Kung, MH; Ho, JW; Ramsden, DB; Zhou, ZJ; Ho, SL
Annals of clinical and translational neurology 1 199-208 2014
Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) pose a significant genetic risk in familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). R1441 mutation (R1441G/C) in its GTPase domain is found in familial PD. How LRRK2 interacts with synaptic proteins, and its role in dopamine (DA) homeostasis and synaptic vesicle recycling remain unclear.To explore the pathogenic effects of LRRK2(R1441G) mutation on nigrostriatal synaptic nerve terminals and locomotor activity, we generated C57BL/6N mice with homozygous LRRK2(R1441G) knockin (KI) mutation, and examined for early changes in nigrostriatal region, striatal synaptosomal [(3)H]-DA uptake and locomotor activity after reserpine-induced DA depletion.Under normal conditions, mutant mice showed no differences, (1) in amount and morphology of nigrostriatal DA neurons and neurites, (2) tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), DA uptake transporter (DAT), vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) expression in striatum, (3) COX IV, LC3B, Beclin-1 expression in midbrain, (4) LRRK2 expression in total cell lysate from whole brain, (5) α-synuclein, ubiquitin, and tau protein immunostaining in midbrain, (6) locomotor activity, compared to wild-type controls. However, after a single intraperitoneal reserpine dose, striatal synaptosomes from young 3-month-old mutant mice demonstrated significantly lower DA uptake with impaired locomotor activity and significantly slower recovery from the effects of reserpine.Although no abnormal phenotype was observed in mutant LRRK2(R1441G) mice, the KI mutation increases vulnerability to reserpine-induced striatal DA depletion and perturbed DA homeostasis resulting in presynaptic dysfunction and locomotor deficits with impaired recovery from reserpine. This subtle nigrostriatal synaptic vulnerability may reflect one of the earliest pathogenic processes in LRRK2-associated PD.
|Differential dopamine receptor occupancy underlies L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. |
Sahin, G; Thompson, LH; Lavisse, S; Ozgur, M; Rbah-Vidal, L; Dollé, F; Hantraye, P; Kirik, D
PloS one 9 e90759 2014
Dyskinesia is a major side effect of an otherwise effective L-DOPA treatment in Parkinson's patients. The prevailing view for the underlying presynaptic mechanism of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) suggests that surges in dopamine (DA) via uncontrolled release from serotonergic terminals results in abnormally high level of extracellular striatal dopamine. Here we used high-sensitivity online microdialysis and PET imaging techniques to directly investigate DA release properties from serotonergic terminals both in the parkinsonian striatum and after neuronal transplantation in 6-OHDA lesioned rats. Although L-DOPA administration resulted in a drift in extracellular DA levels, we found no evidence for abnormally high striatal DA release from serotonin neurons. The extracellular concentration of DA remained at or below levels detected in the intact striatum. Instead, our results showed that an inefficient release pool of DA associated with low D2 receptor binding remained unchanged. Taken together, these findings suggest that differential DA receptor activation rather than excessive release could be the underlying mechanism explaining LID seen in this model. Our data have important implications for development of drugs targeting the serotonergic system to reduce DA release to manage dyskinesia in patients with Parkinson's disease.
|Pomegranate juice exacerbates oxidative stress and nigrostriatal degeneration in Parkinson's disease. |
Tapias, V; Cannon, JR; Greenamyre, JT
Neurobiology of aging 35 1162-76 2014
Numerous factors contribute to the death of substantia nigra (SN) dopamine (DA) neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Compelling evidence implicates mitochondrial deficiency, oxidative stress, and inflammation as important pathogenic factors in PD. Chronic exposure of rats to rotenone causes a PD-like syndrome, in part by causing oxidative damage and inflammation in substantia nigra. Pomegranate juice (PJ) has the greatest composite antioxidant potency index among beverages, and it has been demonstrated to have protective effects in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease. The present study was designed to examine the potential neuroprotective effects of PJ in the rotenone model of PD. Oral administration of PJ did not mitigate or prevent experimental PD but instead increased nigrostriatal terminal depletion, DA neuron loss, the inflammatory response, and caspase activation, thereby heightening neurodegeneration. The mechanisms underlying this effect are uncertain, but the finding that PJ per se enhanced nitrotyrosine, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and activated caspase-3 expression in nigral DA neurons is consistent with its potential pro-oxidant activity.
|Alteration of daily and circadian rhythms following dopamine depletion in MPTP treated non-human primates. |
Fifel, K; Vezoli, J; Dzahini, K; Claustrat, B; Leviel, V; Kennedy, H; Procyk, E; Dkhissi-Benyahya, O; Gronfier, C; Cooper, HM
PloS one 9 e86240 2014
Disturbances of the daily sleep/wake cycle are common non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the impact of dopamine (DA) depletion on circadian rhythms in PD patients or non-human primate (NHP) models of the disorder have not been investigated. We evaluated alterations of circadian rhythms in NHP following MPTP lesion of the dopaminergic nigro-striatal system. DA degeneration was assessed by in vivo PET ([(11)C]-PE2I) and post-mortem TH and DAT quantification. In a light∶dark cycle, control and MPTP-treated NHP both exhibit rest-wake locomotor rhythms, although DA-depleted NHP show reduced amplitude, decreased stability and increased fragmentation. In all animals, 6-sulphatoxymelatonin peaks at night and cortisol in early morning. When the circadian system is challenged by exposure to constant light, controls retain locomotor rest-wake and hormonal rhythms that free-run with stable phase relationships whereas in the DA-depleted NHP, locomotor rhythms are severely disturbed or completely abolished. The amplitude and phase relations of hormonal rhythms nevertheless remain unaltered. Use of a light-dark masking paradigm shows that expression of daily rest-wake activity in MPTP monkeys requires the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of light and darkness. These results suggest that following DA lesion, the central clock in the SCN remains intact but, in the absence of environmental timing cues, is unable to drive downstream rhythmic processes of striatal clock gene and dopaminergic functions that control locomotor output. These findings suggest that the circadian component of the sleep-wake disturbances in PD is more profoundly affected than previously assumed.
|Progranulin gene delivery protects dopaminergic neurons in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. |
Van Kampen, JM; Baranowski, D; Kay, DG
PloS one 9 e97032 2014
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremor, rigidity and akinesia/bradykinesia resulting from the progressive loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. To date, only symptomatic treatment is available for PD patients, with no effective means of slowing or stopping the progression of the disease. Progranulin (PGRN) is a 593 amino acid multifunction protein that is widely distributed throughout the CNS, localized primarily in neurons and microglia. PGRN has been demonstrated to be a potent regulator of neuroinflammation and also acts as an autocrine neurotrophic factor, important for long-term neuronal survival. Thus, enhancing PGRN expression may strengthen the cells resistance to disease. In the present study, we have used the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of PD to investigate the possible use of PGRN gene delivery as a therapy for the prevention or treatment of PD. Viral vector delivery of the PGRN gene was an effective means of elevating PGRN expression in nigrostriatal neurons. When PGRN expression was elevated in the SNC, nigrostriatal neurons were protected from MPTP toxicity in mice, along with a preservation of striatal dopamine content and turnover. Further, protection of nigrostriatal neurons by PGRN gene therapy was accompanied by reductions in markers of MPTP-induced inflammation and apoptosis as well as a complete preservation of locomotor function. We conclude that PGRN gene therapy may have beneficial effects in the treatment of PD.
|PACAP27 prevents Parkinson-like neuronal loss and motor deficits but not microglia activation induced by prostaglandin J2. |
Shivers, KY; Nikolopoulou, A; Machlovi, SI; Vallabhajosula, S; Figueiredo-Pereira, ME
Biochimica et biophysica acta 1842 1707-19 2014
Neuroinflammation is a major risk factor in Parkinson's disease (PD). Alternative approaches are needed to treat inflammation, as anti-inflammatory drugs such as NSAIDs that inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) can produce devastating side effects, including heart attack and stroke. New therapeutic strategies that target factors downstream of COX-2, such as prostaglandin J2 (PGJ2), hold tremendous promise because they will not alter the homeostatic balance offered by COX-2 derived prostanoids. In the current studies, we report that repeated microinfusion of PGJ2 into the substantia nigra of non-transgenic mice, induces three stages of pathology that mimic the slow-onset cellular and behavioral pathology of PD: mild (one injection) when only motor deficits are detectable, intermediate (two injections) when neuronal and motor deficits as well as microglia activation are detectable, and severe (four injections) when dopaminergic neuronal loss is massive accompanied by microglia activation and motor deficits. Microglia activation was evaluated in vivo by positron emission tomography (PET) with [(11)C](R)PK11195 to provide a regional estimation of brain inflammation. PACAP27 reduced dopaminergic neuronal loss and motor deficits induced by PGJ2, without preventing microglia activation. The latter could be problematic in that persistent microglia activation can exert long-term deleterious effects on neurons and behavior. In conclusion, this PGJ2-induced mouse model that mimics in part chronic inflammation, exhibits slow-onset PD-like pathology and is optimal for testing diagnostic tools such as PET, as well as therapies designed to target the integrated signaling across neurons and microglia, to fully benefit patients with PD.
|Antibiotic treatment attenuates behavioral and neurochemical changes induced by exposure of rats to group a streptococcal antigen. |
Lotan, D; Cunningham, M; Joel, D
PloS one 9 e101257 2014
Post-streptococcal A (GAS) sequelae including movement and neuropsychiatric disorders have been associated with improvement in response to antibiotic therapy. Besides eradication of infection, the underlying basis of attenuation of neuropsychiatric symptoms following antibiotic treatment is not known. The aim of the present study was to test the efficacy of antibiotic treatment in a rat model of GAS-related neuropsychiatric disorders. In the model, rats were not infected but were exposed to GAS-antigen or to adjuvants only (Control rats) and treated continuously with the antibiotic ampicillin in their drinking water from the first day of GAS-antigen exposure. Two additional groups of rats (GAS and Control) did not receive ampicillin in their drinking water. Behavior of the four groups was assessed in the forced swim, marble burying and food manipulation assays. We assessed levels of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors and tyrosine hydroxylase in the prefrontal cortex and striatum, and IgG deposition in the prefrontal cortex, striatum and thalamus. Ampicillin treatment prevented emergence of the motor and some of the behavioral alterations induced by GAS-antigen exposure, reduced IgG deposition in the thalamus of GAS-exposed rats, and tended to attenuate the increase in the level of TH and D1 and D2 receptors in their striatum, without concomitantly reducing the level of sera anti-GAS antibodies. Our results reinforce the link between exposure to GAS antigen, dysfunction of central dopaminergic pathways and motor and behavioral alterations. Our data further show that some of these deleterious effects can be attenuated by antibiotic treatment, and supports the latter's possible efficacy as a prophylactic treatment in GAS-related neuropsychiatric disorders.
|Biphasic effect of melanocortin agonists on metabolic rate and body temperature. |
Lute, B; Jou, W; Lateef, DM; Goldgof, M; Xiao, C; Piñol, RA; Kravitz, AV; Miller, NR; Huang, YG; Girardet, C; Butler, AA; Gavrilova, O; Reitman, ML
Cell metabolism 20 333-45 2014
The melanocortin system regulates metabolic homeostasis and inflammation. Melanocortin agonists have contradictorily been reported to both increase and decrease metabolic rate and body temperature. We find two distinct physiologic responses occurring at similar doses. Intraperitoneal administration of the nonselective melanocortin agonist MTII causes a melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r)-mediated hypermetabolism/hyperthermia. This is preceded by a profound, transient hypometabolism/hypothermia that is preserved in mice lacking any one of Mc1r, Mc3r, Mc4r, or Mc5r. Three other melanocortin agonists also caused hypothermia, which is actively achieved via seeking a cool environment, vasodilation, and inhibition of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. These results suggest that the hypometabolic/hypothermic effect of MTII is not due to a failure of thermoregulation. The hypometabolism/hypothermia was prevented by dopamine antagonists, and MTII selectively activated arcuate nucleus dopaminergic neurons, suggesting that these neurons may contribute to the hypometabolism/hypothermia. We propose that the hypometabolism/hypothermia is a regulated response, potentially beneficial during extreme physiologic stress.
|Genetic variation in COMT activity impacts learning and dopamine release capacity in the striatum. |
Simpson, EH; Morud, J; Winiger, V; Biezonski, D; Zhu, JP; Bach, ME; Malleret, G; Polan, HJ; Ng-Evans, S; Phillips, PE; Kellendonk, C; Kandel, ER
Learning & memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.) 21 205-14 2014
A common genetic polymorphism that results in increased activity of the dopamine regulating enzyme COMT (the COMT Val(158) allele) has been found to associate with poorer cognitive performance and increased susceptibility to develop psychiatric disorders. It is generally assumed that this increase in COMT activity influences cognitive function and psychiatric disease risk by increasing dopamine turnover in cortical synapses, though this cannot be directly measured in humans. Here we explore a novel transgenic mouse model of increased COMT activity, equivalent to the relative increase in activity observed with the human COMT Val(158) allele. By performing an extensive battery of behavioral tests, we found that COMT overexpressing mice (COMT-OE mice) exhibit cognitive deficits selectively in the domains that are affected by the COMT Val(158) allele, stimulus-response learning and working memory, functionally validating our model of increased COMT activity. Although we detected no changes in the level of markers for dopamine synthesis and dopamine transport, we found that COMT-OE mice display an increase in dopamine release capacity in the striatum. This result suggests that increased COMT activity may not only affect dopamine signaling by enhancing synaptic clearance in the cortex, but may also cause changes in presynaptic dopamine function in the striatum. These changes may underlie the behavioral deficits observed in the mice and might also play a role in the cognitive deficits and increased psychiatric disease risk associated with genetic variation in COMT activity in humans.
|Lack of endogenous adenosine tonus on sympathetic neurotransmission in spontaneously hypertensive rat mesenteric artery. |
Sousa, JB; Vieira-Rocha, MS; Sá, C; Ferreirinha, F; Correia-de-Sá, P; Fresco, P; Diniz, C
PloS one 9 e105540 2014
Increased sympathetic activity has been implicated in hypertension. Adenosine has been shown to play a role in blood flow regulation. In the present study, the endogenous adenosine neuromodulatory role, in mesenteric arteries from normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats, was investigated.The role of endogenous adenosine in sympathetic neurotransmission was studied using electrically-evoked [3H]-noradrenaline release experiments. Purine content was determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Localization of adenosine A1 or A2A receptors in adventitia of mesenteric arteries was investigated by Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy. Results indicate a higher electrically-evoked noradrenaline release from hypertensive mesenteric arteries. The tonic inhibitory modulation of noradrenaline release is mediated by adenosine A1 receptors and is lacking in arteries from hypertensive animals, despite their purine levels being higher comparatively to those determined in normotensive ones. Tonic facilitatory adenosine A2A receptor-mediated effects were absent in arteries from both strains. Immunohistochemistry revealed an adenosine A1 receptors redistribution from sympathetic fibers to Schwann cells, in adventitia of hypertensive mesenteric arteries which can explain, at least in part, the absence of effects observed for these receptors.Data highlight the role of purines in hypertension revealing that an increase in sympathetic activity in hypertensive arteries is occurring due to a higher noradrenaline/ATP release from sympathetic nerves and the loss of endogenous adenosine inhibitory tonus. The observed nerve-to-glial redistribution of inhibitory adenosine A1 receptors in hypertensive arteries may explain the latter effect.
|Lack of dopaminergic inputs elongates the primary cilia of striatal neurons. |
Miyoshi, K; Kasahara, K; Murakami, S; Takeshima, M; Kumamoto, N; Sato, A; Miyazaki, I; Matsuzaki, S; Sasaoka, T; Katayama, T; Asanuma, M
PloS one 9 e97918 2014
In the rodent brain, certain G protein-coupled receptors and adenylyl cyclase type 3 are known to localize to the neuronal primary cilium, a primitive sensory organelle protruding singly from almost all neurons. A recent chemical screening study demonstrated that many compounds targeting dopamine receptors regulate the assembly of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii flagella, structures which are analogous to vertebrate cilia. Here we investigated the effects of dopaminergic inputs loss on the architecture of neuronal primary cilia in the rodent striatum, a brain region that receives major dopaminergic projections from the midbrain. We first analyzed the lengths of neuronal cilia in the dorsolateral striatum of hemi-parkinsonian rats with unilateral lesions of the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway. In these rats, the striatal neuronal cilia were significantly longer on the lesioned side than on the non-lesioned side. In mice, the repeated injection of reserpine, a dopamine-depleting agent, elongated neuronal cilia in the striatum. The combined administration of agonists for dopamine receptor type 2 (D2) with reserpine attenuated the elongation of striatal neuronal cilia. Repeated treatment with an antagonist of D2, but not of dopamine receptor type 1 (D1), elongated the striatal neuronal cilia. In addition, D2-null mice displayed longer neuronal cilia in the striatum compared to wild-type controls. Reserpine treatment elongated the striatal neuronal cilia in D1-null mice but not in D2-null mice. Repeated treatment with a D2 agonist suppressed the elongation of striatal neuronal cilia on the lesioned side of hemi-parkinsonian rats. These results suggest that the elongation of striatal neuronal cilia following the lack of dopaminergic inputs is attributable to the absence of dopaminergic transmission via D2 receptors. Our results provide the first evidence that the length of neuronal cilia can be modified by the lack of a neurotransmitter's input.
|Inducible brown adipocytes in subcutaneous inguinal white fat: the role of continuous sympathetic stimulation. |
Contreras, GA; Lee, YH; Mottillo, EP; Granneman, JG
American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism 307 E793-9 2014
Brown adipocytes (BA) generate heat in response to sympathetic activation and are the main site of nonshivering thermogenesis in mammals. Although most BA are located in classic brown adipose tissue depots, BA are also abundant in the inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) before weaning. The number of BA is correlated with the density of sympathetic innervation in iWAT; however, the role of continuous sympathetic tone in the establishment and maintenance of BA in WAT has not been investigated. BA marker expression in iWAT was abundant in weaning mice but was greatly reduced by 8 wk of age. Nonetheless, BA phenotype could be rapidly reinstated by acute β₃-adrenergic stimulation with CL-316,243 (CL). Genetic tagging of adipocytes with adiponectin-CreER(T2) demonstrated that CL reinstates uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in adipocytes that were present before weaning. Chronic surgical denervation dramatically reduced the ability of CL to induce the expression of UCP1 and other BA markers in the tissue as a whole, and this loss of responsiveness was prevented by concurrent treatment with CL. These results indicate that ongoing sympathetic activity is critical to preserve the ability of iWAT fat cells to express a BA phenotype upon adrenergic stimulation.
|Noradrenalin and dopamine receptors both control cAMP-PKA signaling throughout the cerebral cortex. |
Nomura, S; Bouhadana, M; Morel, C; Faure, P; Cauli, B; Lambolez, B; Hepp, R
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience 8 247 2014
Noradrenergic fibers innervate the entire cerebral cortex, whereas the cortical distribution of dopaminergic fibers is more restricted. However, the relative functional impact of noradrenalin and dopamine receptors in various cortical regions is largely unknown. Using a specific genetic label, we first confirmed that noradrenergic fibers innervate the entire cortex whereas dopaminergic fibers were present in all layers of restricted medial and lateral areas but only in deep layers of other areas. Imaging of a genetically encoded sensor revealed that noradrenalin and dopamine widely activate PKA in cortical pyramidal neurons of frontal, parietal and occipital regions with scarce dopaminergic fibers. Responses to noradrenalin had higher amplitude, velocity and occurred at more than 10-fold lower dose than those elicited by dopamine, whose amplitude and velocity increased along the antero-posterior axis. The pharmacology of these responses was consistent with the involvement of Gs-coupled beta1 adrenergic and D1/D5 dopaminergic receptors, but the inhibition of both noradrenalin and dopamine responses by beta adrenergic antagonists was suggestive of the existence of beta1-D1/D5 heteromeric receptors. Responses also involved Gi-coupled alpha2 adrenergic and D2-like dopaminergic receptors that markedly reduced their amplitude and velocity and contributed to their cell-to-cell heterogeneity. Our results reveal that noradrenalin and dopamine receptors both control cAMP-PKA signaling throughout the cerebral cortex with moderate regional and laminar differences. These receptors can thus mediate widespread effects of both catecholamines, which are reportedly co-released by cortical noradrenergic fibers beyond the territory of dopaminergic fibers.
|Loss of mitochondrial fission depletes axonal mitochondria in midbrain dopamine neurons. |
Berthet, A; Margolis, EB; Zhang, J; Hsieh, I; Zhang, J; Hnasko, TS; Ahmad, J; Edwards, RH; Sesaki, H; Huang, EJ; Nakamura, K
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 14304-17 2014
Disruptions in mitochondrial dynamics may contribute to the selective degeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, little is known about the normal functions of mitochondrial dynamics in these neurons, especially in axons where degeneration begins, and this makes it difficult to understand the disease process. To study one aspect of mitochondrial dynamics-mitochondrial fission-in mouse DA neurons, we deleted the central fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1). Drp1 loss rapidly eliminates the DA terminals in the caudate-putamen and causes cell bodies in the midbrain to degenerate and lose α-synuclein. Without Drp1, mitochondrial mass dramatically decreases, especially in axons, where the mitochondrial movement becomes uncoordinated. However, in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a subset of midbrain DA neurons characterized by small hyperpolarization-activated cation currents (Ih) is spared, despite near complete loss of their axonal mitochondria. Drp1 is thus critical for targeting mitochondria to the nerve terminal, and a disruption in mitochondrial fission can contribute to the preferential death of nigrostriatal DA neurons.
|Morphology, distribution and phenotype of polycystin kidney disease 2-like 1-positive cerebrospinal fluid contacting neurons in the brainstem of adult mice. |
Orts-Del'Immagine, A; Kastner, A; Tillement, V; Tardivel, C; Trouslard, J; Wanaverbecq, N
PloS one 9 e87748 2014
The mammalian spinal cord and medulla oblongata harbor unique neurons that remain in contact with the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF-cNs). These neurons were shown recently to express a polycystin member of the TRP channels family (PKD2L1) that potentially acts as a chemo- or mechanoreceptor. Recent studies carried out in young rodents indicate that spinal CSF-cNs express immature neuronal markers that appear to persist even in adult cells. Nevertheless, little is known about the phenotype and morphological properties of medullar CSF-cNs. Using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy techniques on tissues obtained from three-month old PKD2L1:EGFP transgenic mice, we analyzed the morphology, distribution, localization and phenotype of PKD2L1(+) CSF-cNs around the brainstem and cervical spinal cord central canal. We show that PKD2L1(+) CSF-cNs are GABAergic neurons with a subependymal localization, projecting a dendrite towards the central canal and an axon-like process running through the parenchyma. These neurons display a primary cilium on the soma and the dendritic process appears to bear ciliary-like structures in contact with the CSF. PKD2L1(+) CSF-cNs present a conserved morphology along the length of the medullospinal central canal with a change in their density, localization and dendritic length according to the rostro-caudal axis. At adult stages, PKD2L1(+) medullar CSF-cNs appear to remain in an intermediate state of maturation since they still exhibit characteristics of neuronal immaturity (DCX positive, neurofilament 160 kDa negative) along with the expression of a marker representative of neuronal maturation (NeuN). In addition, PKD2L1(+) CSF-cNs express Nkx6.1, a homeodomain protein that enables the differentiation of ventral progenitors into somatic motoneurons and interneurons. The present study provides valuable information on the cellular properties of this peculiar neuronal population that will be crucial for understanding the physiological role of CSF-cNs in mammals and their link with the stem cells contained in the region surrounding the medullospinal central canal.
|Different mechanisms regulate expression of zebrafish myelin protein zero (P0) in myelinating oligodendrocytes and its induction following axonal injury. |
Bai, Q; Parris, RS; Burton, EA
The Journal of biological chemistry 289 24114-28 2014
Zebrafish CNS axons regenerate robustly following injury; it is thought that CNS oligodendrocytes contribute to this response by expressing growth-promoting molecules. We characterized the mpz gene, which encodes myelin protein zero and is up-regulated in oligodendroglia following axonal injury. The 2.5-kb mpz mRNA is expressed from a single TATA box promoter. Four independent Tg(mpz:egfp) transgenic zebrafish lines, in which GFP was expressed under the mpz promoter and 10 kb of genomic 5'-flanking sequence, showed transgene expression in CNS oligodendrocytes from larval development through adulthood. Following optic nerve crush injury, the mpz:egfp transgene was strongly up-regulated in oligodendrocytes along the regenerating retinotectal projection, mirroring up-regulation of endogenous mpz mRNA. GFP-expressing oligodendroglia were significantly more abundant in the regenerating optic pathway, resulting from both transgene induction in oligodendroglial precursors and the birth of new cells. Up-regulation of the mpz:egfp transgene was not dependent on axonal regeneration, suggesting that the primary signal may be axonal loss, debris, or microglial infiltration. Deletion experiments indicated that an oligodendroglial enhancer located in the region from -6 to -10 kb with respect to the mpz transcriptional start site is dissociable from the cis-regulatory element mediating the mpz transcriptional response to axonal injury, which is located between -1 and -4 kb. These data show that different mechanisms regulate expression of zebrafish mpz in myelinating oligodendrocytes and its induction following axonal injury. The underlying molecular events could potentially be exploited to enhance axonal repair following mammalian CNS injury. The transgenic lines and cis-regulatory constructs reported here will facilitate identification of the relevant signaling pathways.
|Enhanced central nervous system transduction with lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with RVG/HIV-1gp41 chimeric envelope glycoproteins. |
Trabalza, A; Eleftheriadou, I; Sgourou, A; Liao, TY; Patsali, P; Lee, H; Mazarakis, ND
Journal of virology 88 2877-90 2014
To investigate the potential benefits which may arise from pseudotyping the HIV-1 lentiviral vector with its homologous gp41 envelope glycoprotein (GP) cytoplasmic tail (CT), we created chimeric RVG/HIV-1gp41 GPs composed of the extracellular and transmembrane sequences of RVG and either the full-length gp41 CT or C terminus gp41 truncations sequentially removing existing conserved motifs. Lentiviruses (LVs) pseudotyped with the chimeric GPs were evaluated in terms of particle release (physical titer), biological titers, infectivity, and in vivo central nervous system (CNS) transduction. We report here that LVs carrying shorter CTs expressed higher levels of envelope GP and showed a higher average infectivity than those bearing full-length GPs. Interestingly, complete removal of GP CT led to vectors with the highest transduction efficiency. Removal of all C-terminal gp41 CT conserved motifs, leaving just 17 amino acids (aa), appeared to preserve infectivity and resulted in a significantly increased physical titer. Furthermore, incorporation of these 17 aa in the RVG CT notably enhanced the physical titer. In vivo stereotaxic delivery of LV vectors exhibiting the best in vitro titers into rodent striatum facilitated efficient transduction of the CNS at the site of injection. A particular observation was the improved retrograde transduction of neurons in connected distal sites that resulted from the chimeric envelope R5 which included the "Kennedy" sequence (Ken) and lentivirus lytic peptide 2 (LLP2) conserved motifs in the CT, and although it did not exhibit a comparable high titer upon pseudotyping, it led to a significant increase in distal retrograde transduction of neurons.In this study, we have produced novel chimeric envelopes bearing the extracellular domain of rabies fused to the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of gp41 and pseudotyped lentiviral vectors with them. Here we report novel effects on the transduction efficiency and physical titer of these vectors, depending on CT length and context. We also managed to achieve increased neuronal transduction in vivo in the rodent CNS, thus demonstrating that the efficiency of these vectors can be enhanced following merely CT manipulation. We believe that this paper is a novel contribution to the field and opens the way for further attempts to surface engineer lentiviral vectors and make them more amenable for applications in human disease.
|Immunohistochemical Localization of an Isoform of TRK-Fused Gene-Like Protein in the Rat Retina. |
Masuda, C; Takeuchi, S; J Bisem, N; R Vincent, S; Tooyama, I
Acta histochemica et cytochemica 47 75-83 2014
The TRK-fused gene (TFG) was originally identified in chromosome translocation events, creating a pair of oncogenes in some cancers, and was recently demonstrated as the causal gene of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement. Recently, we cloned an alternative splicing variant of Tfg from a cDNA library of the rat retina, tentatively naming it retinal Tfg (rTfg). Although the common form of Tfg is ubiquitously expressed in most rat tissues, rTfg expression is localized to the central nervous system. In this study, we produced an antibody against an rTFG-specific amino acid sequence and used it to examine the localization of rTFG-like protein in the rat retina by immunohistochemistry and Western blots. Western blot analysis showed that the antibody detected a single band of 24 kDa in the rat retina. When we examined rTFG recombinant protein, the antibody detected two bands of about 42 kDa and 24 kDa. The results suggest that the 24 kDa rTFG-like protein is a fragment of rTFG. In our immunohistochemical studies of the rat retina, rTFG-like immunoreactivity was observed in all calbindin D-28K-positive horizontal cells and in some syntaxin 1-positive amacrine cells (ACs). In addition, the rTFG-like immunopositive ACs were actually glycine transporter 1-positive glycinergic or glutamate decarboxylase-positive GABAergic ACs. Our findings indicate that this novel 24 kDa rTFG-like protein may play a specific role in retinal inhibitory interneurons.
|Human primary mixed brain cultures: preparation, differentiation, characterization and application to neuroscience research. |
Ray, B; Chopra, N; Long, JM; Lahiri, DK
Molecular brain 7 63 2014
Culturing primary cortical neurons is an essential neuroscience technique. However, most cultures are derived from rodent brains and standard protocols for human brain cultures are sparse. Herein, we describe preparation, maintenance and major characteristics of a primary human mixed brain culture, including neurons, obtained from legally aborted fetal brain tissue. This approach employs standard materials and techniques used in the preparation of rodent neuron cultures, with critical modifications.This culture has distinct differences from rodent cultures. Specifically, a significant numbers of cells in the human culture are derived from progenitor cells, and the yield and survival of the cells grossly depend on the presence of bFGF. In the presence of bFGF, this culture can be maintained for an extended period. Abundant productions of amyloid-β, tau and proteins make this a powerful model for Alzheimer's research. The culture also produces glia and different sub-types of neurons.We provide a well-characterized methodology for human mixed brain cultures useful to test therapeutic agents under various conditions, and to carry forward mechanistic and translational studies for several brain disorders.
|Dopamine neurons control striatal cholinergic neurons via regionally heterogeneous dopamine and glutamate signaling. |
Chuhma, N; Mingote, S; Moore, H; Rayport, S
Neuron 81 901-12 2014
Midbrain dopamine neurons fire in bursts conveying salient information. Bursts are associated with pauses in tonic firing of striatal cholinergic interneurons. Although the reciprocal balance of dopamine and acetylcholine in the striatum is well known, how dopamine neurons control cholinergic neurons has not been elucidated. Here, we show that dopamine neurons make direct fast dopaminergic and glutamatergic connections with cholinergic interneurons, with regional heterogeneity. Dopamine neurons drive a burst-pause firing sequence in cholinergic interneurons in the medial shell of the nucleus accumbens, mixed actions in the accumbens core, and a pause in the dorsal striatum. This heterogeneity is due mainly to regional variation in dopamine-neuron glutamate cotransmission. A single dose of amphetamine attenuates dopamine neuron connections to cholinergic interneurons with dose-dependent regional specificity. Overall, the present data indicate that dopamine neurons control striatal circuit function via discrete, plastic connections with cholinergic interneurons.
|miR-1202 is a primate-specific and brain-enriched microRNA involved in major depression and antidepressant treatment. |
Lopez, JP; Lim, R; Cruceanu, C; Crapper, L; Fasano, C; Labonte, B; Maussion, G; Yang, JP; Yerko, V; Vigneault, E; El Mestikawy, S; Mechawar, N; Pavlidis, P; Turecki, G
Nature medicine 20 764-8 2014
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent mood disorder that is associated with differential prefrontal brain expression patterns. Treatment of MDD includes a variety of biopsychosocial approaches. In medical practice, antidepressant drugs are the most common treatment for depressive episodes, and they are among the most prescribed medications in North America. Although antidepressants are clearly effective, particularly for moderate to severe depressive episodes, there is variability in how individuals respond to antidepressant treatment. Failure to respond has individual, economic and social consequences for patients and their families. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that genes are regulated through the activity of microRNAs (miRNAs), which act as fine-tuners and on-off switches of gene expression. Here we report on complementary studies using postmortem human brain samples, cellular assays and samples from clinical trials of patients with depression and show that miR-1202, a miRNA specific to primates and enriched in the human brain, is differentially expressed in individuals with depression. Additionally, miR-1202 regulates expression of the gene encoding metabotropic glutamate receptor-4 (GRM4) and predicts antidepressant response at baseline. These results suggest that miR-1202 is associated with the pathophysiology of depression and is a potential target for new antidepressant treatments.
|A zebrafish model of manganism reveals reversible and treatable symptoms that are independent of neurotoxicity. |
Bakthavatsalam, S; Das Sharma, S; Sonawane, M; Thirumalai, V; Datta, A
Disease models & mechanisms 7 1239-51 2014
Manganese (manganese ion; referred to as Mn) is essential for neuronal function, yet it is toxic at high concentrations. Environmental and occupational exposure to high concentrations of Mn causes manganism, a well-defined movement disorder in humans, with symptoms resembling Parkinson's disease (PD). However, manganism is distinct from PD and the neural basis of its pathology is poorly understood. To address this issue, we generated a zebrafish model of manganism by incubating larvae in rearing medium containing Mn. We find that Mn-treated zebrafish larvae exhibit specific postural and locomotor defects. Larvae begin to float on their sides, show a curved spine and swim in circles. We discovered that treatment with Mn causes postural defects by interfering with mechanotransduction at the neuromasts. Furthermore, we find that the circling locomotion could be caused by long-duration bursting in the motor neurons, which can lead to long-duration tail bends in the Mn-treated larvae. Mn-treated larvae also exhibited fewer startle movements. Additionally, we show that the intensity of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity is reversibly reduced after Mn-treatment. This led us to propose that reduced dopamine neuromodulation drives the changes in startle movements. To test this, when we supplied an external source of dopamine to Mn-treated larvae, the larvae exhibited a normal number of startle swims. Taken together, these results indicate that Mn interferes with neuronal function at the sensory, motor and modulatory levels, and open avenues for therapeutically targeted studies on the zebrafish model of manganism.
|The BAR domain protein PICK1 controls vesicle number and size in adrenal chromaffin cells. |
Pinheiro, PS; Jansen, AM; de Wit, H; Tawfik, B; Madsen, KL; Verhage, M; Gether, U; Sørensen, JB
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 10688-700 2014
Protein Interacting with C Kinase 1 (PICK1) is a Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain protein involved in AMPA receptor trafficking. Here, we identify a selective role for PICK1 in the biogenesis of large, dense core vesicles (LDCVs) in mouse chromaffin cells. PICK1 colocalized with syntaxin-6, a marker for immature granules. In chromaffin cells isolated from a PICK1 knockout (KO) mouse the amount of exocytosis was reduced, while release kinetics and Ca(2+) sensitivity were unaffected. Vesicle-fusion events had a reduced frequency and released lower amounts of transmitter per vesicle (i.e., reduced quantal size). This was paralleled by a reduction in the mean single-vesicle capacitance, estimated by averaging time-locked capacitance traces. EM confirmed that LDCVs were fewer and of markedly reduced size in the PICK1 KO, demonstrating that all phenotypes can be explained by reductions in vesicle number and size, whereas the fusion competence of generated vesicles was unaffected by the absence of PICK1. Viral rescue experiments demonstrated that long-term re-expression of PICK1 is necessary to restore normal vesicular content and secretion, while short-term overexpression is ineffective, consistent with an upstream role for PICK1. Disrupting lipid binding of the BAR domain (2K-E mutation) or of the PDZ domain (CC-GG mutation) was sufficient to reproduce the secretion phenotype of the null mutant. The same mutations are known to eliminate PICK1 function in receptor trafficking, indicating that the multiple functions of PICK1 involve a conserved mechanism. Summarized, our findings demonstrate that PICK1 functions in vesicle biogenesis and is necessary to maintain normal vesicle numbers and size.
|Non-motor parkinsonian pathology in aging A53T α-synuclein mice is associated with progressive synucleinopathy and altered enzymatic function. |
Farrell, KF; Krishnamachari, S; Villanueva, E; Lou, H; Alerte, TN; Peet, E; Drolet, RE; Perez, RG
Journal of neurochemistry 128 536-46 2014
Aging, the main risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD), is associated with increased α-synuclein levels in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Excess α-synuclein spurs Lewy-like pathology and dysregulates the activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). PP2A dephosphorylates many neuroproteins, including the catecholamine rate-limiting enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). A loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons induces PD movement problems, but before those abnormalities occur, behaviors such as olfactory loss, anxiety, and constipation often manifest. Identifying mouse models with early PD behavioral changes could provide a model in which to test emerging therapeutic compounds. To this end, we evaluated mice expressing A53T mutant human (A53T) α-synuclein for behavior and α-synuclein pathology in olfactory bulb, adrenal gland, and gut. Aging A53T mice exhibited olfactory loss and anxiety that paralleled olfactory and adrenal α-synuclein aggregation. PP2A activity was also diminished in olfactory and adrenal tissues harboring insoluble α-synuclein. Low adrenal PP2A activity co-occurred with TH hyperactivity, making this the first study to link adrenal synucleinopathy to anxiety and catecholamine dysregulation. Aggregated A53T α-synuclein recombinant protein also had impaired stimulatory effects on soluble recombinant PP2A. Collectively, the data identify an excellent model in which to screen compounds for their ability to block the spread of α-synuclein pathology associated with pre-motor stages of PD.
|Matrix metalloproteinase-3 causes dopaminergic neuronal death through Nox1-regenerated oxidative stress. |
Choi, DH; Kim, JH; Seo, JH; Lee, J; Choi, WS; Kim, YS
PloS one 9 e115954 2014
In the present study we investigated the interplay between matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) and NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) in the process of dopamine (DA) neuronal death. We found that MMP3 activation causes the induction of Nox1 via mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and subsequently Rac1 activation, eventually leading to Nox1-derived superoxide generation in a rat DA neuronal N27 cells exposed to 6-OHDA. While a MMP3 inhibitor, NNGH, largely attenuated mitochondrial ROS and subsequent Nox1 induction, both apocynin, a putative Nox inhibitor and GKT137831, a Nox1 selective inhibitor failed to reduce 6-OHDA-induced mitochondrial ROS. However, both inhibitors for MMP3 and Nox1 similarly attenuated 6-OHDA-induced N27 cell death. RNAi-mediated selective inhibition of MMP3 or Nox1 showed that knockdown of either MMP3 or Nox1 significantly reduced 6-OHDA-induced ROS generation in N27 cells. While 6-OHDA-induced Nox1 was abolished by MMP3 knockdown, Nox1 knockdown did not alter MMP3 expression. Direct overexpression of autoactivated MMP3 (actMMP3) in N27 cells or in rat substantia nigra (SN) increased expression of Nox1. Selective knockdown of Nox1 in the SN achieved by adeno-associated virus-mediated overexpression of Nox1-specific shRNA largely attenuated the actMMP3-mediated dopaminergic neuronal loss. Furthermore, Nox1 expression was significantly attenuated in Mmp3 null mice treated with N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Together we established novel molecular mechanisms underlying oxidative stress-mediated dopaminergic neuronal death in which MMP3 activation is a key upstream event that leads to mitochondrial ROS, Nox1 induction and eventual dopaminergic neuronal death. Our findings may lead to the development of novel therapeutic approach.
|A glutamatergic reward input from the dorsal raphe to ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons. |
Qi, J; Zhang, S; Wang, HL; Wang, H; de Jesus Aceves Buendia, J; Hoffman, AF; Lupica, CR; Seal, RP; Morales, M
Nature communications 5 5390 2014
Electrical stimulation of the dorsal raphe (DR) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) activates the fibres of the same reward pathway but the phenotype of this pathway and the direction of the reward-relevant fibres have not been determined. Here we report rewarding effects following activation of a DR-originating pathway consisting of vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGluT3) containing neurons that form asymmetric synapses onto VTA dopamine neurons that project to nucleus accumbens. Optogenetic VTA activation of this projection elicits AMPA-mediated synaptic excitatory currents in VTA mesoaccumbens dopaminergic neurons and causes dopamine release in nucleus accumbens. Activation also reinforces instrumental behaviour and establishes conditioned place preferences. These findings indicate that the DR-VGluT3 pathway to VTA utilizes glutamate as a neurotransmitter and is a substrate linking the DR-one of the most sensitive reward sites in the brain--to VTA dopaminergic neurons.
|Rgs6 is required for adult maintenance of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral substantia nigra. |
Bifsha, P; Yang, J; Fisher, RA; Drouin, J
PLoS genetics 10 e1004863 2014
Parkinson disease (PD) is characterized by the preferential, but poorly understood, vulnerability to degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons in the ventral substantia nigra compacta (vSNc). These sensitive mDA neurons express Pitx3, a transcription factor that is critical for their survival during development. We used this dependence to identify, by flow cytometry and expression profiling, the negative regulator of G-protein signaling Rgs6 for its restricted expression in these neurons. In contrast to Pitx3-/- mDA neurons that die during fetal (vSNc) or post-natal (VTA) period, the vSNc mDA neurons of Rgs6-/- mutant mice begin to exhibit unilateral signs of degeneration at around 6 months of age, and by one year cell loss is observed in a fraction of mice. Unilateral cell loss is accompanied by contralateral degenerating neurons that exhibit smaller cell size, altered morphology and reduced dendritic network. The degenerating neurons have low levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and decreased nuclear Pitx3; accordingly, expression of many Pitx3 target gene products is altered, including Vmat2, Bdnf, Aldh1a1 (Adh2) and Fgf10. These low TH neurons also express markers of increased dopamine signaling, namely increased DAT and phospho-Erk1/2 expression. The late onset degeneration may reflect the protective action of Rgs6 against excessive DA signaling throughout life. Rgs6-dependent protection is thus critical for adult survival and maintenance of the vSNc mDA neurons that are most affected in PD.
|Interplay of LRRK2 with chaperone-mediated autophagy. |
Orenstein, SJ; Kuo, SH; Tasset, I; Arias, E; Koga, H; Fernandez-Carasa, I; Cortes, E; Honig, LS; Dauer, W; Consiglio, A; Raya, A; Sulzer, D; Cuervo, AM
Nature neuroscience 16 394-406 2013
Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common cause of familial Parkinson's disease. We found LRRK2 to be degraded in lysosomes by chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), whereas the most common pathogenic mutant form of LRRK2, G2019S, was poorly degraded by this pathway. In contrast to the behavior of typical CMA substrates, lysosomal binding of both wild-type and several pathogenic mutant LRRK2 proteins was enhanced in the presence of other CMA substrates, which interfered with the organization of the CMA translocation complex, resulting in defective CMA. Cells responded to such LRRK2-mediated CMA compromise by increasing levels of the CMA lysosomal receptor, as seen in neuronal cultures and brains of LRRK2 transgenic mice, induced pluripotent stem cell-derived dopaminergic neurons and brains of Parkinson's disease patients with LRRK2 mutations. This newly described LRRK2 self-perpetuating inhibitory effect on CMA could underlie toxicity in Parkinson's disease by compromising the degradation of α-synuclein, another Parkinson's disease-related protein degraded by this pathway.
|Caspase-2 and caspase-8 trigger caspase-3 activation following 6-OHDA-induced stress in human dopaminergic neurons differentiated from ReNVM stem cells. |
Chaudhry, Zohara L and Ahmed, Bushra Y
Neurol. Res., 35: 435-40 (2013) 2013
The purpose of the study was to establish a suitable model to study Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis in differentiated dopaminergic neurons (dDCN). The specific aim was to demonstrate the involvement of the caspase family and to identify specific caspases which are activated by 6-hydroxydopamine (6OHD) treatment leading to death of dDCN.
|Morphological and behavioral impact of AAV2/5-mediated overexpression of human wildtype alpha-synuclein in the rat nigrostriatal system. |
Gombash, SE; Manfredsson, FP; Kemp, CJ; Kuhn, NC; Fleming, SM; Egan, AE; Grant, LM; Ciucci, MR; MacKeigan, JP; Sortwell, CE
PloS one 8 e81426 2013
The discovery of the involvement of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis has resulted in the development and use of viral vector-mediated α-syn overexpression rodent models. The goal of these series of experiments was to characterize the neurodegeneration and functional deficits resulting from injection of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) serotype 2/5-expressing human wildtype α-syn in the rat substantia nigra (SN). Rats were unilaterally injected into two sites in the SN with either rAAV2/5-expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP, 1.2 x 10(13)) or varying titers (2.2 x 10(12), 1.0 x 10(13), 5.9 x 10(13), or 1.0 x 10(14)) of rAAV2/5-α-syn. Cohorts of rats were euthanized 4, 8, or 12 weeks following vector injection. The severity of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (THir) neuron death in the SN pars compacta (SNpc) was dependent on vector titer. An identical magnitude of nigrostriatal degeneration (60-70% SNpc THir neuron degeneration and 40-50% loss of striatal TH expression) was observed four weeks following 1.0 x 10(14) titer rAAV2/5-α-syn injection and 8 weeks following 1.0 x 10(13) titer rAAV2/5-α-syn injection. THir neuron degeneration was relatively uniform throughout the rostral-caudal axis of the SNpc. Despite equivalent nigrostriatal degeneration between the 1.0 x 10(13) and 1.0 x 10(14) rAAV2/5-α-syn groups, functional impairment in the cylinder test and the adjusting steps task was only observed in rats with the longer 8 week duration of α-syn expression. Motor impairment in the cylinder task was highly correlated to striatal TH loss. Further, 8 weeks following 5.9 x 10(13) rAAV2/5-α-syn injection deficits in ultrasonic vocalizations were observed. In conclusion, our rAAV2/5-α-syn overexpression model demonstrates robust nigrostriatal α-syn overexpression, induces significant nigrostriatal degeneration that is both vector and duration dependent and under specific parameters can result in motor impairment that directly relates to the level of striatal TH denervation.
|rAAV2/7 vector-mediated overexpression of alpha-synuclein in mouse substantia nigra induces protein aggregation and progressive dose-dependent neurodegeneration. |
Oliveras-Salvá, M; Van der Perren, A; Casadei, N; Stroobants, S; Nuber, S; D'Hooge, R; Van den Haute, C; Baekelandt, V
Molecular neurodegeneration 8 44 2013
Alpha-synuclein is a key protein implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). It is the main component of the Lewy bodies, a cardinal neuropathological feature in the disease. In addition, whole locus multiplications and point mutations in the gene coding for alpha-synuclein lead to autosomal dominant monogenic PD. Over the past decade, research on PD has impelled the development of new animal models based on alpha-synuclein. In this context, transgenic mouse lines have failed to reproduce several hallmarks of PD, especially the strong and progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration over time that occurs in the patients. In contrast, viral vector-based models in rats and non-human primates display prominent, although highly variable, nigral dopaminergic neuron loss. However, the few studies available on viral vector-mediated overexpression of alpha-synuclein in mice report a weak neurodegenerative process and no clear Lewy body-like pathology. To address this issue, we performed a comprehensive comparative study of alpha-synuclein overexpression by means of recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors serotype 2/7 (rAAV2/7) at different doses in adult mouse substantia nigra.We noted a significant and dose-dependent alpha-synucleinopathy over time upon nigral viral vector-mediated alpha-synuclein overexpression. We obtained a strong, progressive and dose-dependent loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, reaching a maximum of 82% after 8 weeks. This effect correlated with a reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the striatum. Moreover, behavioural analysis revealed significant motor impairments from 12 weeks after injection on. In addition, we detected the presence of alpha-synuclein-positive aggregates in the remaining surviving neurons. When comparing wild-type to mutant A53T alpha-synuclein at the same vector dose, both induced a similar degree of cell death. These data were supported by a biochemical analysis that showed a net increase in soluble and insoluble alpha-synuclein expression over time to the same extent for both alpha-synuclein variants.In conclusion, our in vivo data provide evidence that strong and significant alpha-synuclein-induced neuropathology and progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration can be achieved in mouse brain by means of rAAV2/7.
|TrkB signaling directs the incorporation of newly generated periglomerular cells in the adult olfactory bulb. |
Bergami, M; Vignoli, B; Motori, E; Pifferi, S; Zuccaro, E; Menini, A; Canossa, M
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 11464-78 2013
In the adult rodent brain, the olfactory bulb (OB) is continuously supplied with new neurons which survival critically depends on their successful integration into pre-existing networks. Yet, the extracellular signals that determine the selection which neurons will be ultimately incorporated into these circuits are largely unknown. Here, we show that immature neurons express the catalytic form of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor TrkB [full-length TrkB (TrkB-FL)] only after their arrival in the OB, at the time when integration commences. To unravel the role of TrkB signaling in newborn neurons, we conditionally ablated TrkB-FL in mice via Cre expression in adult neural stem and progenitor cells. TrkB-deficient neurons displayed a marked impairment in dendritic arborization and spine growth. By selectively manipulating the signaling pathways initiated by TrkB in vivo, we identified the transducers Shc/PI3K to be required for dendritic growth, whereas the activation of phospholipase C-γ was found to be responsible for spine formation. Furthermore, long-term genetic fate mapping revealed that TrkB deletion severely compromised the survival of new dopaminergic neurons, leading to a substantial reduction in the overall number of adult-generated periglomerular cells (PGCs), but not of granule cells (GCs). Surprisingly, this loss of dopaminergic PGCs was mirrored by a corresponding increase in the number of calretinin+ PGCs, suggesting that distinct subsets of adult-born PGCs may respond differentially to common extracellular signals. Thus, our results identify TrkB signaling to be essential for balancing the incorporation of defined classes of adult-born PGCs and not GCs, reflecting their different mode of integration in the OB.
|The role of Tal2 and Tal1 in the differentiation of midbrain GABAergic neuron precursors. |
Achim, K; Peltopuro, P; Lahti, L; Tsai, HH; Zachariah, A; Astrand, M; Salminen, M; Rowitch, D; Partanen, J
Biology open 2 990-7 2013
Midbrain- and hindbrain-derived GABAergic interneurons are critical for regulation of sleep, respiratory, sensory-motor and motivational processes, and they are implicated in human neurological disorders. However, the precise mechanisms that underlie generation of GABAergic neuron diversity in the midbrain-hindbrain region are poorly understood. Here, we show unique and overlapping requirements for the related bHLH proteins Tal1 and Tal2 in GABAergic neurogenesis in the midbrain. We show that Tal2 and Tal1 are specifically and sequentially activated during midbrain GABAergic neurogenesis. Similar to Gata2, a post-mitotic selector of the midbrain GABAergic neuron identity, Tal2 expression is activated very early during GABAergic neuron differentiation. Although the expression of Tal2 and Gata2 genes are independent of each other, Tal2 is important for normal midbrain GABAergic neurogenesis, possibly as a partner of Gata2. In the absence of Tal2, the majority of midbrain GABAergic neurons switch to a glutamatergic-like phenotype. In contrast, Tal1 expression is activated in a Gata2 and Tal2 dependent fashion in the more mature midbrain GABAergic neuron precursors, but Tal1 alone is not required for GABAergic neuron differentiation from the midbrain neuroepithelium. However, inactivation of both Tal2 and Tal1 in the developing midbrain suggests that the two factors co-operate to guide GABAergic neuron differentiation in a specific ventro-lateral midbrain domain. The observed similarities and differences between Tal1/Tal2 and Gata2 mutants suggest both co-operative and unique roles for these factors in determination of midbrain GABAergic neuron identities.
|The rat with oxygen-induced retinopathy is myopic with low retinal dopamine. |
Zhang, N; Favazza, TL; Baglieri, AM; Benador, IY; Noonan, ER; Fulton, AB; Hansen, RM; Iuvone, PM; Akula, JD
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 54 8275-84 2013
Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter implicated both in modulating neural retinal signals and in eye growth. Therefore, it may participate in the pathogenesis of the most common clinical sequelae of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), visual dysfunction and myopia. Paradoxically, in ROP myopia the eye is usually small. The eye of the rat with oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) is characterized by retinal dysfunction and short axial length. There have been several investigations of the early maturation of DA in rat retina, but little at older ages, and not in the OIR rat. Therefore, DA, retinal function, and refractive state were investigated in the OIR rat.In one set of rats, the development of dopaminergic (DAergic) networks was evaluated in retinal cross-sections from rats aged 14 to 120 days using antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of DA). In another set of rats, retinoscopy was used to evaluate spherical equivalent (SE), electoretinography (ERG) was used to evaluate retinal function, and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate retinal contents of DA, its precursor levodopamine (DOPA), and its primary metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC).The normally rapid postnatal ramification of DAergic neurons was disrupted in OIR rats. Retinoscopy revealed that OIR rats were relatively myopic. In the same eyes, ERG confirmed retinal dysfunction in OIR. HPLC of those eyes' retinae confirmed low DA. Regression analysis indicated that DA metabolism (evaluated by the ratio of DOPAC to DA) was an important additional predictor of myopia beyond OIR.The OIR rat is the first known animal model of myopia in which the eye is smaller than normal. Dopamine may modulate, or fail to modulate, neural activity in the OIR eye, and thus contribute to this peculiar myopia.
|Caudo-rostral brain spreading of α-synuclein through vagal connections. |
Ulusoy, A; Rusconi, R; Pérez-Revuelta, BI; Musgrove, RE; Helwig, M; Winzen-Reichert, B; Di Monte, DA
EMBO molecular medicine 5 1051-9 2013
α-Synuclein accumulation and pathology in Parkinson's disease typically display a caudo-rostral pattern of progression, involving neuronal nuclei in the medulla oblongata at the earliest stages. In this study, selective expression and accumulation of human α-synuclein within medullary neurons was achieved via retrograde transport of adeno-associated viral vectors unilaterally injected into the vagus nerve in the rat neck. The exogenous protein progressively spread toward more rostral brain regions where it could be detected within axonal projections. Propagation to the pons, midbrain and forebrain followed a stereotypical pattern of topographical distribution. It affected areas such as the coeruleus-subcoeruleus complex, dorsal raphae, hypothalamus and amygdala ipsilateral and, to a lesser extent, contralateral to the injection side. Spreading was accompanied by evidence of neuritic pathology in the form of axonal varicosities intensely immunoreactive for human α-synuclein and containing Thioflavin-S-positive fibrils. Thus, overexpression of human α-synuclein in the lower brainstem is sufficient to induce its long-distance caudo-rostral propagation, recapitulating features of Parkinson's disease and mechanisms of disease progression.
|Increased renal sympathetic nerve activity leads to hypertension and renal dysfunction in offspring from diabetic mothers. |
de Almeida Chaves Rodrigues, AF; de Lima, IL; Bergamaschi, CT; Campos, RR; Hirata, AE; Schoorlemmer, GH; Gomes, GN
American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 304 F189-97 2013
The exposure of the fetus to a hyperglycemic environment promotes the development of hypertension and renal dysfunction in the offspring at adult age. We evaluated the role of renal nerves in the hypertension and renal changes seen in offspring of diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in female Wistar rats (streptozotocin, 60 mg/kg ip) before mating. Male offspring from control and diabetic dams were studied at an age of 3 mo. Systolic blood pressure measured by tail cuff was increased in offspring of diabetic dams (146 ± 1.6 mmHg, n = 19, compared with 117 ± 1.4 mmHg, n = 18, in controls). Renal function, baseline renal sympathetic nerve activity (rSNA), and arterial baroreceptor control of rSNA were analyzed in anesthetized animals. Glomerular filtration rate, fractional sodium excretion, and urine flow were significantly reduced in offspring of diabetic dams. Two weeks after renal denervation, blood pressure and renal function in offspring from diabetic dams were similar to control, suggesting that renal nerves contribute to sodium retention in offspring from diabetic dams. Moreover, basal rSNA was increased in offspring from diabetic dams, and baroreceptor control of rSNA was impaired, with blunted responses to infusion of nitroprusside and phenylephrine. Thus, data from this study indicate that in offspring from diabetic mothers, renal nerves have a clear role in the etiology of hypertension; however, other factors may also contribute to this condition.
|Knockdown of tyrosine hydroxylase in the nucleus of the solitary tract reduces elevated blood pressure during chronic intermittent hypoxia. |
Bathina, CS; Rajulapati, A; Franzke, M; Yamamoto, K; Cunningham, JT; Mifflin, S
American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology 305 R1031-9 2013
Noradrenergic A2 neurons in nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) respond to stressors such as hypoxia. We hypothesize that tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) knockdown in NTS reduces cardiovascular responses to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), a model of the arterial hypoxemia observed during sleep apnea in humans. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with radiotelemetry transmitters and adeno-associated viral constructs with green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter having either short hairpin RNA (shRNA) for TH or scrambled virus (scRNA) were injected into caudal NTS. Virus-injected rats were exposed to 7 days of CIH (alternating periods of 10% O2 and of 21% O2 from 8 AM to 4 PM; from 4 PM to 8 AM rats were exposed to 21% O2). CIH increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) during the day in both the scRNA (n = 14, P less than 0.001 MAP and HR) and shRNA (n = 13, P less than 0.001 MAP and HR) groups. During the night, MAP and HR remained elevated in the scRNA rats (P less than 0.001 MAP and HR) but not in the shRNA group. TH immunoreactivity and protein were reduced in the shRNA group. FosB/ΔFosB immunoreactivity was decreased in paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of shRNA group (P less than 0.001). However, the shRNA group did not show any change in the FosB/ΔFosB immunoreactivity in the rostral ventrolateral medulla. Exposure to CIH increased MAP which persisted beyond the period of exposure to CIH. Knockdown of TH in the NTS reduced this CIH-induced persistent increase in MAP and reduced the transcriptional activation of PVN. This indicates that NTS A2 neurons play a role in the cardiovascular responses to CIH.
|Expression of human E46K-mutated α-synuclein in BAC-transgenic rats replicates early-stage Parkinson's disease features and enhances vulnerability to mitochondrial impairment. |
Cannon, JR; Geghman, KD; Tapias, V; Sew, T; Dail, MK; Li, C; Greenamyre, JT
Experimental neurology 240 44-56 2013
Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, is etiologically heterogeneous, with most cases thought to arise from a combination of environmental factors and genetic predisposition; about 10% of cases are caused by single gene mutations. While neurotoxin models replicate many of the key behavioral and neurological features, they often have limited relevance to human exposures. Genetic models replicate known disease-causing mutations, but are mostly unsuccessful in reproducing major features of PD. In this study, we created a BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) transgenic rat model of PD expressing the E46K mutation of α-synuclein, which is pathogenic in humans. The mutant protein was expressed at levels ~2-3-fold above endogenous α-synuclein levels. At 12 months of age, there was no overt damage to the nigrostriatal dopamine system; however, (i) alterations in striatal neurotransmitter metabolism, (ii) accumulation and aggregation of α-synuclein in nigral dopamine neurons, and (iii) evidence of oxidative stress suggest this model replicates several preclinical features of PD. Further, when these animals were exposed to rotenone, a mitochondrial toxin linked to PD, they showed heightened sensitivity, indicating that α-synuclein expression modulates the vulnerability to mitochondrial impairment. We conclude that these animals are well-suited to examination of gene-environment interactions that are relevant to PD.
|High correlation between in vivo [123I]β-CIT SPECT/CT imaging and post-mortem immunohistochemical findings in the evaluation of lesions induced by 6-OHDA in rats. |
Bäck, S; Raki, M; Tuominen, RK; Raasmaja, A; Bergström, K; Männistö, PT
EJNMMI research 3 46 2013
6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is widely used in pre-clinical animal studies to induce degeneration of midbrain dopamine neurons to create animal models of Parkinson's disease. The aim of our study was to evaluate the potential of combined single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) for the detection of differences in 6-OHDA-induced partial lesions in a dose- and time-dependent manner using the dopamine transporter (DAT) ligand 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-[123I]iodophenyl)tropane ([123I]β-CIT).Rats were unilaterally lesioned with intrastriatal injections of 8 or 2 × 10 μg 6-OHDA. At 2 or 4 weeks post-lesion, 40 to 50 MBq [123I]β-CIT was administered intravenously and rats were imaged with small-animal SPECT/CT under isoflurane anesthesia. The striatum was delineated and mean striatal activity in the lesioned side was compared to the intact side. After the [123I]β-CIT SPECT/CT scan, the rats were tested for amphetamine-induced rotation asymmetry, and their brains were immunohistochemically stained for DAT and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). The fiber density of DAT- and TH-stained striata was estimated, and TH-immunoreactive cells in the rat substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) were stereologically counted.The striatal uptake of [123I]β-CIT differed significantly between the lesion groups and the results were highly correlated to both striatal DAT- and TH-immunoreactive fiber densities and to TH-immunoreactive cell numbers in the rat SNpc. No clear progression of the lesion could be seen.[123I]β-CIT SPECT/CT is a valuable tool in predicting the condition of the rat midbrain dopaminergic pathway in the unilateral partial 6-OHDA lesion model of Parkinson's disease and it offers many advantages, allowing repeated non-invasive analysis of living animals.
|Glucocorticoid receptor activity regulates light adaptation in the zebrafish retina. |
Muto, A; Taylor, MR; Suzawa, M; Korenbrot, JI; Baier, H
Frontiers in neural circuits 7 145 2013
Glucocorticoids modulate diverse aspects of physiology and behavior, including energy homeostasis, stress response, and memory, through activation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Light perception has profound effects on the production of glucocorticoids via functional connections of the retina to the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. We report here that glucocorticoids can also signal in the reverse direction, i. e., regulate visual function in zebrafish, Danio rerio. The zebrafish GR mutant, gr (s357) , harbors a missense mutation that completely blocks the transcriptional activity of GR. In this mutant, visual behavior was abolished following a period of darkness and recovered sluggishly after return to the light. Electrophysiological measurements showed that the photoresponse of the dark-adapted retina was reduced in the mutant and re-adapted to light with a substantial delay. Several gene products, including some that are important for dopaminergic signaling, were misregulated in gr (s357) mutants. We suggest that GR controls a gene network required for visual adaptation in the zebrafish retina and potentially integrates neuroendocrine and sensory responses to environmental changes.
|On lateral septum-like characteristics of outputs from the accumbal hedonic "hotspot" of Peciña and Berridge with commentary on the transitional nature of basal forebrain "boundaries". |
Zahm, DS; Parsley, KP; Schwartz, ZM; Cheng, AY
The Journal of comparative neurology 521 50-68 2013
Peciña and Berridge (2005; J Neurosci 25:11777-11786) observed that an injection of the μ-opioid receptor agonist DAMGO (D-ala(2) -N-Me-Phe(4) -Glycol(5) -enkephalin) into the rostrodorsal part of the accumbens shell (rdAcbSh) enhances expression of hedonic "liking" responses to the taste of an appetitive sucrose solution. Insofar as the connections of this hedonic "hotspot" were not singled out for special attention in the earlier neuroanatomical literature, we undertook to examine them. We observed that the patterns of inputs and outputs of the rdAcbSh are not qualitatively different from those of the rest of the Acb, except that outputs from the rdAcbSh to the lateral preoptic area and anterior and lateral hypothalamic areas are anomalously robust and overlap extensively with those of the lateral septum. We also detected reciprocal interconnections between the rdAcbSh and lateral septum. Whether and how these connections subserve hedonic impact remains to be learned, but these observations lead us to hypothesize that the rdAcbSh represents a basal forebrain transition area, in the sense that it is invaded by neurons of the lateral septum, or possibly transitional neuronal forms sharing properties of both structures. We note that the proposed transition zone between lateral septum and rdAcbSh would be but one of many in the basal forebrain and conclude by reiterating the longstanding argument that the transitional nature of such boundary areas has functional importance, of which the precise nature will remain elusive until the neurophysiological and neuropharmacological implications of such zones of transition are more generally acknowledged and better addressed.
|Magnetic transfer contrast accurately localizes substantia nigra confirmed by histology. |
Bolding, MS; Reid, MA; Avsar, KB; Roberts, RC; Gamlin, PD; Gawne, TJ; White, DM; den Hollander, JA; Lahti, AC
Biological psychiatry 73 289-94 2013
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has multiple contrast mechanisms. Like various staining techniques in histology, each contrast type reveals different information about the structure of the brain. However, it is not always clear how structures visible in MRI correspond to structures previously identified by histology. The purpose of this study was to determine if magnetic transfer contrast (MTC) or T2 contrast MRI was better at delineating the substantia nigra (SN).MRI scans were acquired in vivo from two nonhuman primates (NHPs). The NHPs were subsequently euthanized, perfused, and their brains sectioned for histologic analyses. Each slice was photographed before sectioning. Each brain was sectioned into approximately 500 sections, 40 μm each, encompassing most of the cortex, midbrain, and dorsal parts of the hindbrain. Levels corresponding to anatomic MRI images were selected. From these, adjacent sections were stained using Kluver-Barrera (myelin and cell bodies) or tyrosine hydroxylase (dopaminergic neurons) immunohistochemistry. The resulting images were coregistered to the block-face images using a moving least squares algorithm with similarity transformations. MR images were similarly coregistered to the block-face images, allowing the structures on MRI to be identified with structures on the histologic images.We found that hyperintense (light) areas in MTC images were coextensive with the SN as delineated histologically. The hypointense (dark) areas in T2-weighted images were not coextensive with the SN but extended partially into the SN and partially into the cerebral peduncles.MTC is more accurate than T2-weighting for localizing the SN in vivo.
|Sustained ocular hypertension induces dendritic degeneration of mouse retinal ganglion cells that depends on cell type and location. |
Feng, L; Zhao, Y; Yoshida, M; Chen, H; Yang, JF; Kim, TS; Cang, J; Troy, JB; Liu, X
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 54 1106-17 2013
Glaucoma is characterized by retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death and frequently associated with elevated IOP. How RGCs degenerate before death is little understood, so we sought to investigate RGC degeneration in a mouse model of ocular hypertension.A laser-induced mouse model of chronic ocular hypertension mimicked human high-tension glaucoma. Immunohistochemistry was used to characterize overall RGC loss and an optomotor behavioral test to measure corresponding changes in visual capacity. Changes in RGC functional properties were characterized by a large-scale multielectrode array (MEA). The transgenic Thy-1-YFP mouse line, in which a small number of RGCs are labeled with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), permitted investigation of whether subtypes of RGCs or RGCs from particular retinal areas were differentially vulnerable to elevated IOP.Sustained IOP elevation in mice was achieved by laser photocoagulation. We confirmed RGC loss and decreased visual acuity in ocular hypertensive mice. Furthermore, these mice had fewer visually responsive cells with smaller receptive field sizes compared to controls. We demonstrated that RGC dendritic shrinkage started from the vertical axis of hypertensive eyes and that mono-laminated ON cells were more susceptible to IOP elevation than bi-laminated ON-OFF cells. Moreover, a subgroup of ON RGCs labeled by the SMI-32 antibody exhibited significant dendritic atrophy in the superior quadrant of the hypertensive eyes.RGC degeneration depends on subtype and location in hypertensive eyes. This study introduces a valuable model to investigate how the structural and functional degeneration of RGCs leads to visual impairments.
|Monoaminergic and neuropeptidergic neurons have distinct expression profiles of histone deacetylases. |
Takase, K; Oda, S; Kuroda, M; Funato, H
PloS one 8 e58473 2013
Monoaminergic and neuropeptidergic neurons regulate a wide variety of behaviors, such as feeding, sleep/wakefulness behavior, stress response, addiction, and social behavior. These neurons form neural circuits to integrate different modalities of behavioral and environmental factors, such as stress, maternal care, and feeding conditions. One possible mechanism for integrating environmental factors through the monoaminergic and neuropeptidergic neurons is through the epigenetic regulation of gene expression via altered acetylation of histones. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play an important role in altering behavior in response to environmental factors. Despite increasing attention and the versatile roles of HDACs in a variety of brain functions and disorders, no reports have detailed the localization of the HDACs in the monoaminergic and neuropeptidergic neurons. Here, we examined the expression profile of the HDAC protein family from HDAC1 to HDAC11 in corticotropin-releasing hormone, oxytocin, vasopressin, agouti-related peptide (AgRP), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), orexin, histamine, dopamine, serotonin, and noradrenaline neurons. Immunoreactivities for HDAC1,-2,-3,-5,-6,-7,-9, and -11 were very similar among the monoaminergic and neuropeptidergic neurons, while the HDAC4, -8, and -10 immunoreactivities were clearly different among neuronal groups. HDAC10 expression was found in AgRP neurons, POMC neurons, dopamine neurons and noradrenaline neurons but not in other neuronal groups. HDAC8 immunoreactivity was detected in the cytoplasm of almost all histamine neurons with a pericellular pattern but not in other neuropeptidergic and monoaminergic neurons. Thus, the differential expression of HDACs in monoaminergic and neuropeptidergic neurons may be crucial for the maintenance of biological characteristics and may be altered in response to environmental factors.
|Endogenous alpha-synuclein influences the number of dopaminergic neurons in mouse substantia nigra. |
Garcia-Reitboeck, P; Anichtchik, O; Dalley, JW; Ninkina, N; Tofaris, GK; Buchman, VL; Spillantini, MG
Experimental neurology 248 541-5 2013
The presynaptic protein α-synuclein is central to the pathogenesis of α-synucleinopathies. We show that the presence of endogenous mouse α-synuclein leads to higher number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of wild-type C57Bl/6J mice compared with C57Bl/6S mice with a spontaneous deletion of the α-synuclein gene or C57Bl/6J mice with a targeted deletion of the α-synuclein gene. This effect of α-synuclein on dopaminergic neuron occurs during development between E10.5 and E13.5 and persists in adult life supporting the involvement of α-synuclein in the development of a subset of dopaminergic neurons.
|Mating increases neuronal tyrosine hydroxylase expression and selectively gates transmission of male chemosensory information in female mice. |
Matthews, GA; Patel, R; Walsh, A; Davies, O; Martínez-Ricós, J; Brennan, PA
PloS one 8 e69943 2013
Exposure to chemosensory signals from unfamiliar males can terminate pregnancy in recently mated female mice. The number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the main olfactory bulb has been found to increase following mating and has been implicated in preventing male-induced pregnancy block during the post-implantation period. In contrast, pre-implantation pregnancy block is mediated by the vomeronasal system, and is thought to be prevented by selective inhibition of the mate's pregnancy blocking chemosignals, at the level of the accessory olfactory bulb. The objectives of this study were firstly to identify the level of the vomeronasal pathway at which selective inhibition of the mate's pregnancy blocking chemosignals occurs. Secondly, to determine whether a post-mating increase in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons is observed in the vomeronasal system, which could play a role in preventing pre-implantation pregnancy block. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that mating induced an increase in tyrosine-hydroxylase positive neurons in the arcuate hypothalamus of BALB/c females, and suppressed c-Fos expression in these neurons in response to mating male chemosignals. This selective suppression of c-Fos response to mating male chemosignals was not apparent at earlier levels of the pregnancy-blocking neural pathway in the accessory olfactory bulb or corticomedial amygdala. Immunohistochemical staining revealed an increase in the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the accessory olfactory bulb of BALB/c female mice following mating. However, increased dopamine-mediated inhibition in the accessory olfactory bulb is unlikely to account for the prevention of pregnancy block to the mating male, as tyrosine hydroxylase expression did not increase in females of the C57BL/6 strain, which show normal mate recognition. These findings reveal an association of mating with increased dopaminergic modulation in the pregnancy block pathway and support the hypothesis that mate recognition prevents pregnancy block by suppressing the activation of arcuate dopamine release.
|Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A impacts midbrain dopamine neurons and hippocampal spine synapses in non-human primates. |
Elsworth, JD; Jentsch, JD; Vandevoort, CA; Roth, RH; Jr, DE; Leranth, C
Neurotoxicology 35 113-20 2013
Prevalent use of bisphenol-A (BPA) in the manufacture of resins, plastics and paper products has led to frequent exposure of most people to this endocrine disruptor. Some rodent studies have suggested that BPA can exert detrimental effects on brain development. However as rodent models cannot be relied on to predict consequences of human exposure to BPA during development, it is important to investigate the effects of BPA on non-human primate brain development. Previous research suggests that BPA preferentially targets dopamine neurons in ventral mesencephalon and glutamatergic neurons in hippocampus, so the present work examined the susceptibility of these systems to low dose BPA exposure at the fetal and juvenile stages of development in non-human primates. Exposure of pregnant rhesus monkeys to relatively low levels of BPA during the final 2 months of gestation, induced abnormalities in fetal ventral mesencephalon and hippocampus. Specifically, light microscopy revealed a decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase-expressing (dopamine) neurons in the midbrain of BPA-exposed fetuses and electron microscopy identified a reduction in spine synapses in the CA1 region of hippocampus. In contrast, administration of BPA to juvenile vervet monkeys (14-18 months of age) was without effect on these indices, or on dopamine and serotonin concentrations in striatum and prefrontal cortex, or on performance of a cognitive task that tests working memory capacity. These data indicate that BPA exerts an age-dependent detrimental impact on primate brain development, at blood levels within the range measured in humans having only environmental contact with BPA.
|GABAergic neurons regulate lateral ventricular development via transcription factor Pax5. |
Ohtsuka, N; Badurek, S; Busslinger, M; Benes, FM; Minichiello, L; Rudolph, U
Genesis (New York, N.Y. : 2000) 51 234-45 2013
Postmortem studies have revealed a downregulation of the transcription factor Pax5 in GABAergic neurons in bipolar disorder, a neurodevelopmental disorder, raising the question whether Pax5 in GABAergic neurons has a role in normal brain development. In a genetic approach to study functions of Pax5 in GABAergic neurons, Pax5 was specifically deleted in GABAergic neurons from Pax5 floxed mice using a novel Gad1-Cre transgenic mouse line expressing Cre recombinase in Gad1-positive, that is, GABAergic neurons. Surprisingly, these mice developed a marked enlargement of the lateral ventricles at approximately 7 weeks of age, which was lethal within 1-2 weeks of its appearance. This hydrocephalus phenotype was observed in mice homozygous or heterozygous for the Pax5 conditional knockout, with a gene dosage-dependent penetrance. By QTL (quantitative trait loci) mapping, a 3.5 Mb segment on mouse chromosome 4 flanked by markers D4Mit237 and D4Mit214 containing approximately 92 genes including Pax5 has previously been linked to differences in lateral ventricular size. Our findings are consistent with Pax5 being a relevant gene underlying this QTL phenotype and demonstrate that Pax5 in GABAergic neurons is essential for normal ventricular development.
|Automated imaging system for fast quantitation of neurons, cell morphology and neurite morphometry in vivo and in vitro. |
Tapias, V; Greenamyre, JT; Watkins, SC
Neurobiology of disease 54 158-68 2013
Quantitation of neurons using stereologic approaches reduces bias and systematic error, but is time-consuming and labor-intensive. Accurate methods for quantifying neurons in vitro are lacking; conventional methodologies are limited in reliability and application. The morphological properties of the soma and neurites are a key aspect of neuronal phenotype and function, but the assays commonly used in such evaluations are beset with several methodological drawbacks. Herein we describe automated techniques to quantify the number and morphology of neurons (or any cell type, e.g., astrocytes) and their processes with high speed and accuracy. Neuronal quantification from brain tissue using a motorized stage system yielded results that were statistically comparable to those generated by stereology. The approach was then adapted for in vitro neuron and neurite outgrowth quantification. To determine the utility of our methods, rotenone was used as a neurotoxicant leading to morphological changes in neurons and cell death, astrocytic activation, and loss of neurites. Importantly, our technique counted about 8 times as many neurons in less than 5-10% of the time taken by manual stereological analysis.
|Gene therapy with AAV2-CDNF provides functional benefits in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. |
Bäck, S; Peränen, J; Galli, E; Pulkkila, P; Lonka-Nevalaita, L; Tamminen, T; Voutilainen, MH; Raasmaja, A; Saarma, M; Männistö, PT; Tuominen, RK
Brain and behavior 3 75-88 2013
Cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) protein has been shown to protect the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway when given as intrastriatal infusions in rat and mouse models of Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we assessed the neuroprotective effect of CDNF delivered with a recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) serotype 2 vector in a rat 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) model of PD. AAV2 vectors encoding CDNF, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), or green fluorescent protein were injected into the rat striatum. Protein expression analysis showed that our AAV2 vector efficiently delivered the neurotrophic factor genes into the brain and gave rise to a long-lasting expression of the proteins. Two weeks after AAV2 vector injection, 6-OHDA was injected into the rat striatum, creating a progressive degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. Treatment with AAV2-CDNF resulted in a marked decrease in amphetamine-induced ipsilateral rotations while it provided only partial protection of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive cells in the rat substantia nigra pars compacta and TH-reactive fibers in the striatum. Results from this study provide additional evidence that CDNF can be considered a potential treatment of Parkinson's disease.
|Purity and enrichment of laser-microdissected midbrain dopamine neurons. |
Brown, AL; Day, TA; Dayas, CV; Smith, DW
BioMed research international 2013 747938 2013
The ability to microdissect individual cells from the nervous system has enormous potential, as it can allow for the study of gene expression in phenotypically identified cells. However, if the resultant gene expression profiles are to be accurately ascribed, it is necessary to determine the extent of contamination by nontarget cells in the microdissected sample. Here, we show that midbrain dopamine neurons can be laser-microdissected to a high degree of enrichment and purity. The average enrichment for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene expression in the microdissected sample relative to midbrain sections was approximately 200-fold. For the dopamine transporter (DAT) and the vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (Vmat2), average enrichments were approximately 100- and 60-fold, respectively. Glutamic acid decarboxylase (Gad65) expression, a marker for GABAergic neurons, was several hundredfold lower than dopamine neuron-specific genes. Glial cell and glutamatergic neuron gene expression were not detected in microdissected samples. Additionally, SN and VTA dopamine neurons had significantly different expression levels of dopamine neuron-specific genes, which likely reflects functional differences between the two cell groups. This study demonstrates that it is possible to laser-microdissect dopamine neurons to a high degree of cell purity. Therefore gene expression profiles can be precisely attributed to the targeted microdissected cells.
|Dopamine D4 receptor excitation of lateral habenula neurons via multiple cellular mechanisms. |
Good, CH; Wang, H; Chen, YH; Mejias-Aponte, CA; Hoffman, AF; Lupica, CR
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 16853-64 2013
Glutamatergic lateral habenula (LHb) output communicates negative motivational valence to ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons via activation of the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg). However, the LHb also receives a poorly understood DA input from the VTA, which we hypothesized constitutes an important feedback loop regulating DA responses to stimuli. Using whole-cell electrophysiology in rat brain slices, we find that DA initiates a depolarizing inward current (I(DAi)) and increases spontaneous firing in 32% of LHb neurons. I(DAi) was also observed upon application of amphetamine or the DA uptake blockers cocaine or GBR12935, indicating involvement of endogenous DA. I(DAi) was blocked by D4 receptor (D4R) antagonists (L745,870 or L741,742), and mimicked by a selective D4R agonist (A412997). I(DAi) was associated with increased whole-cell conductance and was blocked by Cs+ or a selective blocker of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) ion channel, ZD7288. I(DAi) was also associated with a depolarizing shift in half-activation voltage for the hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih) mediated by HCN channels. Recordings from LHb neurons containing fluorescent retrograde tracers revealed that I(DAi) was observed only in cells projecting to the RMTg and not the VTA. In parallel with direct depolarization, DA also strongly increased synaptic glutamate release and reduced synaptic GABA release onto LHb cells. These results demonstrate that DA can excite glutamatergic LHb output to RMTg via multiple cellular mechanisms. Since the RMTg strongly inhibits midbrain DA neurons, activation of LHb output to RMTg by DA represents a negative feedback loop that may dampen DA neuron output following activation.
|Independent circuits in the basal ganglia for the evaluation and selection of actions. |
Stephenson-Jones, M; Kardamakis, AA; Robertson, B; Grillner, S
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110 E3670-9 2013
The basal ganglia are critical for selecting actions and evaluating their outcome. Although the circuitry for selection is well understood, how these nuclei evaluate the outcome of actions is unknown. Here, we show in lamprey that a separate evaluation circuit, which regulates the habenula-projecting globus pallidus (GPh) neurons, exists within the basal ganglia. The GPh neurons are glutamatergic and can drive the activity of the lateral habenula, which, in turn, provides an indirect inhibitory influence on midbrain dopamine neurons. We show that GPh neurons receive inhibitory input from the striosomal compartment of the striatum. The striosomal input can reduce the excitatory drive to the lateral habenula and, consequently, decrease the inhibition onto the dopaminergic system. Dopaminergic neurons, in turn, provide feedback that inhibits the GPh. In addition, GPh neurons receive direct projections from the pallium (cortex in mammals), which can increase the GPh activity to drive the lateral habenula to increase the inhibition of the neuromodulatory systems. This circuitry, thus, differs markedly from the "direct" and "indirect" pathways that regulate the pallidal (e.g., globus pallidus) output nuclei involved in the control of motion. Our results show that a distinct reward-evaluation circuit exists within the basal ganglia, in parallel to the direct and indirect pathways, which select actions. Our results suggest that these circuits are part of the fundamental blueprint that all vertebrates use to select actions and evaluate their outcome.
|Gene therapy rescues cilia defects and restores olfactory function in a mammalian ciliopathy model. |
McIntyre, JC; Davis, EE; Joiner, A; Williams, CL; Tsai, IC; Jenkins, PM; McEwen, DP; Zhang, L; Escobado, J; Thomas, S; Szymanska, K; Johnson, CA; Beales, PL; Green, ED; Mullikin, JC; , ; Sabo, A; Muzny, DM; Gibbs, RA; Attié-Bitach, T; Yoder, BK; Reed, RR; Katsanis, N; Martens, JR
Nature medicine 18 1423-8 2012
Cilia are evolutionarily conserved microtubule-based organelles that are crucial for diverse biological functions, including motility, cell signaling and sensory perception. In humans, alterations in the formation and function of cilia manifest clinically as ciliopathies, a growing class of pleiotropic genetic disorders. Despite the substantial progress that has been made in identifying genes that cause ciliopathies, therapies for these disorders are not yet available to patients. Although mice with a hypomorphic mutation in the intraflagellar transport protein IFT88 (Ift88Tg737Rpw mice, also known as ORPK mice)5 have been well studied, the relevance of IFT88 mutations to human pathology is unknown. We show that a mutation in IFT88 causes a hitherto unknown human ciliopathy. In vivo complementation assays in zebrafish and mIMCD3 cells show the pathogenicity of this newly discovered allele. We further show that ORPK mice are functionally anosmic as a result of the loss of cilia on their olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Notably, adenoviral-mediated expression of IFT88 in mature, fully differentiated OSNs of ORPK mice is sufficient to restore ciliary structures and rescue olfactory function. These studies are the first to use in vivo therapeutic treatment to reestablish cilia in a mammalian ciliopathy. More broadly, our studies indicate that gene therapy is a viable option for cellular and functional rescue of the complex ciliary organelle in established differentiated cells.
|Cortico-subcortical neuromodulation involved in the amelioration of prepulse inhibition deficits in dopamine transporter knockout mice. |
Arime, Y; Kasahara, Y; Hall, FS; Uhl, GR; Sora, I
Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 37 2522-30 2012
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) deficits are among the most reproducible phenotypic markers found in schizophrenic patients. We recently reported that nisoxetine, a selective norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibitor, reversed the PPI deficits that have been identified in dopamine transporter (DAT) knockout (KO) mice. However, the mechanisms underlying nisoxetine-induced PPI recovery in DAT KO mice were unclear in previous experiments. To clarify these mechanisms, PPI was tested after microinjections of nisoxetine into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFc) or nucleus accumbens (NAc) in wildtype (WT) and DAT KO mice. c-Fos immunohistochemistry provided an indicator of neural activation. Multiple-fluorescent-labeling procedures and the retrograde tracer fluorogold were employed to identify nisoxetine-activated neurons and circuits. Systemic nisoxetine activated the mPFc, the NAc shell, the basolateral amygdala, and the subiculum. Infusions of nisoxetine into the mPFc reversed PPI deficits in DAT KO mice, but produced no changes in WT mice, while infusion of nisoxetine into the NAc had no effect on PPI in both WT and DAT KO mice. Experiments using multiple-fluorescent labeling/fluorogold revealed that nisoxetine activates presumed glutamatergic pyramidal cells that project from the mPFc to the NAc. Activated glutamatergic projections from the mPFc to the NAc appear to have substantial roles in the ability of a NET inhibitor to normalize PPI deficits in DAT KO. Thus, this data suggest that selective NET inhibitors such as nisoxetine might improve information processing deficits in schizophrenia via regulation of cortico-subcortical neuromodulation.
|Distinct developmental origins and regulatory mechanisms for GABAergic neurons associated with dopaminergic nuclei in the ventral mesodiencephalic region. |
Achim, K; Peltopuro, P; Lahti, L; Li, J; Salminen, M; Partanen, J
Development (Cambridge, England) 139 2360-70 2012
GABAergic neurons in the ventral mesodiencephalic region are highly important for the function of dopaminergic pathways that regulate multiple aspects of behavior. However, development of these neurons is poorly understood. We recently showed that molecular regulation of differentiation of the GABAergic neurons associated with the dopaminergic nuclei in the ventral midbrain (VTA and SNpr) is distinct from the rest of midbrain, but the reason for this difference remained elusive. Here, we have analyzed the developmental origin of the VTA and SNpr GABAergic neurons by genetic fate mapping. We demonstrate that the majority of these GABAergic neurons originate outside the midbrain, from rhombomere 1, and move into the ventral midbrain only as postmitotic neuronal precursors. We further show that Gata2, Gata3 and Tal1 define a subpopulation of GABAergic precursors in ventral rhombomere 1. A failure in GABAergic neuron differentiation in this region correlates with loss of VTA and SNpr GABAergic neurons in Tal1 mutant mice. In contrast to midbrain, GABAergic neurons of the anterior SNpr in the diencephalon are not derived from the rhombomere 1. These results suggest unique migratory pathways for the precursors of important GABAergic neuron subpopulations, and provide the basis for understanding diversity within midbrain GABAergic neurons.
|Dopaminergic amacrine cells express opioid receptors in the mouse retina. |
Gallagher, SK; Anglen, JN; Mower, JM; Vigh, J
Visual neuroscience 29 203-9 2012
The presence of opioid receptors has been confirmed by a variety of techniques in vertebrate retinas including those of mammals; however, in most reports, the location of these receptors has been limited to retinal regions rather than specific cell types. Concurrently, our knowledge of the physiological functions of opioid signaling in the retina is based on only a handful of studies. To date, the best-documented opioid effect is the modulation of retinal dopamine release, which has been shown in a variety of vertebrate species. Nonetheless, it is not known if opioids can affect dopaminergic amacrine cells (DACs) directly, via opioid receptors expressed by DACs. This study, using immunohistochemical methods, sought to determine whether (1) μ- and δ-opioid receptors (MORs and DORs, respectively) are present in the mouse retina, and if present, (2) are they expressed by DACs. We found that MOR and DOR immunolabeling were associated with multiple cell types in the inner retina, suggesting that opioids might influence visual information processing at multiple sites within the mammalian retinal circuitry. Specifically, colabeling studies with the DAC molecular marker anti-tyrosine hydroxylase antibody showed that both MOR and DOR immunolabeling localize to DACs. These findings predict that opioids can affect DACs in the mouse retina directly, via MOR and DOR signaling, and might modulate dopamine release as reported in other mammalian and nonmammalian retinas.
|Transcriptional regulatory mechanisms underlying the GABAergic neuron fate in different diencephalic prosomeres. |
Virolainen, SM; Achim, K; Peltopuro, P; Salminen, M; Partanen, J
Development (Cambridge, England) 139 3795-805 2012
Diverse mechanisms regulate development of GABAergic neurons in different regions of the central nervous system. We have addressed the roles of a proneural gene, Ascl1, and a postmitotic selector gene, Gata2, in the differentiation of GABAergic neuron subpopulations in three diencephalic prosomeres: prethalamus (P3), thalamus (P2) and pretectum (P1). Although the different proliferative progenitor populations of GABAergic neurons commonly express Ascl1, they have distinct requirements for it in promotion of cell-cycle exit and GABAergic neuron identity. Subsequently, Gata2 is activated as postmitotic GABAergic precursors are born. In P1, Gata2 regulates the neurotransmitter identity by promoting GABAergic and inhibiting glutamatergic neuron differentiation. Interestingly, Gata2 defines instead the subtype of GABAergic neurons in the rostral thalamus (pTh-R), which is a subpopulation of P2. Without Gata2, the GABAergic precursors born in the pTh-R fail to activate subtype-specific markers, but start to express genes typical of GABAergic precursors in the neighbouring P3 domain. Thus, our results demonstrate diverse mechanisms regulating differentiation of GABAergic neuron subpopulations and suggest a role for Gata2 as a selector gene of both GABAergic neuron neurotransmitter and prosomere subtype identities in the developing diencephalon. Our results demonstrate for the first time that neuronal identities between distinct prosomeres can still be transformed in postmitotic neuronal precursors.
|A unilateral negative feedback loop between miR-200 microRNAs and Sox2/E2F3 controls neural progenitor cell-cycle exit and differentiation. |
Peng, C; Li, N; Ng, YK; Zhang, J; Meier, F; Theis, FJ; Merkenschlager, M; Chen, W; Wurst, W; Prakash, N
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 32 13292-308 2012
MicroRNAs have emerged as key posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression during vertebrate development. We show that the miR-200 family plays a crucial role for the proper generation and survival of ventral neuronal populations in the murine midbrain/hindbrain region, including midbrain dopaminergic neurons, by directly targeting the pluripotency factor Sox2 and the cell-cycle regulator E2F3 in neural stem/progenitor cells. The lack of a negative regulation of Sox2 and E2F3 by miR-200 in conditional Dicer1 mutants (En1(+/Cre); Dicer1(flox/flox) mice) and after miR-200 knockdown in vitro leads to a strongly reduced cell-cycle exit and neuronal differentiation of ventral midbrain/hindbrain (vMH) neural progenitors, whereas the opposite effect is seen after miR-200 overexpression in primary vMH cells. Expression of miR-200 is in turn directly regulated by Sox2 and E2F3, thereby establishing a unilateral negative feedback loop required for the cell-cycle exit and neuronal differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells. Our findings suggest that the posttranscriptional regulation of Sox2 and E2F3 by miR-200 family members might be a general mechanism to control the transition from a pluripotent/multipotent stem/progenitor cell to a postmitotic and more differentiated cell.
|LRRK2 expression is enriched in the striosomal compartment of mouse striatum. |
Wim Mandemakers,An Snellinx,Michael J O'Neill,Bart de Strooper
Neurobiology of disease 48 2012
In spite of a clear genetic link between Parkinson's disease (PD) and mutations in LRRK2, cellular localization and physiological function of LRRK2 remain debated. Here we demonstrate the immunohistochemical localization of LRRK2 in adult mouse and early postnatal mouse brain development. Antibody specificity is verified by absence of specific staining in LRRK2 knockout mouse brain. Although LRRK2 is expressed in various mouse brain regions (i.e. cortex, thalamus, hippocampus, cerebellum), strongest expression is detected in striatum, whereas LRRK2 protein expression in substantia nigra pars compacta in contrast is low. LRRK2 is highly expressed in striatal medium spiny neurons (MSN) and few cholinergic interneurons. LRRK2 expression is undetectable in other interneurons, oligodendrocytes or astrocytes of the striatum. Interestingly, LRRK2 expression is associated with striosome specific markers (i.e. MOR1, RASGRP1). Analysis of LRRK2 expression during early postnatal development and in LRRK2 knockout mice, demonstrates that LRRK2 is not required for generation or maintenance of the striosome compartment. Comparing LRRK2-WT, LRRK2-R1441G transgenic and non-transgenic mice, changes of LRRK2 expression in striosome/matrix compartments can be detected. The findings rule out a specific requirement of LRRK2 in striosome genesis but suggest a functional role for LRRK2 in striosomes.
|Dopaminergic modulation of synaptic transmission and neuronal activity patterns in the zebrafish homolog of olfactory cortex. |
Schärer, YP; Shum, J; Moressis, A; Friedrich, RW
Frontiers in neural circuits 6 76 2012
Dopamine (DA) is an important modulator of synaptic transmission and plasticity that is causally involved in fundamental brain functions and dysfunctions. We examined the dopaminergic modulation of synaptic transmission and sensory responses in telencephalic area Dp of zebrafish, the homolog of olfactory cortex. By combining anatomical tracing and immunohistochemistry, we detected no DA neurons in Dp itself but long-range dopaminergic input from multiple other brain areas. Whole-cell recordings revealed no obvious effects of DA on membrane potential or input resistance in the majority of Dp neurons. Electrical stimulation of the olfactory tracts produced a complex sequence of synaptic currents in Dp neurons. DA selectively decreased inhibitory currents with little or no effect on excitatory components. Multiphoton calcium imaging showed that population responses of Dp neurons to olfactory tract stimulation or odor application were enhanced by DA, consistent with its effect on inhibitory synaptic transmission. These effects of DA were blocked by an antagonist of D2-like receptors. DA therefore disinhibits and reorganizes sensory responses in Dp. This modulation may affect sensory perception and could be involved in the experience-dependent modification of odor representations.
|Testosterone regulation of sex steroid-related mRNAs and dopamine-related mRNAs in adolescent male rat substantia nigra. |
Purves-Tyson, TD; Handelsman, DJ; Double, KL; Owens, SJ; Bustamante, S; Weickert, CS
BMC neuroscience 13 95 2012
Increased risk of schizophrenia in adolescent males indicates that a link between the development of dopamine-related psychopathology and testosterone-driven brain changes may exist. However, contradictions as to whether testosterone increases or decreases dopamine neurotransmission are found and most studies address this in adult animals. Testosterone-dependent actions in neurons are direct via activation of androgen receptors (AR) or indirect by conversion to 17β-estradiol and activation of estrogen receptors (ER). How midbrain dopamine neurons respond to sex steroids depends on the presence of sex steroid receptor(s) and the level of steroid conversion enzymes (aromatase and 5α-reductase). We investigated whether gonadectomy and sex steroid replacement could influence dopamine levels by changing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein and mRNA and/or dopamine breakdown enzyme mRNA levels [catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) and monoamine oxygenase (MAO) A and B] in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We hypothesized that adolescent testosterone would regulate sex steroid signaling through regulation of ER and AR mRNAs and through modulation of aromatase and 5α-reductase mRNA levels.We find ERα and AR in midbrain dopamine neurons in adolescent male rats, indicating that dopamine neurons are poised to respond to circulating sex steroids. We report that androgens (T and DHT) increase TH protein and increase COMT, MAOA and MAOB mRNAs in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We report that all three sex steroids increase AR mRNA. Differential action on ER pathways, with ERα mRNA down-regulation and ERβ mRNA up-regulation by testosterone was found. 5α reductase-1 mRNA was increased by AR activation, and aromatase mRNA was decreased by gonadectomy.We conclude that increased testosterone at adolescence can shift the balance of sex steroid signaling to favor androgenic responses through promoting conversion of T to DHT and increasing AR mRNA. Further, testosterone may increase local dopamine synthesis and metabolism, thereby changing dopamine regulation within the substantia nigra. We show that testosterone action through both AR and ERs modulates synthesis of sex steroid receptor by altering AR and ER mRNA levels in normal adolescent male substantia nigra. Increased sex steroids in the brain at adolescence may alter substantia nigra dopamine pathways, increasing vulnerability for the development of psychopathology.
|Perinatal exposure to a high-fat diet is associated with reduced hepatic sympathetic innervation in one-year old male Japanese macaques. |
Grant, WF; Nicol, LE; Thorn, SR; Grove, KL; Friedman, JE; Marks, DL
PloS one 7 e48119 2012
Our group recently demonstrated that maternal high-fat diet (HFD) consumption is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, increased apoptosis, and changes in gluconeogenic gene expression and chromatin structure in fetal nonhuman primate (NHP) liver. However, little is known about the long-term effects that a HFD has on hepatic nervous system development in offspring, a system that plays an important role in regulating hepatic metabolism. Utilizing immunohistochemistry and Real-Time PCR, we quantified sympathetic nerve fiber density, apoptosis, inflammation, and other autonomic components in the livers of fetal and one-year old Japanese macaques chronically exposed to a HFD. We found that HFD exposure in-utero and throughout the postnatal period (HFD/HFD), when compared to animals receiving a CTR diet for the same developmental period (CTR/CTR), is associated with a 1.7 fold decrease in periportal sympathetic innervation, a 5 fold decrease in parenchymal sympathetic innervation, and a 2.5 fold increase in hepatic apoptosis in the livers of one-year old male animals. Additionally, we observed an increase in hepatic inflammation and a decrease in a key component of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in one-year old HFD/HFD offspring. Taken together, these findings reinforce the impact that continuous exposure to a HFD has in the development of long-term hepatic pathologies in offspring and highlights a potential neuroanatomical basis for hepatic metabolic dysfunction.
|Increased total volume and dopamine β-hydroxylase immunoreactivity of carotid body in spontaneously hypertensive rats. |
Kouki Kato,Jun Wakai,Hideki Matsuda,Tatsumi Kusakabe,Yoshio Yamamoto
Autonomic neuroscience : basic & clinical 169 2012
Under hypertension, it has been reported that the carotid body (CB) is enlarged and noradrenaline (NA) content in CB is increased. Therefore, it is hypothesized that morphological and neurochemical changes in CB are induced in hypertensive animal models. In the present study, we examined the morphological features and dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) immunoreactivity in CB of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR/Izm) and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY/Izm). The CB of SHR/Izm was elongated in terms of the cross section of center and was enlarged in the reconstructed images compared with that of WKY/Izm, and the total volume of CB in SHR/Izm (0.048 ± 0.004 mm(3)) was significantly (p<0.05) increased compared with the value in WKY/Izm (0.032 ± 0.006 mm(3)). By immunohistochemistry, immunoreactivity for tyrosine hydroxylase in CB was mainly observed in glomus cells and the immunostaining properties were similar between WKY/Izm and SHR/Izm. On the other hand, DBH immunoreactivity was mainly observed in nerve fibers around blood vessels and observed in a few glomus cells in CB of WKY/Izm. The number of glomus cells with strong DBH immunoreactivity was increased in SHR/Izm compared with that in WKY/Izm. In conclusion, the present study exhibited the enlargement of CB as three-dimensional image and revealed the enhanced immunoreactivity for DBH of glomus cells in SHR/Izm. These results suggest that the morphology of CB is affected by the effect of sympathetic nerve and that the signal transduction from CB is regulated by NA in glomus cells under hypertensive conditions.
|Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus glycoprotein pseudotyping confers neurotropism to lentiviral vectors. |
Trabalza, A, et al.
Gene Ther., (2012) 2012
We have produced high-titre HIV-1 green fluorescent protein-expressing lentiviral (LV) vectors pseudotyped with strain 3908 Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus glycoprotein (VEEV-G) and used them to study transduction of: (1) rat embryonic motor neuron (MN) and striatal neuron primary cultures, (2) differentiated MN cell line NSC-34 and (3) adult rat striatum. In primary neuronal cultures, transduction with VEEV-G-pseudotyped LV was more efficient and more neuronal than with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G)-pseudotyped LV. In NSC-34 cells clear retrograde transport of VEEV-G vector particles was observed. In the striatum at the injection site, transduction with the VEEV-G vectors driven by cytomegalovirus or phosphoglycerate kinase promoters exhibited a distinct neuronal tropism with no microglial and only a minor astroglial component, superior to that obtained with VSV-G-pseudotyped LV, irrespective of the promoter used. Neuronal transduction efficiency increased over time. Distal to the injection site transduction of mitral cells in the olfactory bulb, thalamic neurons and dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta was detected. This, together with observations of retrograde axonal trafficking in vitro indicates that these vectors also possess low level of retrograde neuronal transduction capability in vivo. In this study, we demonstrate both strong neurotropism as well as sustainability of expression and minimal host immune response in vivo, making the VEEV-G-pseudotyped LV vectors potentially useful for gene therapy of neurodegenerative diseases.Gene Therapy advance online publication, 22 November 2012; doi:10.1038/gt.2012.85.
|Glucose regulated protein 78 diminishes α-synuclein neurotoxicity in a rat model of Parkinson disease. |
Gorbatyuk, MS; Shabashvili, A; Chen, W; Meyers, C; Sullivan, LF; Salganik, M; Lin, JH; Lewin, AS; Muzyczka, N; Gorbatyuk, OS
Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy 20 1327-37 2012
Accumulation of human wild-type (wt) α-synuclein (α-syn) induces neurodegeneration in humans and in experimental rodent models of Parkinson disease (PD). It also leads to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). We overexpressed glucose regulated protein 78, also known as BiP (GRP78/BiP), to test the hypothesis that this ER chaperone modulates the UPR, blocks apoptosis, and promotes the survival of nigral dopamine (DA) neurons in a rat model of PD induced by elevated level of human α-syn. We determined that α-syn activates ER stress mediators associated with pancreatic ER kinase-like ER kinase (PERK) and activating transcription factor-6 (ATF6) signaling pathways as well as proaoptotic CCAAT/-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) in nigral DA neurons. At the same time, overexpression of GRP78/BiP diminished α-syn neurotoxicity by down regulating ER stress mediators and the level of apoptosis, promoted survival of nigral tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive cells and resulted in higher levels of striatal DA, while eliminating amphetamine induced behavioral asymmetry. We also detected a complex between GRP78/BiP and α-syn that may contribute to prevention of the neurotoxicity caused by α-syn. Our data suggest that the molecular chaperone GRP78/BiP plays a neuroprotective role in α-syn-induced Parkinson-like neurodegeneration.
|MANF regulates dopaminergic neuron development in larval zebrafish. |
Y-C Chen,M Sundvik,S Rozov,M Priyadarshini,P Panula
Developmental biology 370 2012
Mesencephalic astrocyte derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) is recognized as a dopaminergic neurotrophic factor, which can protect dopaminergic neurons from neurotoxic damage. However, little is known about the function of MANF during the vertebrate development. Here, we report that MANF expression is widespread during embryonic development and in adult organs analyzed by qPCR and in situ hybridization in zebrafish. Knockdown of MANF expression with antisense splice-blocking morpholino oligonucleotides resulted in no apparent abnormal phenotype. Nevertheless, the dopamine level of MANF morphants was lower than that of the wild type larvae, the expression levels of the two tyrosine hydroxylase gene transcripts were decreased and a decrease in neuron number in certain groups of th1 and th2 cells in the diencephalon region in MANF morphants was observed. These defects were rescued by injection of exogenous manf mRNA. Strikingly, manf mRNA could partly restore the decrease of th1 positive cells in Nr4a2-deficient larvae. These results suggest that MANF is involved in the regulation of the development of dopaminergic system in zebrafish.
|Prostaglandin E2-mediated attenuation of mesocortical dopaminergic pathway is critical for susceptibility to repeated social defeat stress in mice. |
Tanaka, K; Furuyashiki, T; Kitaoka, S; Senzai, Y; Imoto, Y; Segi-Nishida, E; Deguchi, Y; Breyer, RM; Breyer, MD; Narumiya, S
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 32 4319-29 2012
Various kinds of stress are thought to precipitate psychiatric disorders, such as major depression. Whereas studies in rodents have suggested a critical role of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in stress susceptibility, the mechanism of how stress susceptibility is determined through mPFC remains unknown. Here we show a critical role of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), a bioactive lipid derived from arachidonic acid, in repeated social defeat stress in mice. Repeated social defeat increased the PGE(2) level in the subcortical region of the brain, and mice lacking either COX-1, a prostaglandin synthase, or EP1, a PGE receptor, were impaired in induction of social avoidance by repeated social defeat. Given the reported action of EP1 that augments GABAergic inputs to midbrain dopamine neurons, we analyzed dopaminergic response upon social defeat. Analyses of c-Fos expression of VTA dopamine neurons and dopamine turnover in mPFC showed that mesocortical dopaminergic pathway is activated upon social defeat and attenuated with repetition of social defeat in wild-type mice. EP1 deficiency abolished such repeated stress-induced attenuation of mesocortical dopaminergic pathway. Blockade of dopamine D1-like receptor during social defeat restored social avoidance in EP1-deficient mice, suggesting that disinhibited dopaminergic response during social defeat blocks induction of social avoidance. Furthermore, mPFC dopaminergic lesion by local injection of 6-hydroxydopamine, which mimicked the action of EP1 during repeated stress, facilitated induction of social avoidance upon social defeat. Taken together, our data suggest that PGE(2)-EP1 signaling is critical for susceptibility to repeated social defeat stress in mice through attenuation of mesocortical dopaminergic pathway.
|Discharge properties of presumed cholinergic and noncholinergic laterodorsal tegmental neurons related to cortical activation in non-anesthetized mice. |
Neuroscience 224 2012
We have recorded, for the first time, in non-anesthetized, head-restrained mice, a total of 339 single units in and around the laterodorsal (LDT) and sublaterodorsal (SubLDT) tegmental nuclei, which are located, respectively, in, or beneath, the periaqueductal gray and contain cholinergic neurons. The recordings were made during the complete wake-sleep cycle including wakefulness (W), slow-wave sleep (SWS), and paradoxical (or rapid eye movement) sleep (PS). The tegmental neurons displayed either a biphasic narrow or triphasic broad action potential. Seventy-six LDT or SubLDT neurons characterized by their triphasic long-duration action potentials were judged to be cholinergic and this was verified in anesthetized mice using neurobiotin juxtacellular labeling combined with choline acetyltransferase immunohistochemistry of the recorded cell. The 76 presumed cholinergic neurons discharged tonically at the highest rate during W and PS (W/PS-active neurons) as either single isolated spikes or clusters of two to five spikes, and 26 of them discharged selectively during W and PS, these W/PS-selective neurons being found mainly in the SubLDT. The clustering discharge was particularly prominent during PS, when it was associated with an obvious phasic change in the cortical electroencephalogram (EEG), and during waking periods, when it was accompanied by abrupt body movements. During the transition from sleep to waking, the cholinergic W/PS-selective neurons and the LDT or SubLDT noncholinergic W-selective neurons showed firing before the onset of W, while, at the transition from waking to sleep, they ceased firing before sleep onset. At the transition from SWS to PS, all the cholinergic neurons exhibited a significant increase in discharge rate before the onset of PS. The present study in mice supports the view that cholinergic and noncholinergic LDT and SubLDT neurons play an important role in tonic and phasic processes of arousal and cortical EEG activation occurring during W or PS, as well as in the sleep/waking switch.
|Neuroprotective effects of agmatine in mice infused with a single intranasal administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). |
Filipe C Matheus,Aderbal S Aguiar,Adalberto A Castro,Jardel G Villarinho,Juliano Ferreira,Cl Figueiredo,Roger Walz,Adair R S Santos,Carla I Tasca,Rui D S Prediger
Behavioural brain research 235 2012
We have recently demonstrated that rodents treated intranasally with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) suffered impairments in olfactory, cognitive, emotional and motor functions associated with time-dependent disruption of dopaminergic neurotransmission in different brain structures conceivably analogous to those observed during different stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). Agmatine, an endogenous arginine metabolite, has been proposed as a novel neuromodulator that plays protective roles in several models of neuronal cellular damage. In the present study we demonstrated that repeated treatment with agmatine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) during 5 consecutive days increased the survival rate (from 40% to 80%) of 15-month-old C57BL/6 female mice infused with a single intranasal (i.n.) administration of MPTP (1 mg/nostril), improving the general neurological status of the surviving animals. Moreover, pretreatment with agmatine was found to attenuate short-term social memory and locomotor activity impairments observed at different periods after i.n. MPTP administration. These behavioral benefits of exogenous agmatine administration were accompanied by a protection against the MPTP-induced decrease of hippocampal glutamate uptake and loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta of aging mice, without altering brain monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) activity. These results provide new insights in experimental models of PD, indicating that agmatine represents a potential therapeutic tool for the management of cognitive and motor symptoms of PD, together with its neuroprotective effects.
|Striatal pleiotrophin overexpression provides functional and morphological neuroprotection in the 6-hydroxydopamine model. |
Gombash, SE; Lipton, JW; Collier, TJ; Madhavan, L; Steece-Collier, K; Cole-Strauss, A; Terpstra, BT; Spieles-Engemann, AL; Daley, BF; Wohlgenant, SL; Thompson, VB; Manfredsson, FP; Mandel, RJ; Sortwell, CE
Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy 20 544-54 2012
Neurotrophic factors are integrally involved in the development of the nigrostriatal system and in combination with gene therapy, possess great therapeutic potential for Parkinson's disease (PD). Pleiotrophin (PTN) is involved in the development, maintenance, and repair of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system. The present study examined the ability of striatal PTN overexpression, delivered via psueudotyped recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2/1 (rAAV2/1), to provide neuroprotection and functional restoration from 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Striatal PTN overexpression led to significant neuroprotection of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (THir) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and THir neurite density in the striatum, with long-term PTN overexpression producing recovery from 6-OHDA-induced deficits in contralateral forelimb use. Transduced striatal PTN levels were increased threefold compared to adult striatal PTN expression and approximated peak endogenous developmental levels (P1). rAAV2/1 vector exclusively transduced neurons within the striatum and SNpc with approximately half the total striatal volume routinely transduced using our injection parameters. Our results indicate that striatal PTN overexpression can provide neuroprotection for the 6-OHDA lesioned nigrostriatal system based upon morphological and functional measures and that striatal PTN levels similar in magnitude to those expressed in the striatum during development are sufficient to provide neuroprotection from Parkinsonian insult.
|Safety and tolerability of magnetic resonance imaging-guided convection-enhanced delivery of AAV2-hAADC with a novel delivery platform in nonhuman primate striatum. |
San Sebastian, W; Richardson, RM; Kells, AP; Lamarre, C; Bringas, J; Pivirotto, P; Salegio, EA; Dearmond, SJ; Forsayeth, J; Bankiewicz, KS
Human gene therapy 23 210-7 2012
Degeneration of nigrostriatal neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD) causes progressive loss of aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), the enzyme that converts levodopa (l-DOPA) into dopamine in the striatum. Because loss of this enzyme appears to be a major driver of progressive impairment of response to the mainstay drug, l-DOPA, one promising approach has been to use gene therapy to restore AADC activity in the human putamen and thereby restore normal l-DOPA response in patients with PD. An open-label phase I clinical trial of this approach in patients with PD provided encouraging signs of improvement in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores and reductions in antiparkinsonian medications. However, such improvement was modest compared with the results previously reported in parkinsonian rhesus macaques. The reason for this discrepancy may have been that the relatively small volume of vector infused in the clinical study restricted the distribution of AADC expression, such that only about 20% of the postcommissural putamen was covered, as revealed by l-[3-(18)F]-α-methyltyrosine-positron emission tomography. To achieve more quantitative distribution of vector, we have developed a visual guidance system for parenchymal infusion of AAV2. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the combined magnetic resonance imaging-guided delivery system with AAV2-hAADC under conditions that approximate the intended clinical protocol. Our data indicate that this approach directed accurate cannula placement and effective vector distribution without inducing any untoward effects in nonhuman primates infused with a high dose of AAV2-hAADC.
|Chronic administration of the neurotrophic agent cerebrolysin ameliorates the behavioral and morphological changes induced by neonatal ventral hippocampus lesion in a rat model of schizophrenia. |
Vázquez-Roque RA, Ramos B, Tecuatl C, Juárez I, Adame A, de la Cruz F, Zamudio S, Mena R, Rockenstein E, Masliah E, Flores G
Journal of neuroscience research 90 288-306. doi 2012
Neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (nVHL) in rats has been widely used as a neurodevelopmental model to mimic schizophrenia-like behaviors. Recently, we reported that nVHLs result in dendritic retraction and spine loss in prefrontal cortex (PFC) pyramidal neurons and medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Cerebrolysin (Cbl), a neurotrophic peptide mixture, has been reported to ameliorate the synaptic and dendritic pathology in models of aging and neurodevelopmental disorder such as Rett syndrome. This study sought to determine whether Cbl was capable of reducing behavioral and neuronal alterations in nVHL rats. The behavioral analysis included locomotor activity induced by novel environment and amphetamine, social interaction, and sensoriomotor gating. The morphological evaluation included dendritic analysis by using the Golgi-Cox procedure and stereology to quantify the total cell number in PFC and NAcc. Behavioral data show a reduction in the hyperresponsiveness to novel environment- and amphetamine-induced locomotion, with an increase in the total time spent in social interactions and in prepulse inhibition in Cbl-treated nVHL rats. In addition, neuropathological analysis of the limbic regions also showed amelioration of dendritic retraction and spine loss in Cbl-treated nVHL rats. Cbl treatment also ameliorated dendritic pathology and neuronal loss in the PFC and NAcc in nVHL rats. This study demonstrates that Cbl promotes behavioral improvements and recovery of dendritic neuronal damage in postpubertal nVHL rats and suggests that Cbl may have neurotrophic effects in this neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. These findings support the possibility that Cbl has beneficial effects in the management of schizophrenia symptoms. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
|L-amino acid decarboxylase- and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cells in the extended olfactory amygdala and elsewhere in the adult prairie vole brain. |
Eman I Ahmed,Katharine V Northcutt,Joseph S Lonstein
Journal of chemical neuroanatomy 43 2012
Neurons synthesizing dopamine (DA) are widely distributed in the brain and implicated in a tremendous number of physiological and behavioral functions, including socioreproductive behaviors in rodents. We have recently been investigating the possible involvement of sex- and species-specific TH-immunoreactive (TH-ir) cells in the male prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) principal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (pBST) and posterodorsal medial amygdala (MeApd) in the chemosensory control of their monogamous pairbonding and parenting behaviors. These TH-ir cells are not immunoreactive for dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH), suggesting they are not noradrenergic but possibly DAergic. A DAergic phenotype would require them to contain aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) and here we examined the existence of cells immunoreactive for both TH and AADC in the pBST and MeApd of adult virgin male and female prairie voles. We also investigated the presence of TH/AADC cells in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV), medial preoptic area (MPO), arcuate nucleus (ARH), zona incerta (ZI), substantia nigra (SN) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). Among our findings were: (1) the pBST and MeApd each contained completely non-overlapping distributions of TH-ir and AADC-ir cells, (2) the AVPV contained surprisingly few AADC-ir cells and almost no TH-ir cells contained AADC-ir, (3) approximately 60% of the TH-ir cells in the MPO, ARH, and ZI also contained AADC-ir, (4) unexpectedly, only about half of TH-ir cells in the SN and VTA contained AADC-ir, and (5) notable populations of AADC-ir cells were found outside traditional monoamine-synthesizing regions, including some sites that do not contain AADC-ir cells in adult laboratory rats or cats (medial septum and cerebral cortex). In the absence of the chemical requirements to produce DA, monoenzymatic TH-ir cells in the virgin adult prairie vole pBST, MeApd, and elsewhere in their brain may instead produce L-DOPA as an end product and use it as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator, similar to what has been observed for monoenzymatic TH-synthesizing cells in the laboratory rat brain.
|Endogenous repair by the activation of cell survival signalling cascades during the early stages of rat Parkinsonism. |
Lui, NP; Chen, LW; Yung, WH; Chan, YS; Yung, KK
PloS one 7 e51294 2012
Here we report a previously unknown self repair mechanism during extremely early stages of rat Parkinsonism. Two important cell survival signaling cascades, Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinases (PI3K)/Akt pathway and extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK/MAPK) pathway, could be responsible for this potential endogenous rescue system. In the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat, the phosphorylated p44/42 MAPK and its downstream target, the phosphorylated Bad at Ser 112, were up-regulated at post-lesion day 3 and lasted for a couple of weeks. Although the change in the phosphorylated Akt kinase was negligible throughout the studied period, its downstream target, the phosphorylated Bad at 136, was increased from post-lesion day 3 to post-lesion day 14. In the mean time, nestin-positive reactive astrocytes with low levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) appeared at post-lesion day 3 in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat. BDNF was expressed in both striatum and substantia nigra whereas GDNF was displayed in striatum only. At post-lesion day 14, nestin, BDNF and GDNF expressions were diminished. These neurotrophic factors were believed to initiate the above anti-apoptotic signal transduction cascades as we could see that their expression patterns were similar. The data strongly suggest that there is an endogenous repair effort by evoking the cell survival signaling and possibly via the releases of BDNF and GDNF from nestin-immunoreactive reactive astrocytes. ERK/MAPK pathway was proposed to be the key endogenous neuroprotective mechanisms, particularly in early stages of rat Parkinsonism. However, the self repair effort is only functional within an extremely short time window immediately after onset.
|Ceftriaxone ameliorates motor deficits and protects dopaminergic neurons in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats. |
Leung, TC; Lui, CN; Chen, LW; Yung, WH; Chan, YS; Yung, KK
ACS chemical neuroscience 3 22-30 2012
Parkinson's disease is caused by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra. There is no current promising treatment for neuroprotection of dopaminergic neurons. Ceftriaxone is a beta-lactam antibiotic and has been reported to offer neuroprotective effects (Rothstein, J.-D., Patel, S., Regan, M.-R., Haenggeli, C., Huang, Y.-H., Bergles, D.-E., Jin, L., Dykes, H.-M., Vidensky, S., Chung, D.-S., Toan, S.-V., Bruijn, L.-I., Su, Z.-Z., Gupta, P., and Fisher, P.-B. (2005) Beta-lactam antibiotics offer neuroprotection by increasing glutamate transporter expression Nature433, 73-77). In the present study, efficacy of ceftriaxone in neuroprotection of dopaminergic neurons and amelioration of motor deficits in a rat model of Parkinson's disease were investigated. Ceftriaxone was administrated in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats. Using behavioral tests, grip strength and numbers of apomorphine-induced contralateral rotation were declined in the ceftriaxone-treated group. More importantly, cell death of dopaminergic neurons was found to decrease. In addition, both the protein expression and immunoreactivity for GLT-1 were up-regulated. The present results strongly indicate that ceftriaxone is a potential agent in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
|α-1 Adrenergic receptors are localized on presynaptic elements in the nucleus accumbens and regulate mesolimbic dopamine transmission. |
Mitrano, DA; Schroeder, JP; Smith, Y; Cortright, JJ; Bubula, N; Vezina, P; Weinshenker, D
Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 37 2161-72 2012
Brainstem noradrenergic neurons innervate the mesocorticolimbic reward pathway both directly and indirectly, with norepinephrine facilitating dopamine (DA) neurotransmission via α1-adrenergic receptors (α1ARs). Although α1AR signaling in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) promotes mesolimbic transmission and drug-induced behaviors, the potential contribution of α1ARs in other parts of the pathway, such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc), has not been investigated before. We found that local blockade of α1ARs in the medial NAc shell, but not the VTA, attenuates cocaine- and morphine-induced locomotion. To determine the neuronal substrates that could mediate these effects, we analyzed the cellular, subcellular, and subsynaptic localization of α1ARs and characterized the chemical phenotypes of α1AR-containing elements within the mesocorticolimbic system using single and double immunocytochemical methods at the electron microscopic (EM) level. We found that α1ARs are found mainly extra-synaptically in axons and axon terminals in the NAc and are enriched in glutamatergic and dopaminergic elements. α1ARs are also abundant in glutamatergic terminals in the PFC, and in GABA-positive terminals in the VTA. In line with these observations, microdialysis experiments revealed that local blockade of α1ARs attenuated the increase in extracellular DA in the medial NAc shell following administration of cocaine. These data indicate that local α1ARs control DA transmission in the medial NAc shell and behavioral responses to drugs of abuse.
|Fos-activation of FoxP2 and Lmx1b neurons in the parabrachial nucleus evoked by hypotension and hypertension in conscious rats. |
Miller, RL; Knuepfer, MM; Wang, MH; Denny, GO; Gray, PA; Loewy, AD
Neuroscience 218 110-25 2012
The parabrachial nucleus (PB) is a brainstem cell group that receives a strong input from the nucleus tractus solitarius regarding the physiological status of the internal organs and sends efferent projections throughout the forebrain. Since the neuroanatomical organization of the PB remains unclear, our first step was to use specific antibodies against two neural lineage transcription factors: Forkhead box protein2 (FoxP2) and LIM homeodomain transcription factor 1 beta (Lmx1b) to define the PB in adult rats. This allowed us to construct a cytoarchitectonic PB map based on the distribution of neurons that constitutively express these two transcription factors. Second, the in situ hybridization method combined with immunohistochemistry demonstrated that mRNA for glutamate vesicular transporter Vglut2 (Slc17a6) was present in most of the Lmx1b+ and FoxP2+ parabrachial neurons, indicating these neurons use glutamate as a transmitter. Third, conscious rats were maintained in a hypotensive or hypertensive state for 2h, and then, their brainstems were prepared by the standard c-Fos method which is a measure of neuronal activity. Both hypotension and hypertension resulted in c-Fos activation of Lmx1b+ neurons in the external lateral-outer subdivision of the PB (PBel-outer). Hypotension, but not hypertension, caused c-Fos activity in the FoxP2+ neurons of the central lateral PB (PBcl) subnucleus. The Kölliker-Fuse nucleus as well as the lateral crescent PB and rostral-most part of the PBcl contain neurons that co-express FoxP2+ and Lmx1b+, but none of these were activated after blood pressure changes. Salt-sensitive FoxP2 neurons in the pre-locus coeruleus and PBel-inner were not c-Fos activated following blood pressure changes. In summary, the present study shows that the PBel-outer and PBcl subnuclei originate from two different neural progenitors, contain glutamatergic neurons, and are affected by blood pressure changes, with the PBel-outer reacting to both hypo- and hypertension, and the PBcl signaling only hypotensive changes.
|Glutamate corelease promotes growth and survival of midbrain dopamine neurons. |
Fortin, GM; Bourque, MJ; Mendez, JA; Leo, D; Nordenankar, K; Birgner, C; Arvidsson, E; Rymar, VV; Bérubé-Carrière, N; Claveau, AM; Descarries, L; Sadikot, AF; Wallén-Mackenzie, Å; Trudeau, LÉ
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 32 17477-91 2012
Recent studies have proposed that glutamate corelease by mesostriatal dopamine (DA) neurons regulates behavioral activation by psychostimulants. How and when glutamate release by DA neurons might play this role remains unclear. Considering evidence for early expression of the type 2 vesicular glutamate transporter in mesencephalic DA neurons, we hypothesized that this cophenotype is particularly important during development. Using a conditional gene knock-out approach to selectively disrupt the Vglut2 gene in mouse DA neurons, we obtained in vitro and in vivo evidence for reduced growth and survival of mesencephalic DA neurons, associated with a decrease in the density of DA innervation in the nucleus accumbens, reduced activity-dependent DA release, and impaired motor behavior. These findings provide strong evidence for a functional role of the glutamatergic cophenotype in the development of mesencephalic DA neurons, opening new perspectives into the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders involving the mesostriatal DA system.
|A non-mammalian type opsin 5 functions dually in the photoreceptive and non-photoreceptive organs of birds. |
Ohuchi, H; Yamashita, T; Tomonari, S; Fujita-Yanagibayashi, S; Sakai, K; Noji, S; Shichida, Y
PloS one 7 e31534 2012
A mammalian type opsin 5 (neuropsin) is a recently identified ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive pigment of the retina and other photosensitive organs in birds. Two other opsin 5-related molecules have been found in the genomes of non-mammalian vertebrates. However, their functions have not been examined as yet. Here, we identify the molecular properties of a second avian opsin 5, cOpn5L2 (chicken opsin 5-like 2), and its localization in the post-hatch chicken. Spectrophotometric analysis and radionucleotide-binding assay have revealed that cOpn5L2 is a UV-sensitive bistable pigment that couples with the Gi subtype of guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein). As a bistable pigment, it also shows the direct binding ability to agonist all-trans-retinal to activate G protein. The absorption maxima of UV-light-absorbing and visible light-absorbing forms were 350 and 521 nm, respectively. Expression analysis showed relatively high expression of cOpn5L2 mRNA in the adrenal gland, which is not photoreceptive but an endocrine organ, while lower expression was found in the brain and retina. At the protein level, cOpn5L2 immunoreactive cells were present in the chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland. In the brain, cOpn5L2 immunoreactive cells were found in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus, known for photoreceptive deep brain areas. In the retina, cOpn5L2 protein was localized to subsets of cells in the ganglion cell layer and the inner nuclear layer. These results suggest that the non-mammalian type opsin 5 (Opn5L2) functions as a second UV sensor in the photoreceptive organs, while it might function as chemosensor using its direct binding ability to agonist all-trans-retinal in non-photoreceptive organs such as the adrenal gland of birds.
|Differential developmental deficits in retinal function in the absence of either protein tyrosine sulfotransferase-1 or -2. |
Sherry, DM; Kanan, Y; Hamilton, R; Hoffhines, A; Arbogast, KL; Fliesler, SJ; Naash, MI; Moore, KL; Al-Ubaidi, MR
PloS one 7 e39702 2012
To investigate the role(s) of protein-tyrosine sulfation in the retina and to determine the differential role(s) of tyrosylprotein sulfotransferases (TPST) 1 and 2 in vision, retinal function and structure were examined in mice lacking TPST-1 or TPST-2. Despite the normal histologic retinal appearance in both Tpst1(-/-) and Tpst2(-/-) mice, retinal function was compromised during early development. However, Tpst1(-/-) retinas became electrophysiologically normal by postnatal day 90 while Tpst2(-/-) mice did not functionally normalize with age. Ultrastructurally, the absence of TPST-1 or TPST-2 caused minor reductions in neuronal plexus. These results demonstrate the functional importance of protein-tyrosine sulfation for proper development of the retina and suggest that the different phenotypes resulting from elimination of either TPST-1 or -2 may reflect differential expression patterns or levels of the enzymes. Furthermore, single knock-out mice of either TPST-1 or -2 did not phenocopy mice with double-knockout of both TPSTs, suggesting that the functions of the TPSTs are at least partially redundant, which points to the functional importance of these enzymes in the retina.
|Role of miRNAs in neuronal differentiation from human embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem cells. |
Liu, J; Githinji, J; Mclaughlin, B; Wilczek, K; Nolta, J
Stem cell reviews 8 1129-37 2012
microRNAs (miRNAs) are important modulators in regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and are therefore emerging as strong mediators in neural fate determination. Here, by use of the model of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived neurogenesis, miRNAs involved in the differentiation from neural stem cells (hNSC) to neurons were profiled and identified. hNSC were differentiated into the neural lineage, out of which the neuronal subset was enriched through cell sorting based on select combinatorial biomarkers: CD15-/CD29(Low)/CD24(High). This relatively pure and viable subpopulation expressed the neuronal marker β III-tubulin. The miRNA array demonstrated that a number of miRNAs were simultaneously induced or suppressed in neurons, as compared to hNSC. Real-time PCR further validated the decrease in levels of miR214, but increase in brain-specific miR7 and miR9 in the derived neurons. For functional studies, hNSC were stably transduced with lentiviral vectors carrying specific constructs to downregulate miR214 or to upregulate miR7. Manipulation of either miR214 or miR7 did not affect the expression of β III-tubulin or neurofilament, however miR7 overexpression gave rise to enhanced synapsin expression in the derived neurons. This indicated that miR7 might play an important role in neurite outgrowth and synapse formation. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that miRNAs function as important modulators in neural lineage determination. These studies shed light on strategies to optimize in vitro differentiation efficiencies to mature neurons for use in drug discovery studies and potential future clinical applications.
|Progression to adrenocortical tumorigenesis in mice and humans through insulin-like growth factor 2 and β-catenin. |
Heaton, JH; Wood, MA; Kim, AC; Lima, LO; Barlaskar, FM; Almeida, MQ; Fragoso, MC; Kuick, R; Lerario, AM; Simon, DP; Soares, IC; Starnes, E; Thomas, DG; Latronico, AC; Giordano, TJ; Hammer, GD
The American journal of pathology 181 1017-33 2012
Dysregulation of the WNT and insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) signaling pathways has been implicated in sporadic and syndromic forms of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). Abnormal β-catenin staining and CTNNB1 mutations are reported to be common in both adrenocortical adenoma and ACC, whereas elevated IGF2 expression is associated primarily with ACC. To better understand the contribution of these pathways in the tumorigenesis of ACC, we examined clinicopathological and molecular data and used mouse models. Evaluation of adrenal tumors from 118 adult patients demonstrated an increase in CTNNB1 mutations and abnormal β-catenin accumulation in both adrenocortical adenoma and ACC. In ACC, these features were adversely associated with survival. Mice with stabilized β-catenin exhibited a temporal progression of increased adrenocortical hyperplasia, with subsequent microscopic and macroscopic adenoma formation. Elevated Igf2 expression alone did not cause hyperplasia. With the combination of stabilized β-catenin and elevated Igf2 expression, adrenal glands were larger, displayed earlier onset of hyperplasia, and developed more frequent macroscopic adenomas (as well as one carcinoma). Our results are consistent with a model in which dysregulation of one pathway may result in adrenal hyperplasia, but accumulation of a second or multiple alterations is necessary for tumorigenesis.
|Unmyelinated nerve fibers in the human dental pulp express markers for myelinated fibers and show sodium channel accumulations. |
Henry, MA; Luo, S; Levinson, SR
BMC neuroscience 13 29 2012
The dental pulp is a common source of pain and is used to study peripheral inflammatory pain mechanisms. Results show most fibers are unmyelinated, yet recent findings in experimental animals suggest many pulpal afferents originate from fibers that are myelinated at more proximal locations. Here we use the human dental pulp and confocal microscopy to examine the staining relationships of neurofilament heavy (NFH), a protein commonly expressed in myelinated afferents, with other markers to test the possibility that unmyelinated pulpal afferents originate from myelinated axons. Other staining relationships studied included myelin basic protein (MBP), protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 to identify all nerve fibers, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) to identify sympathetic fibers, contactin-associated protein (caspr) to identify nodal sites, S-100 to identify Schwann cells and sodium channels (NaChs).Results show NFH expression in most PGP9.5 fibers except those with TH and include the broad expression of NFH in axons lacking MBP. Fibers with NFH and MBP show NaCh clusters at nodal sites as expected, but surprisingly, NaCh accumulations are also seen in unmyelinated fibers with NFH, and in fibers with NFH that lack Schwann cell associations.The expression of NFH in most axons suggests a myelinated origin for many pulpal afferents, while the presence of NaCh clusters in unmyelinated fibers suggests an inherent capacity for the unmyelinated segments of myelinated fibers to form NaCh accumulations. These findings have broad implications on the use of dental pulp to study pain mechanisms and suggest possible novel mechanisms responsible for NaCh cluster formation and neuronal excitability.
|Eriocaulon buergerianum extract protects PC12 cells and neurons in zebrafish against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced damage. |
Wang, M; Zhang, Z; Cheang, LC; Lin, Z; Lee, SM
Chinese medicine 6 16 2011
Ericaulon buergerianum (Gujingcao) is an ophthalmic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial Chinese medicinal herb. This study aims to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Ericaulon buergerianum ethanol extract (EBE) and to elucidate its underlying action mechanism.The viability of dopaminergic (DA) neuron in zebrafish was examined by anti-tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunostaining. The locomotor activity of zebrafish was assessed with a digital video tracking system. The viability and cellular damage of the PC12 cells were determined by MTT and LDH assays respectively. The nuclear morphological changes in apoptotic cells were evaluated with DNA staining by Hoechst 33342 dye. Intracellular nitric oxide (NO) was quantified by DAF-FM diacetate staining. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was determined by Western blot.EBE inhibited the 6-OHDA-induced decrease in total distance of movement in zebrafish. Pretreatments of EBE (25, 50, 100 and 200 μg/ml) increased the viability of 6-OHDA-damaged PC12 cells in a dose dependent manner. Protection against 6-OHDA-induced nuclear fragmentation and accumulation of apoptotic bodies was also observed in EBE pretreated cells. Anti-oxidative (inhibition of NO production and iNOS expression in PC12 cells in vitro) activities of EBE are related to its neuroprotective effects in 6-OHDA-induced DA neuron damage.EBE exhibited significant neuroprotective activities in zebrafish, including recovery of dopaminergic neuron loss caused by 6-OHDA in a dose-dependent manner in vivo, inhibition of 6-OHDA-induced decrease of total distance in movement in zebrafish. The iNOS-NO pathway may be involved.
|Types of cholecystokinin-containing periglomerular cells in the mouse olfactory bulb. |
Baltanás FC, Curto GG, Gómez C, Díaz D, Murias AR, Crespo C, Erdelyi F, Szabó G, Alonso JR, Weruaga E.
Journal of neuroscience research 89 35-43 2011
The periglomerular cells (PG) of the olfactory bulb (OB) are involved in the primary processing and the refinement of sensory information from the olfactory epithelium. The neurochemical composition of these neurons has been studied in depth in many species, and over the last decades such studies have focused mainly on the rat. The increasing use of genetic models for research into olfactory function demands a profound characterization of the mouse olfactory bulb, including the chemical composition of bulbar interneurons. Regarding both their connectivity with the olfactory nerve and their neurochemical fate, recently, two different types of PG have been identified in the mouse. In the present report, we analyze both the synaptology and the chemical composition of specific PG populations in the murine olfactory bulb, in particular, those containing the neuropeptide cholecystokinin. Our results demonstrate the existence in the mouse of non-GABAergic PG and that these establish synaptic contacts with the olfactory nerve within the glomeruli. Based on previous classifications, we propose that this population would constitute a new subtype of type 1 mouse PG. In addition, we demonstrate the partial coexistence of cholecystokinin with the calcium-binding proteins neurocalcin and parvalbumin. All these findings add further data to our knowledge of the synaptology and neurochemistry of mouse PG. The differences observed from other rodents reflect the neurochemical heterogeneity of PG in the mammalian OB.
|The netrin receptor DCC is required in the pubertal organization of mesocortical dopamine circuitry. |
Manitt, C; Mimee, A; Eng, C; Pokinko, M; Stroh, T; Cooper, HM; Kolb, B; Flores, C
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 31 8381-94 2011
Netrins are guidance cues involved in neural connectivity. We have shown that the netrin-1 receptor DCC (deleted in colorectal cancer) is involved in the functional organization of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system. Adult mice with a heterozygous loss-of-function mutation in dcc exhibit changes in indexes of DA function, including DA-related behaviors. These phenotypes are only observed after puberty, a critical period in the maturation of the mesocortical DA projection. Here, we examined whether dcc heterozygous mice exhibit structural changes in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) DA synaptic connectivity, before and after puberty. Stereological counts of tyrosine-hydroxylase (TH)-positive varicosities were increased in the cingulate 1 and prelimbic regions of the pregenual mPFC. dcc heterozygous mice also exhibited alterations in the size, complexity, and dendritic spine density of mPFC layer V pyramidal neuron basilar dendritic arbors. Remarkably, these presynaptic and postsynaptic partner phenotypes were not observed in juvenile mice, suggesting that DCC selectively influences the extensive branching and synaptic differentiation that occurs in the maturing mPFC DA circuit at puberty. Immunolabeling experiments in wild-type mice demonstrated that DCC is segregated to TH-positive fibers innervating the nucleus accumbens, with only scarce DCC labeling in mPFC TH-positive fibers. Netrin had an inverted target expression pattern. Thus, DCC-mediated netrin-1 signaling may influence the formation/maintenance of mesocorticolimbic DA topography. In support of this, we report that dcc heterozygous mice exhibit a twofold increase in the density of mPFC DCC/TH-positive varicosities. Our results implicate DCC-mediated netrin-1 signaling in the establishment of mPFC DA circuitry during puberty.
|Modifications of neuroactive steroid levels in an experimental Model of nigrostriatal degeneration: potential relevance to the pathophysiology of Parkinson\'s Disease. |
Melcangi RC, Caruso D, Levandis G, Abbiati F, Armentero MT, Blandini F
Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN 2011
An important link between neuroactive steroids and neurodegenerative disorders has recently been suggested. Indeed, in several neurodegenerative experimental models the levels of neuroactive steroids are affected and their administration exerts neuroprotective effects. However, scarce information has so far been obtained on the neuroactive steroid levels present in Parkinson\'s disease. To this aim, using an experimental model of loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons obtained by stereotaxic injection of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), we evaluated by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry the levels of several neuroactive steroids in the striatum and cerebral cortex of 6-OHDA-lesioned male rats. Among the neuroactive steroid levels assessed (i.e., pregnenolone, progesterone, dihydroprogesterone, tetrahydroprogesterone, isopregnanolone, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, 3α-diol, dehydroepiandrosterone, 17α-estradiol, and 17β-estradiol), we observed a significant decrease of pregnenolone in the striatum. A similar effect was also observed on the levels of dihydroprogesterone present in this cerebral area and also in the cerebral cortex. Interestingly, an increase of isopregnanolone also occurred in the striatum and in the cerebral cortex. Altogether, these results suggesting that progesterone metabolism is affected in an experimental model of Parkinson\'s disease further highlight the link between neuroactive steroids and the neurodegenerative diseases.
|The excitement of Multiple noradrenergic cell groups in the rat brain related to hyperbaric oxygen seizure. |
Arai M, Takata K, Takeda Y, Mizobuchi S, Morita K
Acta medica Okayama 65 163-8. 2011
The mechanism of oxygen toxicity for central nervous system and hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) seizure has not been clarified. Noradrenergic cells in the brain may contribute to HBO seizure. In this study, we defined the activation of noradrenergic cells during HBO exposure by c-fos immunohistochemistry. Electroencephalogram electrodes were pre-implanted in all animals under general anesthesia. In HBO seizure animals, HBO was induced with 5 atm of 100% oxygen until manifestation of general tonic convulsion. HBO non-seizure animals were exposed to 25 min of HBO. Control animals were put in the chamber for 120 min without pressurization. All animals were processed for c-fos immunohistochemical staining. All animals in the HBO seizure group showed electrical discharge on EEG. In the immunohistochemistry, c-fos was increased in the A1, A2 and A6 cells of the HBO seizure group, and in the A2 and A6 cells of the HBO non-seizure group, yet was extremely low in all three cell types in the control group. These results suggest the participation of noradrenaline in HBO seizure, which can be explained by the early excitement of A1 cells due to their higher sensitivity to high blood pressure, hyperoxia, or by the post-seizure activation of all noradrenergic cells.
|Characterisation of a novel model of Parkinson\'s disease by intra-striatal infusion of the pesticide rotenone. |
Mulcahy P, Walsh S, Paucard A, Rea K, Dowd E
Neuroscience 181 234-42. Epub 2011 Jan 26. 2011
One of the most promising models of Parkinson\'s disease to have emerged in recent years is one in which the pesticide, rotenone, is administered systemically to laboratory rats. However, this model is associated with peripheral toxicity and high mortality rates which impede its widespread application in preclinical drug discovery research. This study sought to determine if administration of rotenone directly into the rat striatum could also mimic the motor dysfunction and neuropathological features of the human condition while overcoming the toxicity associated with systemic administration. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were infused with control or rotenone solutions into the striatum. The effect of the pesticide on body weight and spontaneous motor function (Corridor, Stepping and Whisker Tests) was assessed ante mortem, and its effect on nigrostriatal integrity (quantitative tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry), α-synuclein expression (quantitative α-synuclein immunohistochemistry), and striatal neurotransmitter content (HLPC for dopamine, GABA and noradrenaline) was assessed post mortem. Intra-striatal infusion of rotenone had no detrimental effect on the rats\' body weight but caused significant impairments in contralateral motor function. Neuropathologically, rotenone caused significant nigrostriatal degeneration and selective loss of dopamine from the striatum but there was no evidence of any change in α-synuclein expression in the rotenone-infused rats. This study shows intra-striatal rotenone to be capable of modelling some of the main behavioural and neuropathological features of human Parkinsonism, while being less toxic than its systemic counterpart. Thus, this model may prove to be useful in future Parkinson\'s disease drug discovery programmes.Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
|Subsecond regulation of striatal dopamine release by pre-synaptic KATP channels. |
Jyoti C Patel,Paul Witkovsky,William A Coetzee,Margaret E Rice
Journal of neurochemistry 118 2011
ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channels are composed of pore-forming subunits, typically Kir6.2 in neurons, and regulatory sulfonylurea receptor subunits. In dorsal striatum, activity-dependent H(2)O(2) produced from glutamate receptor activation inhibits dopamine release via K(ATP) channels. Sources of modulatory H(2)O(2) include striatal medium spiny neurons, but not dopaminergic axons. Using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in guinea-pig striatal slices and immunohistochemistry, we determined the time window for H(2)O(2)/K(ATP)-channel-mediated inhibition and assessed whether modulatory K(ATP) channels are on dopaminergic axons. Comparison of paired-pulse suppression of dopamine release in the absence and presence of glibenclamide, a K(ATP)-channel blocker, or mercaptosuccinate, a glutathione peroxidase inhibitor that enhances endogenous H(2)O(2) levels, revealed a time window for inhibition of 500-1000 ms after stimulation. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated localization of Kir6.2 K(ATP)-channel subunits on dopaminergic axons. Consistent with the presence of functional K(ATP) channels on dopaminergic axons, K(ATP)-channel openers, diazoxide and cromakalim, suppressed single-pulse evoked dopamine release. Although cholinergic interneurons that tonically regulate dopamine release also express K(ATP) channels, diazoxide did not induce the enhanced frequency responsiveness of dopamine release seen with nicotinic-receptor blockade. Together, these studies reveal subsecond regulation of striatal dopamine release by endogenous H(2)O(2) acting at K(ATP) channels on dopaminergic axons, including a role in paired-pulse suppression.
|Mice with genetic deletion of the heparin-binding growth factor midkine exhibit early preclinical features of Parkinson\'s disease. |
Prediger RD, Rojas-Mayorquin AE, Aguiar AS Jr, Chevarin C, Mongeau R, Hamon M, Lanfumey L, Del Bel E, Muramatsu H, Courty J, Raisman-Vozari R
J Neural Transm 2011
There is considerable evidence showing that the neurodegenerative processes that lead to sporadic Parkinson\'s disease (PD) begin many years before the appearance of the characteristic motor symptoms and that impairments in olfactory, cognitive and motor functions are associated with time-dependent disruption of dopaminergic neurotransmission in different brain areas. Midkine is a 13-kDa retinoic acid-induced heparin-binding growth factor involved in many biological processes in the central nervous system such as cell migration, neurogenesis and tissue repair. The abnormal midkine expression may be associated with neurochemical dysfunction in the dopaminergic system and cognitive impairments in rodents. Here, we employed adult midkine knockout mice (Mdk(-/-)) to further investigate the relevance of midkine in dopaminergic neurotransmission and in olfactory, cognitive and motor functions. Mdk(/-) mice displayed pronounced impairments in their olfactory discrimination ability and short-term social recognition memory with no gross motor alterations. Moreover, the genetic deletion of midkine decreased the expression of the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase in the substantia nigra reducing partially the levels of dopamine and its metabolites in the olfactory bulb and striatum of mice. These findings indicate that the genetic deletion of midkine causes a partial loss of dopaminergic neurons and depletion of dopamine, resulting in olfactory and memory deficits with no major motor impairments. Therefore, Mdk(-/-) mice may represent a promising animal model for the study of the early stages of PD and for testing new therapeutic strategies to restore sensorial and cognitive processes in PD.
|Circadian nursing induces PER1 protein in neuroendocrine tyrosine hydroxylase neurones in the rabbit doe. |
E Meza,S M Waliszewski,M Caba
Journal of neuroendocrinology 23 2011
Rabbit does nurse their pups once a day with circadian periodicity and pups ingest up to 35% of their body weight in milk in 5?min. In the doe, there is a massive release of prolactin. We hypothesised that periodic suckling synchronises dopaminergic populations that control prolactin secretion. We explored this by immunohistochemical colocalisation of PER1 protein, the product of the clock gene Per1 on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) cells in three dopaminergic populations: tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA), periventricular hypophyseal dopaminergic (PHDA) and incertohypothalamic dopaminergic (IHDA) cells. PER1/TH colocalisation was explored every 4?h through a complete 24-h cycle at postpartum day 7 in does that nursed their pups either at 10.00?h (ZT03) or at 02.00?h (ZT19; ZT0?=?07.00?h, time of lights on). Nonpregnant, nonlactating females were used as controls. In control females, there was a rhythm of PER1 that peaks at ZT15. By contrast, in nursed does, the PER1 peak shifted in parallel to scheduled nursing in TIDA and PHDA cells but not in IHDA cells, which are not related to the control of prolactin. Next, we determined that the absence of suckling for 48?h significantly decreases the number of PER1/TH colocalised cells in PHDA but not TIDA cells. Locomotor behaviour in control subjects was maximal at around the time of lights on but, in nursed females, shifted at around the time of scheduled nursing. Finally, in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, there is a maximal expression of PER1 at ZT11 in the three groups. However, this maximal expression was significantly lower in the nursed groups in relation to the control group and in the groups deprived of nursing for 48?h. We conclude that suckling synchronises dopaminergic cells related to the control of prolactin and appears to be a nonphotic stimulus for the suprachiasmatic nucleus.
|Interactive effects of development and hypoxia on catecholamine synthesis and cardiac function in zebrafish (Danio rerio). |
Steele SL, Ekker M, Perry SF
J Comp Physiol B 2011
The rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of catecholamines is tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the activity of which is dependent on molecular oxygen. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) possess two non-allelic TH coding genes, TH1 and TH2. A principal goal of the present study was to determine if the expression of these genes is sensitive to environmental hypoxia. Additionally, we sought to determine if catecholamine content of larvae was changed by environmental hypoxia, and whether the hearts of hypoxic larvae were equally responsive to exogenous catecholamine (norepinephrine) exposure. After 2 days of exposure to hypoxia [5-7 days post-fertilization (dpf); PO(2) = 30 Torr] TH2 mRNA expression was significantly lower and dopamine β hydroxylase (DβH) mRNA was significantly higher in whole larvae. Whole body catecholamine levels were unchanged until after 4 days of hypoxic exposure (5-9 dpf), at which time there was a significant increase in epinephrine and norepinephrine contents. Norepinephrine content was significantly elevated in the hearts of adult fish after 2 and 4 days of hypoxic exposure, and TH1 mRNA expression was increased in the kidney of both groups. After 2 or 4 days of exposure to hypoxia, larvae displayed significantly lower heart rates than normoxic fish. However, application of exogenous norepinephrine caused similar increases in heart rate in both groups. Overall, it is concluded that the mRNA expression of TH1 and TH2 is differentially affected by hypoxia exposure in larvae and adults. Also, catecholamine biosynthesis appears to be activated by 2 dpf and although whole body catecholamine levels increase during hypoxia (possibly promoting downregulation of cardiac β-adrenergic receptors), there is no accompanying decrease in the response of the heart to adrenergic stimulation.
|Distribution of glycine immunoreactivity in the brain of the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baeri): comparison with γ-aminobutyric acid. |
Adrio F, Rodríguez-Moldes I, Anadón R
The Journal of comparative neurology 519 1115-42. doi 2011
Glycine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are the main inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS) of vertebrates. Studies on the distribution of glycinergic neurons and fibers have been carried out mainly in rodents and lampreys. With the aim of discovering more about the early evolution of this system in vertebrates, we analyzed the distribution of glycine-immunoreactive (Gly-ir) neurons and fibers in the CNS of a basal ray-finned fish, the Siberian sturgeon (Chondrostei, Acipenseriformes), by use of immunohistochemical techniques. We also compared the distribution of glycine and GABA by the use of double-immunofluorescence techniques and confocal microscopy. Our results revealed the presence of Gly-ir cells in different regions of the CNS, such as olfactory bulbs, preoptic area, hypothalamus, thalamus, pretectum, optic tectum, tegmentum and rostral spinal cord, although most of the Gly-ir cells and the most intensely immunoreactive cells were located in the rhombencephalon, mainly in the octavolateral area and reticular formation. In addition, coronet cells of the basal hypothalamus and saccus vasculosus were Gly-ir. Glycinergic fibers coursed along most brain regions and were more abundant in the thalamus, hypothalamus, optic tectum, tegmentum, isthmic region, and basal rhombencephalon. The Mauthner cell perikaryon was richly innervated by Gly-ir boutons, as reported for teleosts. With regard to the colocalization of glycine and GABA, double-immunoreactive cells were located mainly in the rhombencephalon. The results enable us to conclude that the distribution of glycine in the sturgeon brain is more similar to that observed in lampreys than that observed in mammals.Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
|Dual phenotype kisspeptin-dopamine neurones of the rostral periventricular area of the third ventricle project to gonadotrophin-releasing hormone neurones. |
Clarkson J, Herbison AE
J Neuroendocrinol 23 293-301. doi 2011
The neuropeptide kisspeptin and its G-protein-coupled receptor, Gpr54, are critical regulators of fertility. Two major populations of kisspeptin neurones exist in the rodent: one in the rostral periventricular area of the third ventricle (RP3V) and another in the arcuate nucleus. The RP3V population of kisspeptin neurones is crucial for the generation of the luteinising hormone surge that drives ovulation in females. The RP3V kisspeptin neurones are sexually dimorphic, with many more neurones in females than males, and they project to gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expressing neurones in the RP3V are also sexually dimorphic and are assumed to project to GnRH neurones. In the present study, we examined the coexpression of kisspeptin and TH peptides in the RP3V of dioestrous and pro-oestrous female mice. We also investigated whether kisspeptin and TH peptides colocalised in terminal appositions with GnRH neurones in the rostral preoptic area (rPOA). Approximately half of the kisspeptin neurones in the RP3V were found to also express TH and vice versa, although there was no difference between mice in dioestrus or pro-oestrus. The majority (95%) of GnRH neurones in the rPOA exhibited a close apposition from a kisspeptin fibre, whereas only one quarter exhibited a close apposition from a TH fibre. Many of the TH close appositions with GnRH neurones coexpressed kisspeptin (62-86%), although these dual-labelled appositions comprised < 20% of all kisspeptin appositions on GnRH neurones. The percentage of GnRH neurones with kisspeptin, TH and double-labelled appositions did not differ between dioestrous and pro-oestrous mice. These findings indicate that a subpopulation of kisspeptin neurones expressing dopamine innervate GnRH neurones in the rPOA.© 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
|Region-, neuron-, and signaling pathway-specific increases in prolactin responsiveness in reproductively experienced female rats. |
Sjoeholm, A; Bridges, RS; Grattan, DR; Anderson, GM
Endocrinology 152 1979-88 2011
Pregnancy and lactation cause long-lasting enhancements in maternal behavior and other physiological functions, along with increased hypothalamic prolactin receptor expression. To directly test whether reproductive experience increases prolactin responsiveness in the arcuate, paraventricular, and supraoptic nuclei and the medial preoptic area, female rats experienced a full pregnancy and lactation or remained as age-matched virgin controls. At 5 wk after weaning, rats received 2.5, 100, or 4000 ng ovine prolactin or vehicle intracerebroventricularly. The brains underwent immunohistochemistry for the phosphorylated forms of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (pSTAT5) or ERK1/2 (pERK1/2). There was a marked increase in pSTAT5 and pERK1/2 in response to prolactin in the regions examined in both virgin and primiparous rats. Primiparous rats exhibited approximately double the number of prolactin-induced pSTAT5-immunoreactive cells as virgins, this effect being most apparent at the higher prolactin doses in the medial preoptic area and paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei and at the lowest prolactin dose in the arcuate nucleus. Dual-label immunohistochemistry showed that arcuate kisspeptin (but not oxytocin or dopamine) neurons displayed increased sensitivity to prolactin in reproductively experienced animals; these neurons may contribute to the reduction in prolactin concentration observed after reproductive experience. There was no effect of reproductive experience on prolactin-induced pERK1/2, indicating a selective effect on the STAT5 pathway. These data show that STAT5 responsiveness to prolactin is enhanced by reproductive experience in multiple hypothalamic regions. The findings may have significant implications for understanding postpartum disorders affecting maternal care and other prolactin-associated pathologies.
|Sleep-waking discharge profiles of dorsal raphe nucleus neurons in mice. |
Neuroscience 197 200-24. Epub 2011 Sep 17. 2011
We have recorded, for the first time, in non-anesthetized, head-restrained mice, a total of 407 single units throughout the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR), which contains serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) neurons, during the complete wake-sleep cycle. The mouse DR was found to contain a large proportion (52.0%) of waking (W)-active neurons, together with many sleep-active (24.8%) and W/paradoxical sleep (PS)-active (18.4%) neurons and a few state-unrelated neurons (4.7%). The W-active, W/PS-active, and sleep-active neurons displayed a biphasic narrow or triphasic broad action potential. Of the 212 W-active neurons, 194 were judged serotonergic (5-HT W-active neurons) because of their triphasic long-duration action potential and low rate of spontaneous discharge, while the remaining 18 were judged non-serotonergic (non-5-HT W-active neurons) because of their biphasic narrow action potential and higher rate of spontaneous discharge. The 5-HT W-active neurons were subdivided into four groups, types I, II, III, and IV, on the basis of differences in firing pattern during wake-sleep states, their waking selectivity of discharge being in the order type I>type II>type III>type IV. During the transition from sleep to waking, the vast majority of waking-specific or waking-selective type I and II neurons discharged after onset of waking, as seen with non-5-HT W-specific neurons. Triphasic DR W/PS-active neurons were characterized by a low rate of spontaneous discharge and a similar distribution to that of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive, dopaminergic neurons. Triphasic DR slow-wave sleep (SWS)-active and SWS/PS neurons were also characterized by slow firing. At the transition from sleep to waking, sleep-selective neurons with no discharge activity during waking ceased firing before onset of waking, while, at the transition from waking to sleep, they fired after onset of sleep. The present study shows a marked heterogeneity and functional topographic organization of both serotonergic and non-serotonergic mouse DR neurons and suggests that they play different roles in behavioral state control and the sleep/waking switch.Copyright Â© 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
|Overexpression of neurotrophin-3 stimulates a second wave of dopaminergic amacrine cell genesis after birth in the mouse retina. |
Yoshida, M; Feng, L; Grimbert, F; Rangarajan, KV; Buggele, W; Copenhagen, DR; Cang, J; Liu, X
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 31 12663-73 2011
Dopaminergic amacrine (DA) cells play multiple and important roles in retinal function. Neurotrophins are known to modulate the number and morphology of DA cells, but the underlying regulatory mechanisms are unclear. Here, we investigate how neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) regulates DA cell density in the mouse retina. We demonstrate that overexpression of NT-3 upregulates DA cell number and leads to a consequent increase in the density of DA cell dendrites. To examine the mechanisms of DA cell density increase, we further investigate the effect of NT-3 overexpression on retinal apoptosis and mitosis during development. We find that NT-3 does not affect the well known wave of retinal cell apoptosis that normally occurs during the first 2 weeks after birth. Instead, overexpression of NT-3 promotes additional mitosis of DA cells at postnatal day 4, but does not affect cell mitosis before birth, the peak period of amacrine cell genesis in wild-type retinas. We next show that retinal explants cultured from birth to day 7 without extra NT-3 produced by lens exhibit similar number of DA cells as in wild type, further supporting the notion that postnatal overexpression of lens-derived NT-3 affects DA cell number. Moreover, the additional mitosis after birth in NT-3-overexpressing mice does not occur in calretinin-positive amacrine cells or PKC-positive rod ON bipolar cells. Thus, the NT-3-triggered wave of cell mitosis after birth is specific for the retinal DA cells.
|L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia is associated with regional increase of striatal dynorphin peptides as elucidated by imaging mass spectrometry. |
Hanrieder, J; Ljungdahl, A; Fälth, M; Mammo, SE; Bergquist, J; Andersson, M
Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 10 M111.009308 2011
Opioid peptides are involved in various pathophysiological processes, including algesia, epilepsy, and drug dependence. A strong association between L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) and elevated prodynorphin mRNA levels has been established in both patients and in animal models of Parkinson's disease, but to date the endogenous prodynorphin peptide products have not been determined. Here, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) was used for characterization, localization, and relative quantification of striatal neuropeptides in a rat model of LID in Parkinson's disease. MALDI IMS has the unique advantage of high sensitivity and high molecular specificity, allowing comprehensive detection of multiple molecular species in a single tissue section. Indeed, several dynorphins and enkephalins could be detected in the present study, including dynorphin A(1-8), dynorphin B, α-neoendorphin, MetEnkRF, MetEnkRGL, PEnk (198-209, 219-229). IMS analysis revealed elevated levels of dynorphin B, α-neoendorphin, substance P, and PEnk (220-229) in the dorsolateral striatum of high-dyskinetic animals compared with low-dyskinetic and lesion-only control rats. Furthermore, the peak-intensities of the prodynorphin derived peptides, dynorphin B and α-neoendorphin, were strongly and positively correlated with LID severity. Interestingly, these LID associated dynorphin peptides are not those with high affinity to κ opioid receptors, but are known to bind and activate also μ- and Δ-opioid receptors. In addition, the peak intensities of a novel endogenous metabolite of α-neoendorphin lacking the N-terminal tyrosine correlated positively with dyskinesia severity. MALDI IMS of striatal sections from Pdyn knockout mice verified the identity of fully processed dynorphin peptides and the presence of endogenous des-tyrosine α-neoendorphin. Des-tyrosine dynorphins display reduced opioid receptor binding and this points to possible novel nonopioid receptor mediated changes in the striatum of dyskinetic rats. Because des-tyrosine dynorphins can only be detected by mass spectrometry, as no antibodies are available, these findings highlight the importance of MALDI IMS analysis for the study of molecular dynamics in neurological diseases.
|Glutamate input to noradrenergic neurons plays an essential role in the development of morphine dependence and psychomotor sensitization. |
Parkitna JR, Solecki W, Gołembiowska K, Tokarski K, Kubik J, Gołda S, Novak M, Parlato R, Hess G, Sprengel R, Przewłocki R
The international journal of neuropsychopharmacology / official scientific journal of the Collegium Internationale Neuropsychopharmacologicum (CINP) 2011
The brain\'s noradrenergic system is involved in the development of behaviours induced by drugs of abuse, e.g. dependence and withdrawal, and also reward or psychomotor effects. To investigate how noradrenergic system activity is controlled in the context associated with drug-induced behaviours, we generated a Cre/loxP mouse model in which the essential glutamate NMDA receptor subunit NR1 is ablated in cells expressing dopamine β-hydroxylase (Dbh). As a result, the noradrenergic cells in NR1DbhCre mice lack the NMDA receptor-dependent component of excitatory post-synaptic currents. The mutant mice displayed no obvious behavioural alterations, had unchanged noradrenaline content and mild increase in dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens. Interestingly, NR1DbhCre animals did not develop morphine-induced psychomotor sensitization. However, when the morphine injections were preceded by treatment with RX821002, an antagonist of α2-adrenergic receptors, the development of sensitization was restored. Conversely, pretreatment with clonidine, an agonist of α2-adrenergic receptors, blocked development of sensitization in wild-type mice. We also found that while the development of tolerance to morphine was normal in mutant mice, withdrawal symptoms were attenuated. These data reveal that NMDA receptors on noradrenergic neurons regulate development of opiate dependence and psychomotor sensitization, by controlling drug-induced noradrenaline signalling.
|Pitx3 is a critical mediator of GDNF-induced BDNF expression in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. |
Peng, C; Aron, L; Klein, R; Li, M; Wurst, W; Prakash, N; Le, W
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 31 12802-15 2011
Pitx3 is a critical homeodomain transcription factor for the proper development and survival of mesodiencephalic dopaminergic (mdDA) neurons in mammals. Several variants of this gene have been associated with human Parkinson's disease (PD), and lack of Pitx3 in mice causes the preferential loss of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) mdDA neurons that are most affected in PD. It is currently unclear how Pitx3 activity promotes the survival of SNc mdDA neurons and which factors act upstream and downstream of Pitx3 in this context. Here we show that a transient expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in the murine ventral midbrain (VM) induces transcription of Pitx3 via NF-κB-mediated signaling, and that Pitx3 is in turn required for activating the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in a rostrolateral (SNc) mdDA neuron subpopulation during embryogenesis. The loss of BDNF expression correlates with the increased apoptotic cell death of this mdDA neuronal subpopulation in Pitx3(-/-) mice, whereas treatment of VM cell cultures with BDNF augments the survival of the Pitx3(-/-) mdDA neurons. Most importantly, only BDNF but not GDNF protects mdDA neurons against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced cell death in the absence of Pitx3. As the feedforward regulation of GDNF, Pitx3, and BDNF expression also persists in the adult rodent brain, our data suggest that the disruption of the regulatory interaction between these three factors contributes to the loss of mdDA neurons in Pitx3(-/-) mutant mice and perhaps also in human PD.
|Chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced vascular enlargement and VEGF upregulation in the rat carotid body is not prevented by antioxidant treatment. |
Del Rio, R; Muñoz, C; Arias, P; Court, FA; Moya, EA; Iturriaga, R
American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology 301 L702-11 2011
Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), a characteristic of sleep obstructive apnea, enhances carotid body (CB) chemosensory responses to hypoxia, but its consequences on CB vascular area and VEGF expression are unknown. Accordingly, we studied the effect of CIH on CB volume, glomus cell numbers, blood vessel diameter and number, and VEGF immunoreactivity (VEGF-ir) in male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 5% O(2), 12 times/h for 8 h or sham condition for 21 days. We found that CIH did not modify the CB volume or the number of glomus cells but increased VEGF-ir and enlarged the vascular area by increasing the size of the blood vessels, whereas the number of the vessels was unchanged. Because oxidative stress plays an essential role in the CIH-induced carotid chemosensory potentiation, we tested whether antioxidant treatment with ascorbic acid may impede the vascular enlargement and the VEGF upregulation. Ascorbic acid, which prevents the CB chemosensory potentiation, failed to impede the vascular enlargement and the increased VEGF-ir. Thus present results suggest that the CB vascular enlargement induced by CIH is a direct effect of intermittent hypoxia and not secondary to the oxidative stress. Accordingly, the subsequent capillary changes may be secondary to the mechanisms involved in the neural chemosensory plasticity induced by intermittent hypoxia.
|Localization of a wide-ranging panel of antigens in the rat retina by immunohistochemistry: comparison of Davidson's solution and formalin as fixatives. |
Chidlow, G; Daymon, M; Wood, JP; Casson, RJ
The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society 59 884-98 2011
The preferred fixative for whole eyes is Davidson's solution, which provides optimal tissue preservation while avoiding retinal detachment. Hitherto, the compatibility of Davidson's solution with immunohistochemistry has been largely untested. The goal of the present study was to compare the immunolabeling patterns of a wide-ranging panel of commercially available, previously validated antibodies in formalin- and Davidson's-fixed retinas. Immunohistochemistry was performed in normal pigmented rat eyes and, to facilitate localization of inducible proteins, eyes injected with the bacterial toxin lipopolysaccharide or subjected to laser-induced photoreceptor damage. Specificity of labeling was judged by the morphology and distribution of immunopositive cells, by the absence of signal in appropriate controls, and by comparison with expected staining patterns. Retinas fixed in formalin displayed only adequate morphological integrity but were highly compatible with all 39 antibodies evaluated. Retinas fixed in Davidson's solution displayed morphological integrity superior to those fixed in formalin. Generally, the cellular and subcellular patterns and intensities of immunoreactivities obtained with each fixative were identical; however, Davidson's fixative was less compatible with certain antibodies, such as the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid, the microglial marker iba1, the macroglial stress protein nestin, and the small heat shock proteins Hsp27 and αB-crystallin, shortfalls that somewhat temper enthusiasm concerning its use.
|Regulator of G-protein signaling-10 negatively regulates NF-κB in microglia and neuroprotects dopaminergic neurons in hemiparkinsonian rats. |
Lee, JK; Chung, J; McAlpine, FE; Tansey, MG
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 31 11879-88 2011
Microglia are the brain-resident macrophages responsible for immune surveillance that become activated in response to injury, infection, environmental toxins, and other stimuli that threaten neuronal survival. Previous work from our group demonstrated that mice deficient in Regulator of G-protein Signaling 10 (RGS10), a microglia-enriched GTPase activating protein (GAP) for G-protein α subunits, displayed increased microglial burden in the CNS at birth and developed a parkinsonian phenotype after exposure to chronic systemic inflammation, implicating a neuroprotective role for RGS10 in the nigrostriatal pathway. While it is known that RGS10 is expressed in both microglia and certain subsets of neurons, it is not known whether RGS10 functions similarly in both cells types. In this study we sought to delineate the specific role of RGS10 in microglia and identify the molecular pathway(s) required for RGS10 to exert its actions in microglia. Here, we identify RGS10 as a negative regulator of the nuclear factor κB(NF-κB) pathway in microglia and demonstrate that the proinflammatory and cytotoxic phenotype of Rgs10-null microglia can be reversed by lentiviral-mediated restoration of RGS10 expression. In vivo gene transfer of RGS10 into the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of rats reduced microgliosis and protected against 6-OHDA neurotoxin-induced death of dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Together, our findings suggest that modulation of RGS10 activity in microglia may afford therapeutic benefit in the treatment of chronic neuroinflammatory conditions as well as neuroprotection against inflammation-related degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disorder affecting individuals over age 65.
|Imaging mass spectrometry reveals elevated nigral levels of dynorphin neuropeptides in L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in rat model of Parkinson's disease. |
Ljungdahl, A; Hanrieder, J; Fälth, M; Bergquist, J; Andersson, M
PloS one 6 e25653 2011
L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia is a troublesome complication of L-DOPA pharmacotherapy of Parkinson's disease and has been associated with disturbed brain opioid transmission. However, so far the results of clinical and preclinical studies on the effects of opioids agonists and antagonists have been contradictory at best. Prodynorphin mRNA levels correlate well with the severity of dyskinesia in animal models of Parkinson's disease; however the identities of the actual neuroactive opioid effectors in their target basal ganglia output structures have not yet been determined. For the first time MALDI-TOF imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) was used for unbiased assessment and topographical elucidation of prodynorphin-derived peptides in the substantia nigra of a unilateral rat model of Parkinson's disease and L-DOPA induced dyskinesia. Nigral levels of dynorphin B and alpha-neoendorphin strongly correlated with the severity of dyskinesia. Even if dynorphin peptide levels were elevated in both the medial and lateral part of the substantia nigra, MALDI IMS analysis revealed that the most prominent changes were localized to the lateral part of the substantia nigra. MALDI IMS is advantageous compared with traditional molecular methods, such as radioimmunoassay, in that neither the molecular identity analyzed, nor the specific localization needs to be predetermined. Indeed, MALDI IMS revealed that the bioconverted metabolite leu-enkephalin-arg also correlated positively with severity of dyskinesia. Multiplexing DynB and leu-enkephalin-arg ion images revealed small (0.25 by 0.5 mm) nigral subregions with complementing ion intensities, indicating localized peptide release followed by bioconversion. The nigral dynorphins associated with L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia were not those with high affinity to kappa opioid receptors, but consisted of shorter peptides, mainly dynorphin B and alpha-neoendorphin that are known to bind and activate mu and delta opioid receptors. This suggests that mu and/or delta subtype-selective opioid receptor antagonists may be clinically relevant for reducing L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease.
|Immunohistochemical identification and synaptic inputs to the diffuse bipolar cell type DB1 in macaque retina. |
Puthussery, T; Gayet-Primo, J; Taylor, WR; Haverkamp, S
The Journal of comparative neurology 519 3640-56 2011
Detailed analysis of the synaptic inputs to the primate DB1 bipolar cell has been precluded by the absence of a suitable immunohistochemical marker. Here we demonstrate that antibodies for the EF-hand calcium-binding protein, secretagogin, strongly label the DB1 bipolar cell as well as a mixed population of GABAergic amacrine cells in the macaque retina. Using secretagogin as a marker, we show that the DB1 bipolar makes synaptic contact with both L/M as well as S-cone photoreceptors and only minimal contact with rod photoreceptors. Electron microscopy showed that the DB1 bipolar makes flat contacts at both triad-associated and nontriad-associated positions on the cone pedicle. Double labeling with various glutamate receptor subunit antibodies failed to conclusively determine the subunit composition of the glutamate receptors on DB1 bipolar cells. In the IPL, DB1 bipolar cell axon terminals expressed the glycine receptor, GlyRα1, at sites of contact with AII amacrine cells, suggesting that these cells receive input from the rod pathway.
|Efficient conversion of astrocytes to functional midbrain dopaminergic neurons using a single polycistronic vector. |
Addis, RC; Hsu, FC; Wright, RL; Dichter, MA; Coulter, DA; Gearhart, JD
PloS one 6 e28719 2011
Direct cellular reprogramming is a powerful new tool for regenerative medicine. In efforts to understand and treat Parkinson's Disease (PD), which is marked by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain, direct reprogramming provides a valuable new source of these cells. Astrocytes, the most plentiful cells in the central nervous system, are an ideal starting population for the direct generation of dopaminergic neurons. In addition to their potential utility in cell replacement therapies for PD or in modeling the disease in vitro, astrocyte-derived dopaminergic neurons offer the prospect of direct in vivo reprogramming within the brain. As a first step toward this goal, we report the reprogramming of astrocytes to dopaminergic neurons using three transcription factors - ASCL1, LMX1B, and NURR1 - delivered in a single polycistronic lentiviral vector. The process is efficient, with 18.2±1.5% of cells expressing markers of dopaminergic neurons after two weeks. The neurons exhibit expression profiles and electrophysiological characteristics consistent with midbrain dopaminergic neurons, notably including spontaneous pacemaking activity, stimulated release of dopamine, and calcium oscillations. The present study is the first demonstration that a single vector can mediate reprogramming to dopaminergic neurons, and indicates that astrocytes are an ideal starting population for the direct generation of dopaminergic neurons.
|The food-contaminant deoxynivalenol modifies eating by targeting anorexigenic neurocircuitry. |
Girardet, C; Bonnet, MS; Jdir, R; Sadoud, M; Thirion, S; Tardivel, C; Roux, J; Lebrun, B; Wanaverbecq, N; Mounien, L; Trouslard, J; Jean, A; Dallaporta, M; Troadec, JD
PloS one 6 e26134 2011
Physiological regulations of energy balance and body weight imply highly adaptive mechanisms which match caloric intake to caloric expenditure. In the central nervous system, the regulation of appetite relies on complex neurocircuitry which disturbance may alter energy balance and result in anorexia or obesity. Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene, is one of the most abundant mycotoxins found on contaminated cereals and its stability during processing and cooking explains its widespread presence in human food. DON has been implicated in acute and chronic illnesses in both humans and farm animals including weight loss. Here, we provide the first demonstration that DON reduced feeding behavior and modified satiation and satiety by interfering with central neuronal networks dedicated to food intake regulation. Moreover, our results strongly suggest that during intoxication, DON reaches the brain where it modifies anorexigenic balance. In view of the widespread human exposure to DON, the present results may lead to reconsider the potential consequences of chronic DON consumption on human eating disorders.
|Cathepsin K deficiency in mice induces structural and metabolic changes in the central nervous system that are associated with learning and memory deficits. |
Dauth, S; Sîrbulescu, RF; Jordans, S; Rehders, M; Avena, L; Oswald, J; Lerchl, A; Saftig, P; Brix, K
BMC neuroscience 12 74 2011
Cathepsin K is a cysteine peptidase known for its importance in osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Inhibitors of cathepsin K are in clinical trials for treatment of osteoporosis. However, side effects of first generation inhibitors included altered levels of related cathepsins in peripheral organs and in the central nervous system (CNS). Cathepsin K has been recently detected in brain parenchyma and it has been linked to neurobehavioral disorders such as schizophrenia. Thus, the study of the functions that cathepsin K fulfils in the brain becomes highly relevant.Cathepsin K messenger RNA was detectable in all brain regions of wild type (WT) mice. At the protein level, cathepsin K was detected by immunofluorescence microscopy in vesicles of neuronal and non-neuronal cells throughout the mouse brain. The hippocampus of WT mice exhibited the highest levels of cathepsin K activity in fluorogenic assays, while the cortex, striatum, and cerebellum revealed significantly lower enzymatic activities. At the molecular level, the proteolytic network of cysteine cathepsins was disrupted in the brain of cathepsin K-deficient (Ctsk⁻/⁻) animals. Specifically, cathepsin B and L protein and activity levels were altered, whereas cathepsin D remained largely unaffected. Cystatin C, an endogenous inhibitor of cysteine cathepsins, was elevated in the striatum and hippocampus, pointing to regional differences in the tissue response to Ctsk ablation. Decreased levels of astrocytic glial fibrillary acidic protein, fewer and less ramified profiles of astrocyte processes, differentially altered levels of oligodendrocytic cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase, as well as alterations in the patterning of neuronal cell layers were observed in the hippocampus of Ctsk⁻/⁻ mice. A number of molecular and cellular changes were detected in other brain regions, including the cortex, striatum/mesencephalon, and cerebellum. Moreover, an overall induction of the dopaminergic system was found in Ctsk⁻/⁻ animals which exhibited reduced anxiety levels as well as short- and long-term memory impairments in behavioral assessments.We conclude that deletion of the Ctsk gene can lead to deregulation of related proteases, resulting in a wide range of molecular and cellular changes in the CNS with severe consequences for tissue homeostasis. We propose that cathepsin K activity has an important impact on the development and maintenance of the CNS in mice.
|Sequential generation of olfactory bulb glutamatergic neurons by Neurog2-expressing precursor cells. |
Winpenny, E; Lebel-Potter, M; Fernandez, ME; Brill, MS; Götz, M; Guillemot, F; Raineteau, O
Neural development 6 12 2011
While the diversity and spatio-temporal origin of olfactory bulb (OB) GABAergic interneurons has been studied in detail, much less is known about the subtypes of glutamatergic OB interneurons.We studied the temporal generation and diversity of Neurog2-positive precursor progeny using an inducible genetic fate mapping approach. We show that all subtypes of glutamatergic neurons derive from Neurog2 positive progenitors during development of the OB. Projection neurons, that is, mitral and tufted cells, are produced at early embryonic stages, while a heterogeneous population of glutamatergic juxtaglomerular neurons are generated at later embryonic as well as at perinatal stages. While most juxtaglomerular neurons express the T-Box protein Tbr2, those generated later also express Tbr1. Based on morphological features, these juxtaglomerular cells can be identified as tufted interneurons and short axon cells, respectively. Finally, targeted electroporation experiments provide evidence that while the majority of OB glutamatergic neurons are generated from intrabulbar progenitors, a small portion of them originate from extrabulbar regions at perinatal ages.We provide the first comprehensive analysis of the temporal and spatial generation of OB glutamatergic neurons and identify distinct populations of juxtaglomerular interneurons that differ in their antigenic properties and time of origin.
|Dopamine D2 receptor activity modulates Akt signaling and alters GABAergic neuron development and motor behavior in zebrafish larvae. |
Souza, BR; Romano-Silva, MA; Tropepe, V
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 31 5512-25 2011
An imbalance in dopamine-mediated neurotransmission is a hallmark physiological feature of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. Recent evidence demonstrates that dopamine D(2) receptors, which are the main target of antipsychotics, modulate the activity of the protein kinase Akt, which is known to be downregulated in the brain of patients with schizophrenia. Akt has an important role in the regulation of cellular processes that are critical for neurodevelopment, including gene transcription, cell proliferation, and neuronal migration. Thus, it is possible that during brain development, altered Akt-dependent dopamine signaling itself may lead to defects in neural circuit formation. Here, we used a zebrafish model to assess the direct impact of altered dopamine signaling on brain development and larval motor behavior. We demonstrate that D(2) receptor activation acutely suppresses Akt activity by decreasing the level of pAkt(Thr308) in the larval zebrafish brain. This D(2)-dependent reduction in Akt activity negatively regulates larval movement and is distinct from a D(1)-dependent pathway with opposing affects on motor behavior. In addition, we show that D(2)-dependent suppression of Akt activity causes a late onset change in GSK3b activity, a known downstream target of Akt signaling. Finally, altered D(2) receptor signaling, or direct inhibition of Akt activity, causes a significant decrease in the size of the GABAergic neuron population throughout most of the brain. Our observations suggest that D(2) receptor signaling suppresses Akt-GSK3b activity, which regulates GABAergic neuron development and motor behavior.
|Transcription Mapping of Embryonic Rat Brain Reveals EGR-1 Induction in SOX2 Neural Progenitor Cells. |
Wells, T; Rough, K; Carter, DA
Frontiers in molecular neuroscience 4 6 2011
Neuronal expression of the early growth response-1 (EGR-1; NGFI-A/Zif268) transcription factor has been extensively studied in the adult mammalian brain and linked to aspects of mature physiological/behavioral function. In contrast, this factor has not been studied in detail in the embryonic brain. Here, we used a fluorescent protein-encoding Egr-1 transgene to map the cellular distribution of Egr-1 transcription in embryonic rat brain. We identified a novel, widely distributed population of GFP(+) cells, characterized as a precursor/stem cell phenotype by co-localization with SOX2/nestin/vimentin/S-100β and exclusion from other known cellular markers including DCX/BLBP/TBR2/NURR1. At both E18 and E20, these cells were located across the developing brain but concentrated in the subplate and intermediate zones. The transgene was also highly expressed in developing (NeuN(+)) striatal neurons. The authentic expression pattern that we observed for the rEgr-1 transgene sequence indicates that restriction to neuronal/precursor cells is largely driven by proximal 5(') sequence. Deletion of conserved Egr-1 silencer (neuron restrictive silencer factor) elements did not markedly alter transcriptional activity in transfected cells; this is consistent with a dominant role for positive factors in the control of cell-specific Egr-1 expression. Induction of Egr-1 in a population of SOX2(+) cells indicates a co-incidence of extrinsic (EGR-1) and cell-intrinsic (SOX2) cellular signals that may form a novel level of progenitor cell regulation. The wide distribution of EGR-1 signaling in SOX2(+) cells suggests an organizational role during late embryonic brain development.
|An indirect basal ganglia pathway in anuran amphibians? |
Silke Maier,Wolfgang Walkowiak,Harald Luksch,Heike Endepols
Journal of chemical neuroanatomy 40 2010
The mammalian subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a glutamatergic cell group within the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia. It receives input from the external globus pallidus (GP) and in turn projects to the internal GP and the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr). While the direct pathway from striatum to SNr is well established in anurans, it is unknown whether they possess an indirect pathway including a STN homologue. The subthalamic region comprises the dorsocaudal suprachiasmatic nucleus (dcSC), the posterior entopeduncular nucleus (EP), and the ventral part of the ventral thalamus (vVM/VL). In the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis we investigated whether one of these areas match the criteria established for the mammalian STN. We delineated the SNr in the midbrain tegmentum by labeling the striatonigral terminal field by means of GABA-, substance P-, and enkephalin immunohistochemistry and striatal tracer injections. Subsequently, we used double fluorescence tracing with injections into the SNr and GP to stain different parts of the indirect pathway. Confocal laser scan analysis revealed that dcSC, EP, and vVM/VL contain retrogradely labeled neurons projecting to the SNr, contacted by anterogradely labeled terminals arising in the GP. Immunohistochemical stainings with antibodies against glutamate and the glutamate transporters EAAC1 and vGluT2 demonstrated that the investigated nuclei contain glutamatergic neurons. Our results suggest that all regions in the subthalamic region fulfill our morphological criteria, except the connection back to the GP. An indirect basal ganglia pathway seems to be present in anuran amphibians, although we cannot exclusively delineate an STN homologue.
|Nesfatin-1/NUCB2 may participate in the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in rats. |
Könczöl K, Bodnár I, Zelena D, Pintér O, Papp RS, Palkovits M, Nagy GM, Tóth ZE
Neurochem Int 2010
Nesfatin-1 is an anorexigenic peptide originating from nucleobinding-2 (NUCB2) protein. Nesfatin-1/NUCB2-immunoreactive neurons are present in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, the center of the stress-axis, and in the medullary A1 and A2 catecholamine cell groups. The A1 and A2 cell groups mediate viscerosensory stress information toward the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. They contain noradrenaline, but subsets of these neurons also express prolactin-releasing peptide acting synergistically with noradrenaline in the activation of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus during stress. We investigated the possible role of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 in the stress response. Intracerebro-ventricular administration of nesfatin-1 elevated both plasma adrenocorticotropin and corticosterone levels, while in vitro stimulation of the hypophysis was ineffective. Single, long-duration restraint stress activated (Fos positivity) many of the nesfatin-1/NUCB2-immunoreactive neurons in the parvocellular part of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, evoked nesfatin-1/NUCB2 mRNA expression in the parvocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus and in the A1, but not in the A2 cell group. Nesfatin-1/NUCB2 was shown to co-localize in a high percentage of prolactin-releasing peptide producing neurons, in both medullary catecholamine cell groups further supporting its involvement in the stress response. Finally, bilateral adrenalectomy evoked an increasing nesfatin-1/NUCB2 mRNA expression, indicating that it is under the negative feedback of adrenal steroids. These data provide the first evidence for possible participation of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 in the stress-axis regulation, both at the level of the brainstem and in the hypothalamus. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
|Prenatal exposure of the ovine fetus to androgens reduces the proportion of neurons in the ventromedial and arcuate nucleus that are activated by short-term exposure to estrogen. |
Robinson JE, Grindrod J, Jeurissen S, Taylor JA, Unsworth WP
Biology of reproduction 82 163-170 2010
In sheep, the steroid control of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH) release is sexually differentiated such that estrogen can trigger a GNRH surge and attendant reproductive behaviors in the female, but not the male. Furthermore, female lambs that have been exposed to testosterone during a critical window of in utero development are also unable to generate a GNRH surge. This study tests the hypothesis that exposure of the ovine fetus to androgens alters the development of key steroid-receptive neuronal inputs to the GNRH neurons. In adulthood, this results in reduced activation of specific neurons by estrogen in the male and testosterone-treated female. To make this determination, groups of ewes, rams, and testosterone-exposed ewes were treated with estrogen, and the activation of neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus and brain stem determined by immunocytochemistry. A lower percentage of neurons in the ventrolateral aspect of the ventromedial nucleus (vlVMN) and the caudal arcuate nucleus (cARC), but not the brainstem, was activated by a 6-h exposure to estrogen in the androgenized and male animals. In the vlVMN, some of these neurons contain somatostatin; however, the phenotype of activated neurons in the cARC remains unknown. These data suggest that specific neural populations in these brain regions are involved in the estrogen feedback control of GNRH release in the sheep, and that the defeminization of the surge-generating system by in utero androgen exposure results, in part, from a failure of estrogen to activate key neural phenotypes.
|Opn5 is a UV-sensitive bistable pigment that couples with Gi subtype of G protein. |
Yamashita, T; Ohuchi, H; Tomonari, S; Ikeda, K; Sakai, K; Shichida, Y
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107 22084-9 2010
Opn5 (neuropsin) belongs to an independent group separated from the other six groups in the phylogenetic tree of opsins, for which little information of absorption characteristics and molecular properties of the members is available. Here we show that the chicken Opn5 (cOpn5m) is a UV-sensitive bistable pigment that couples with Gi subtype of G protein. The recombinant expression of cOpn5m in HEK 293s cells followed by the addition of 11-cis- and all-trans-retinal produced UV light-absorbing and visible light-absorbing forms, respectively. These forms were interconvertible by UV and visible light irradiations, respectively, indicating that cOpn5m is a bistable pigment. The absorption maxima of these forms were estimated to be 360 and 474 nm, respectively. The GTPγS binding assay clearly showed that the visible light-absorbing form having all-trans-retinal activates Gi type of G protein, whereas no Gt or Gq activation ability was observed. Immunohistochemical studies using an antibody against cOpn5m clearly showed that this pigment is localized within some types of amacrine cells and some cells in the ganglion cell layer of the retinas, the vast majority of cells in the pineal gland and serotonin-positive cells in the paraventricular organ. Because cOpn5m is the only UV-sensitive opsin among the opsins found so far in chicken, this study provides the molecular basis for UV reception in chicken.Artículo Texto completo
|Loss of cannabinoid CB1 receptor expression in the 6-hydroxydopamine-induced nigrostriatal terminal lesion model of Parkinson's disease in the rat. |
Walsh S, Mnich K, Mackie K, Gorman AM, Finn DP, Dowd E
Brain research bulletin 81 543-8 2010
The endocannabinoid system is emerging as a potential alternative to the dopaminergic system for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Like all emerging targets, validation of this system's potential for treating human Parkinsonism necessitates testing in animal models of the condition. However, if components of the endocannabinoid system are altered by the induction of a Parkinsonian state in animal models, this could have an impact on the interpretation of such preclinical experiments. This study sought to determine if expression of the CB(1) subtype of cannabinoid receptor is altered in the two most commonly used rat models of Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonian lesions were induced by stereotaxic injection of 6-hydroxydopamine into the axons (medial forebrain bundle) or terminals (striatum) of the nigrostriatal pathway. On days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 post-lesion, rats were sacrificed and brains were processed for tyrosine hydroxylase and CB(1) receptor immunohistochemistry. The CB(1) receptor was expressed strongly in the substantia nigra pars reticulata, minimally overlapping with tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the pars compacta. Interestingly, while there was little change in CB(1) receptor expression following axonal lesion, expression of the receptor was significantly reduced following terminal lesion. Loss of CB(1) receptor expression in the pars reticulata correlated significantly with the loss of striatal and nigral volume after terminal lesion indicating this may have been due to 6-hydroxydopamine-induced non-specific damage of striatonigral neurons which are known to express CB(1) receptors. Thus, this result has implications for the choice of model and interpretation of studies used to investigate potential cannabinoid-based therapies for Parkinson's disease as well as striatonigral diseases such as Huntington's disease and Multiple Systems Atrophy.
|Effects of early and delayed treatment with an mGluR5 antagonist on motor impairment, nigrostriatal damage and neuroinflammation in a rodent model of Parkinson's disease. |
Ambrosi G, Armentero MT, Levandis G, Bramanti P, Nappi G, Blandini F
Brain research bulletin 2010
The loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons that characterizes Parkinson's disease (PD) causes complex functional alterations in the basal ganglia circuit. Increased glutamatergic activity at crucial points of the circuit may be central to these alterations, thereby contributing to the onset of PD motor symptoms. Signs of neuroinflammation accompanying the neuronal loss have also been observed; also in this case, glutamate-mediated mechanisms may be involved. Glutamate may therefore intervene at multiple levels in PD pathophysiology, possibly through the modulation of metabotropic receptors. To address this issue, we evaluated the effects of systemic treatment with MPEP (2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine), an antagonist of metabotropic receptor mGluR5, in a rodent model of progressive nigrostriatal degeneration based on the intrastriatal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Following 6-OHDA injection, Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a 4-week, daily treatment with MPEP (1.5mg/kg, i.p.). To investigate whether the effects varied with the progression of the lesion, subgroups of lesioned animals started the treatment at different time-points: (1) immediately, (2) 1 week, or (3) 4 weeks after the neurotoxin injection. Akinesia, dopaminergic nigrostriatal damage and neuroinflammatory response (microglial and astroglial activation) were investigated. MPEP prompted immediate amelioration of 6-OHDA-induced akinesia, as measured by the Adjusting step test, in all subgroups, regardless of the degree of nigrostriatal damage. Conversely, MPEP did not modify neuronal survival or neuroinflammatory response in the nigrostriatal pathway. In conclusion, chronic treatment with MPEP exerted a pure symptomatic effect, further supporting that mGluR5 modulation may be a viable strategy to counteract the basal ganglia functional modifications underlying PD motor symptoms. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
|Stimulation of the rat subthalamic nucleus is neuroprotective following significant nigral dopamine neuron loss. |
Spieles-Engemann AL, Behbehani MM, Collier TJ, Wohlgenant SL, Steece-Collier K, Paumier K, Daley BF, Gombash S, Madhavan L, Mandybur GT, Lipton JW, Terpstra BT, Sortwell CE
Neurobiol Dis 2010
Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) is efficacious in treating the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the impact of STN-DBS on the progression of PD is unknown. Previous preclinical studies have demonstrated that STN-DBS can attenuate the degeneration of a relatively intact nigrostriatal system from dopamine (DA)-depleting neurotoxins. The present study examined whether STN-DBS can provide neuroprotection in the face of prior significant nigral DA neuron loss similar to PD patients at the time of diagnosis. STN-DBS between 2 and 4weeks after intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) provided significant sparing of DA neurons in the SN of rats. This effect was not due to inadvertent lesioning of the STN and was dependent upon proper electrode placement. Since STN-DBS appears to have significant neuroprotective properties, initiation of STN-DBS earlier in the course of PD may provide added neuroprotective benefits in addition to its ability to provide symptomatic relief. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
|Analysis of the astray/robo2 zebrafish mutant reveals that degenerating tracts do not provide strong guidance cues for regenerating optic axons. |
Wyatt, C; Ebert, A; Reimer, MM; Rasband, K; Hardy, M; Chien, CB; Becker, T; Becker, CG
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 30 13838-49 2010
During formation of the optic projection in astray/robo2 mutant zebrafish, optic axons exhibit rostrocaudal pathfinding errors, ectopic midline crossing and increased terminal arbor size. Here we show that these errors persist into adulthood, even when robo2 function is conditionally reduced only during initial formation of the optic projection. Adult errors include massive ectopic optic tracts in the telencephalon. During optic nerve regeneration in astray/robo2 animals, these tracts are not repopulated and ectopic midline crossing is reduced compared with unlesioned mutants. This is despite a comparable macrophage/microglial response and upregulation of contactin1a in oligodendrocytes of entopic and ectopic tracts. However, other errors, such as expanded termination areas and ectopic growth into the tectum, were frequently recommitted by regenerating optic axons. Retinal ganglion cells with regenerating axons reexpress robo2 and expression of slit ligands is maintained in some areas of the adult optic pathway. However, slit expression is reduced rostral and caudal to the chiasm, compared with development and ubiquitous overexpression of Slit2 did not elicit major pathfinding phenotypes. This shows that (1) there is not an efficient correction mechanism for large-scale pathfinding errors of optic axons during development; (2) degenerating tracts do not provide a strong guidance cue for regenerating optic axons in the adult CNS, unlike the PNS; and (3) robo2 is less important for pathfinding of optic axons during regeneration than during development.
|Assaying multiple biochemical variables from the same tissue sample. |
Rehana K Leak,Sandra L Castro,Juliann D Jaumotte,Amanda D Smith,Michael J Zigmond
Journal of neuroscience methods 191 2010
Experiments often involve multiple analyses, such as assays of neurotransmitters and proteins, and this can require different initial sample preparations. Typically, this is accomplished by using different animals or different tissue samples from the same animal. Either approach renders comparisons between assays more variable and greatly increases the effort and/or cost. Using tissue collected from rat striatum and molecules of special relevance to studies of Parkinson's disease, we show that tissue sonication in water prior to aliquoting into the appropriate concentrated solutions (e.g. HClO(4) and lysis buffers) permits several types of measurements to be made from the same initial samples. Dopamine and its metabolite homovanillic acid, serotonin and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, tyrosine hydroxylase and its phosphorylation at Ser19 and Ser31, and the dopamine transporter were unaffected. However, phospho-Akt levels fell slightly and phospho-ERK1/2 tended to drop. We also present a simple technique to preserve phosphorylation state of proteins such as ERK1/2 by perfusing animals through the heart with a phosphatase inhibitor, NaF. Dopamine metabolite dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid (DOPAC) levels were raised with both techniques, however. The general principles reported here are likely to apply to other brain regions, facilitate multiple comparisons of variables, increase efficiency, and decrease costs.Artículo Texto completo
|Impaired olfactory function in mice with allergic rhinitis. |
Shinya Ozaki,Kazunori Toida,Motohiko Suzuki,Yoshihisa Nakamura,Nobuaki Ohno,Taku Ohashi,Meiho Nakayama,Yuki Hamajima,Akira Inagaki,Kazuyoshi Kitaoka,Hiroyoshi Sei,Shingo Murakami
Auris, nasus, larynx 37 2010
It has been reported that olfactory function is impaired in patients with allergic rhinitis. However, the mechanism of olfactory dysfunction in allergic rhinitis remains poorly understood. Because of difficulties in obtaining and analyzing human olfactory mucosa due to both technical and ethical issues, an animal model needs to be established to clarify the mechanism of olfactory dysfunction in allergic rhinitis. The purpose of this study was to study olfactory function and changes in olfactory mucosa using allergic rhinitis mice.
|Neuroanatomical study of the A11 diencephalospinal pathway in the non-human primate. |
Barraud, Q; Obeid, I; Aubert, I; Barrière, G; Contamin, H; McGuire, S; Ravenscroft, P; Porras, G; Tison, F; Bezard, E; Ghorayeb, I
PloS one 5 e13306 2010
The A11 diencephalospinal pathway is crucial for sensorimotor integration and pain control at the spinal cord level. When disrupted, it is thought to be involved in numerous painful conditions such as restless legs syndrome and migraine. Its anatomical organization, however, remains largely unknown in the non-human primate (NHP). We therefore characterized the anatomy of this pathway in the NHP.In situ hybridization of spinal dopamine receptors showed that D1 receptor mRNA is absent while D2 and D5 receptor mRNAs are mainly expressed in the dorsal horn and D3 receptor mRNA in both the dorsal and ventral horns. Unilateral injections of the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold (FG) into the cervical spinal enlargement labeled A11 hypothalamic neurons quasi-exclusively among dopamine areas. Detailed immunohistochemical analysis suggested that these FG-labeled A11 neurons are tyrosine hydroxylase-positive but dopa-decarboxylase and dopamine transporter-negative, suggestive of a L-DOPAergic nucleus. Stereological cell count of A11 neurons revealed that this group is composed by 4002±501 neurons per side. A 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) intoxication with subsequent development of a parkinsonian syndrome produced a 50% neuronal cell loss in the A11 group.The diencephalic A11 area could be the major source of L-DOPA in the NHP spinal cord, where it may play a role in the modulation of sensorimotor integration through D2 and D3 receptors either directly or indirectly via dopamine formation in spinal dopa-decarboxylase-positives cells.Artículo Texto completo
|CaMKII autonomy is substrate-dependent and further stimulated by Ca2+/calmodulin. |
Coultrap SJ, Buard I, Kulbe JR, Dell'Acqua ML, Bayer KU
J Biol Chem 285 17930-7. Epub 2010 Mar 30. 2010
A hallmark feature of Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) regulation is the generation of Ca(2+)-independent autonomous activity by Thr-286 autophosphorylation. CaMKII autonomy has been regarded a form of molecular memory and is indeed important in neuronal plasticity and learning/memory. Thr-286-phosphorylated CaMKII is thought to be essentially fully active ( approximately 70-100%), implicating that it is no longer regulated and that its dramatically increased Ca(2+)/CaM affinity is of minor functional importance. However, this study shows that autonomy greater than 15-25% was the exception, not the rule, and required a special mechanism (T-site binding; by the T-substrates AC2 or NR2B). Autonomous activity toward regular R-substrates (including tyrosine hydroxylase and GluR1) was significantly further stimulated by Ca(2+)/CaM, both in vitro and within cells. Altered K(m) and V(max) made autonomy also substrate- (and ATP) concentration-dependent, but only over a narrow range, with remarkable stability at physiological concentrations. Such regulation still allows molecular memory of previous Ca(2+) signals, but prevents complete uncoupling from subsequent cellular stimulation.Artículo Texto completo
|Presynaptic dopaminergic compartment determines the susceptibility to L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in rats. |
Ulusoy A, Sahin G, Kirik D
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2010
Drug-induced dyskinesias in dopamine-denervated animals are known to depend on both pre- and postsynaptic changes of the nigrostriatal circuitry. In lesion models used thus far, changes occur in both of these compartments and, therefore, it has not been possible to dissect the individual contribution of each compartment in the pathophysiology of dyskinesias. Here we silenced the nigrostriatal dopamine neurotransmission without affecting the anatomical integrity of the presynaptic terminals using a short-hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme (shTH). This treatment resulted in significant reduction (by about 70%) in extracellular dopamine concentration in the striatum as measured by on-line microdialysis. Under these conditions, the animals remained nondyskinetic after chronic L-DOPA treatment, whereas partial intrastriatal 6-hydoxydopamine lesioned rats with comparable reduction in extracellular dopamine levels developed dyskinesias. On the other hand, apomorphine caused moderate to severe dyskinesias in both groups. Importantly, single-dose L-DOPA challenge in apomorphine-primed shTH animals failed to activate the already established abnormal postsynaptic responses. Taken together, these data provide direct evidence that the status of the presynaptic, DA releasing compartment is a critical determinant of both the induction and maintenance of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias.
|Single intranasal administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine in C57BL/6 mice models early preclinical phase of Parkinson's disease. |
Prediger RD, Aguiar AS Jr, Rojas-Mayorquin AE, Figueiredo CP, Matheus FC, Ginestet L, Chevarin C, Bel ED, Mongeau R, Hamon M, Lanfumey L, Raisman-Vozari R
Neurotox Res 17 114-29. Epub 2009 Jul 21. 2010
Many studies have shown that deficits in olfactory and cognitive functions precede the classical motor symptoms seen in Parkinson's disease (PD) and that olfactory testing may contribute to the early diagnosis of this disorder. Although the primary cause of PD is still unknown, epidemiological studies have revealed that its incidence is increased in consequence of exposure to certain environmental toxins. In this study, most of the impairments presented by C57BL/6 mice infused with a single intranasal (i.n.) administration of the proneurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) (1 mg/nostril) were similar to those observed during the early phase of PD, when a moderate loss of nigral dopamine neurons results in olfactory and memory deficits with no major motor impairments. Such infusion decreased the levels of the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase in the olfactory bulb, striatum, and substantia nigra by means of apoptotic mechanisms, reducing dopamine concentration in different brain structures such as olfactory bulb, striatum, and prefrontal cortex, but not in the hippocampus. These findings reinforce the notion that the olfactory system represents a particularly sensitive route for the transport of neurotoxins into the central nervous system that may be related to the etiology of PD. These results also provide new insights in experimental models of PD, indicating that the i.n. administration of MPTP represents a valuable mouse model for the study of the early stages of PD and for testing new therapeutic strategies to restore sensorial and cognitive processes in PD.
|Serine 129 phosphorylation reduces the ability of alpha-synuclein to regulate tyrosine hydroxylase and protein phosphatase 2A in vitro and in vivo. |
Lou, H; Montoya, SE; Alerte, TN; Wang, J; Wu, J; Peng, X; Hong, CS; Friedrich, EE; Mader, SA; Pedersen, CJ; Marcus, BS; McCormack, AL; Di Monte, DA; Daubner, SC; Perez, RG
The Journal of biological chemistry 285 17648-61 2010
Alpha-synuclein (a-Syn), a protein implicated in Parkinson disease, contributes significantly to dopamine metabolism. a-Syn binding inhibits the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis. Phosphorylation of TH stimulates its activity, an effect that is reversed by protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). In cells, a-Syn overexpression activates PP2A. Here we demonstrate that a-Syn significantly inhibited TH activity in vitro and in vivo and that phosphorylation of a-Syn serine 129 (Ser-129) modulated this effect. In MN9D cells, a-Syn overexpression reduced TH serine 19 phosphorylation (Ser(P)-19). In dopaminergic tissues from mice overexpressing human a-Syn in catecholamine neurons only, TH-Ser-19 and TH-Ser-40 phosphorylation and activity were also reduced, whereas PP2A was more active. Cerebellum, which lacks excess a-Syn, had PP2A activity identical to controls. Conversely, a-Syn knock-out mice had elevated TH-Ser-19 phosphorylation and activity and less active PP2A in dopaminergic tissues. Using an a-Syn Ser-129 dephosphorylation mimic, with serine mutated to alanine, TH was more inhibited, whereas PP2A was more active in vitro and in vivo. Phosphorylation of a-Syn Ser-129 by Polo-like-kinase 2 in vitro reduced the ability of a-Syn to inhibit TH or activate PP2A, identifying a novel regulatory role for Ser-129 on a-Syn. These findings extend our understanding of normal a-Syn biology and have implications for the dopamine dysfunction of Parkinson disease.Artículo Texto completo
|Peri-pubertal emergence of UNC-5 homologue expression by dopamine neurons in rodents. |
Manitt, C; Labelle-Dumais, C; Eng, C; Grant, A; Mimee, A; Stroh, T; Flores, C
PloS one 5 e11463 2010
Puberty is a critical period in mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system development, particularly for the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) projection which achieves maturity in early adulthood. The guidance cue netrin-1 organizes neuronal networks by attracting or repelling cellular processes through DCC (deleted in colorectal cancer) and UNC-5 homologue (UNC5H) receptors, respectively. We have shown that variations in netrin-1 receptor levels lead to selective reorganization of mPFC DA circuitry, and changes in DA-related behaviors, in transgenic mice and in rats. Significantly, these effects are only observed after puberty, suggesting that netrin-1 mediated effects on DA systems vary across development. Here we report on the normal expression of DCC and UNC5H in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) by DA neurons from embryonic life to adulthood, in both mice and rats. We show a dramatic and enduring pubertal change in the ratio of DCC:UNC5H receptors, reflecting a shift toward predominant UNC5H function. This shift in DCC:UNC5H ratio coincides with the pubertal emergence of UNC5H expression by VTA DA neurons. Although the distribution of DCC and UNC5H by VTA DA neurons changes during puberty, the pattern of netrin-1 immunoreactivity in these cells does not. Together, our findings suggest that DCC:UNC5H ratios in DA neurons at critical periods may have important consequences for the organization and function of mesocorticolimbic DA systems.Artículo Texto completo
|Striatal overexpression of DeltaFosB reproduces chronic levodopa-induced involuntary movements. |
Cao, X; Yasuda, T; Uthayathas, S; Watts, RL; Mouradian, MM; Mochizuki, H; Papa, SM
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 30 7335-43 2010
Long-term dopamine replacement therapy in Parkinson's disease leads to the development of disabling involuntary movements named dyskinesias that are related to adaptive changes in striatal signaling pathways. The chronic transcription factor DeltaFosB, which is overexpressed in striatal neurons after chronic dopaminergic drug exposure, is suspected to mediate these adaptive changes. Here, we sought to demonstrate the ability of DeltaFosB to lead directly to the abnormal motor responses associated with chronic dopaminergic therapy. Using rAAV (recombinant adenoassociated virus) viral vectors, high levels of DeltaFosB expression were induced in the striatum of dopamine-denervated rats naive of chronic drug administration. Transgenic DeltaFosB overexpression reproduced the entire spectrum of altered motor behaviors in response to acute levodopa tests, including different types of abnormal involuntary movements and hypersensitivity of rotational responses that are typically associated with chronic levodopa treatment. JunD, the usual protein partner of DeltaFosB binding to AP-1 (activator protein-1) sites of genes, remained unchanged in rats with high DeltaFosB expression induced by viral vectors. These findings demonstrate that the increase of striatal DeltaFosB in the evolution of chronically treated Parkinson's disease may be a trigger for the development of abnormal responsiveness to dopamine and the emergence of involuntary movements.
|Prenatal plus postnatal exposure to Di(n-Butyl) phthalate and/or flutamide markedly reduces final sertoli cell number in the rat. |
Auharek SA, de Franca LR, McKinnell C, Jobling MS, Scott HM, Sharpe RM
Endocrinology 151 2868-75. Epub 2010 Apr 14. 2010
Androgens may be important regulators of Sertoli cell (SC) proliferation perinatally, with implications for the testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) hypothesis. Fetal exposure of rats to 500 mg/kg . d di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) reduces fetal testosterone production and SC number at birth, but SC number recovers to normal by postnatal d (Pnd)25. It is unclear when and how SC proliferation is affected prenatally by DBP exposure or when and how postnatal compensation occurs. This study addressed these questions and investigated whether continued maternal exposure to DBP or to flutamide from Pnd1-Pnd15 could prevent SC number compensation, because this would have implications for how sperm counts might be lowered in TDS. DBP exposure attenuated SC proliferation by 7-18% throughout embryonic d (e)15.5-e21.5 (P < 0.05 at e21.5). After birth, SC proliferation increased significantly (>1.5-fold) between Pnd6 and Pnd10 in prenatally DBP-exposed animals, explaining the compensation. Continued maternal administration of DBP after birth attenuated (19% reduction) SC number compensation at Pnd25 and maternal administration of flutamide (100 mg/kg . d) to prenatally DBP-exposed animals was even more effective (42% reduction), suggesting the postnatal compensatory increase in SC proliferation after prenatal DBP exposure is androgen dependent. SC maturation (Pnd25) was unaffected, based on analysis of expression of key proteins, but lumen formation/expansion was attenuated in parallel with treatment-induced reduction in SC number. Our results provide further evidence that perinatal SC proliferation is androgen dependent and, importantly, show that similar exposure of mothers to antiandrogenic chemicals before birth and during lactation reduces final SC number, with implications for the origin of low sperm counts in TDS.
|Short-term hypoxia increases tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in rat carotid body. |
Kato, K; Yamaguchi-Yamada, M; Yamamoto, Y
The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society 58 839-46 2010
Neurochemical and morphological changes in the carotid body are induced by chronic hypoxia, leading to regulation of ventilation. In this study, we examined the time courses of changes in immunohistochemical intensity for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and cellular volume of glomus cells in rats exposed to hypoxia (10% O(2)) for up to 24 hr. Grayscale intensity for TH immunofluorescence was significantly increased in rats exposed to hypoxia for 12, 18, and 24 hr compared with control rats (pless than 0.05). The transectional area of glomus cells was not significantly different between experimental groups. The TH fluorescence intensity of the glomus cells exhibited a strong negative correlation with the transectional area in control rats (Spearman's rho = -0.70). This correlation coefficient decreased with exposure time, and it was lowest for the rats exposed to hypoxia for 18 hr (rho = -0.18). The histogram of TH fluorescence intensity showed a single peak in control rats. The peaks were gradually shifted to the right and became less pronounced in hypoxia-exposed rats, suggesting that a hypoxia-induced increase in TH immunoreactivity occurred uniformly in glomus cells. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that short-term hypoxia induces an increase in TH protein expression in rat carotid body glomus cells.Artículo Texto completo
|Melatonin treatment potentiates neurodegeneration in a rat rotenone Parkinson's disease model. |
Victor Tapias,Jason R Cannon,J Timothy Greenamyre
Journal of neuroscience research 88 2010
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized pathologically by progressive neurodegeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system. Currently, the cause of the disease is unknown, except for a small percentage of familial cases (<10% of total). The rat rotenone model reproduces many of the pathological features of the human disease, including apomorphine-responsive behavioral deficits, DA depletion, loss of striatal DA terminals and nigral dopaminergic neurons, and alpha-synuclein/polyubiquitin-positive cytoplasmic inclusions reminiscent of Lewy bodies. Therefore, this model is well-suited to examine potential neuroprotective agents. Melatonin is produced mainly by the pineal gland and is known primarily for regulating circadian rhythms. It also has potent free radical scavenging and antiinflammatory properties. Melatonin has been reported to be neuroprotective in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) models of PD. However, there are conflicting reports suggesting that melatonin does not provide neuroprotection in these models. Melatonin elicits significant functional changes in the nigrostriatal DA system that may affect 6-OHDA and MPTP entry into cells. Therefore, rotenone is an ideal model for assessing protection, because it does not rely on the dopamine transporter uptake to exert neurotoxicity. In this study, the neuroprotective potential of melatonin in the rotenone PD model was assessed. Melatonin potentiated striatal catecholamine depletion, striatal terminal loss, and nigral DA cell loss. Indeed, melatonin alone elicited alterations in striatal catecholamine content. Our findings indicate that melatonin is not neuroprotective in the rotenone model of PD and may exacerbate neurodegeneration.
|Neuroprotection of midbrain dopaminergic cells in MPTP-treated mice after near-infrared light treatment. |
Shaw VE, Spana S, Ashkan K, Benabid AL, Stone J, Baker GE, Mitrofanis J
J Comp Neurol 518 25-40. 2010
This study explores whether near-infrared (NIr) light treatment neuroprotects dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and the zona incerta-hypothalamus (ZI-Hyp) from degeneration in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated mice. BALB/c albino mice were divided into four groups: 1) Saline, 2) Saline-NIr, 3) MPTP, 4) MPTP-NIr. The injections were intraperitoneal and they were followed immediately by NIr light treatment (or not). Two doses of MPTP, mild (50 mg/kg) and strong (100 mg/kg), were used. Mice were perfused transcardially with aldehyde fixative 6 days after their MPTP treatment. Brains were processed for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunochemistry. The number of TH(+) cells was estimated using the optical fractionator method. Our major finding was that in the SNc there were significantly more dopaminergic cells in the MPTP-NIr compared to the MPTP group (35%-45%). By contrast, in the ZI-Hyp there was no significant difference in the numbers of cells in these two groups. In addition, our results indicated that survival in the two regions after MPTP insult was dose-dependent. In the stronger MPTP regime, the magnitude of loss was similar in the two regions ( approximately 60%), while in the milder regime cell loss was greater in the SNc (45%) than ZI-Hyp ( approximately 30%). In summary, our results indicate that NIr light treatment offers neuroprotection against MPTP toxicity for dopaminergic cells in the SNc, but not in the ZI-Hyp.
|Periaqueductal gray afferents synapse onto dopamine and GABA neurons in the rat ventral tegmental area. |
Omelchenko, N; Sesack, SR
Journal of neuroscience research 88 981-91 2010
The midbrain central gray (periaqueductal gray; PAG) mediates defensive behaviors and is implicated in the rewarding effects of opiate drugs. Projections from the PAG to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) suggest that this region might also regulate behaviors involving motivation and cognition. However, studies have not yet examined the morphological features of PAG axons in the VTA or whether they synapse onto dopamine (DA) or GABA neurons. In this study, we injected anterograde tracers into the rat PAG and used immunoperoxidase to visualize the projections to the VTA. Immunogold-silver labeling for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) or GABA was then used to identify the phenotype of innervated cells. Electron microscopic examination of the VTA revealed axons labeled anterogradely from the PAG, including myelinated and unmyelinated fibers and axon varicosities, some of which formed identifiable synapses. Approximately 55% of these synaptic contacts were of the symmetric (presumably inhibitory) type; the rest were asymmetric (presumably excitatory). These findings are consistent with the presence of both GABA and glutamate projection neurons in the PAG. Some PAG axons contained dense-cored vesicles indicating the presence of neuropeptides in addition to classical neurotransmitters. PAG projections synapsed onto both DA and GABA cells with no obvious selectivity, providing the first anatomical evidence for these direct connections. The results suggest a diverse nature of PAG physiological actions on midbrain neurons. Moreover, as both the VTA and PAG are implicated in the reinforcing actions of opiates, our findings provide a potential substrate for some of the rewarding effects of these drugs.Artículo Texto completo
|Distinct neural pathways mediate α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-dependent activation of the forebrain. |
Thomsen, MS; Hay-Schmidt, A; Hansen, HH; Mikkelsen, JD
Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) 20 2092-102 2010
alpha(7) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists are candidates for the treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Selective alpha(7) nAChR agonists, such as SSR180711, activate neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens shell (ACCshell) in rats, regions important for cognitive function. However, the neural substrates involved in these effects remain elusive. Here we identify cortically projecting cholinergic neurons in the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB) in the basal forebrain (BF) as important targets for alpha(7) nAChR activation, as measured by c-Fos immunoreactivity, a marker of neuronal activation. Selective depletion of these cholinergic neurons abolishes the SSR180711-induced activation of the mPFC but not the ACCshell, demonstrating their critical importance for alpha(7) nAChR-dependent activation of the mPFC. Contrarily, selective depletion of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area abolishes the SSR180711-induced activation of the ACCshell but not the mPFC or HDB. These results demonstrate 2 distinct neural pathways activated by SSR180711. The BF and mPFC are important for attentional function and may subserve the procognitive effects of alpha(7) nAChR agonists, whereas activation of the ACCshell is implicated in the beneficial effect of antipsychotics on the positive symptoms of schizophrenia.
|Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and cell death by (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, a green tea catechin, in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of Parkinson's disease. |
Kim JS, Kim JM, O JJ, Jeon BS
J Clin Neurosci 2010
The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the action of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a potential neuroprotective agent against Parkinson's disease (PD), and to test for toxicity resulting from high doses of EGCG. EGCG was administered to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mice at two different doses (10mg/kg and 50mg/kg). EGCG treatment reduced the neuronal death rate to less than 50%. The level of iNOS expression in the MPTP group was 20% higher than that seen in the control group, but in the EGCG groups, iNOS expression was reduced to the level observed in the negative control group. The two doses of EGCG were equally beneficial for cell rescue, and no toxicity was observed with the higher dose. Inhibition of iNOS may be an important mechanism underlying the prevention of MPTP toxicity, and EGCG may potentially be a neuroprotective agent against PD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
|StyA1 and StyA2B from Rhodococcus opacus 1CP: a multifunctional styrene monooxygenase system. |
Tischler D, Kermer R, Gröning JA, Kaschabek SR, van Berkel WJ, Schlömann M
J Bacteriol 192 5220-7. Epub 2010 Jul 30. 2010
Two-component flavoprotein monooxygenases are emerging biocatalysts that generally consist of a monooxygenase and a reductase component. Here we show that Rhodococcus opacus 1CP encodes a multifunctional enantioselective flavoprotein monooxygenase system composed of a single styrene monooxygenase (SMO) (StyA1) and another styrene monooxygenase fused to an NADH-flavin oxidoreductase (StyA2B). StyA1 and StyA2B convert styrene and chemical analogues to the corresponding epoxides at the expense of FADH2 provided from StyA2B. The StyA1/StyA2B system presents the highest monooxygenase activity in an equimolar ratio of StyA1 and StyA2B, indicating (transient) protein complex formation. StyA1 is also active when FADH2 is supplied by StyB from Pseudomonas sp. VLB120 or PheA2 from Rhodococcus opacus 1CP. However, in both cases the reductase produces an excess of FADH2, resulting in a high waste of NADH. The epoxidation rate of StyA1 heavily depends on the type of reductase. This supports that the FADH2-induced activation of StyA1 requires interprotein communication. We conclude that the StyA1/StyA2B system represents a novel type of multifunctional flavoprotein monooxygenase. Its unique mechanism of cofactor utilization provides new opportunities for biotechnological applications and is highly relevant from a structural and evolutionary point of view.
|FosB Null Mutant Mice Show Enhanced Methamphetamine Neurotoxicity: Potential Involvement of FosB in Intracellular Feedback Signaling and Astroglial Function. |
Kuroda KO, Ornthanalai VG, Kato T, Murphy NP
Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American 35 641-655 2010
Previous studies show that (1) two members of fos family transcription factors, c-Fos and FosB, are induced in frontal brain regions by methamphetamine; (2) null mutation of c-Fos exacerbates methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity; and (3) null mutation of FosB enhances behavioral responses to cocaine. Here we sought a role of FosB in responses to methamphetamine by studying FosB null mutant (-/-) mice. After a 10 mg/kg methamphetamine injection, FosB(-/-) mice were more prone to self-injury. Concomitantly, the intracellular feedback regulators of Sprouty and Rad-Gem-Kir (RGK) family transcripts had lower expression profiles in the frontoparietal cortex and striatum of the FosB(-/-) mice. Three days after administration of four 10 mg/kg methamphetamine injections, the frontoparietal cortex and striatum of FosB(-/-) mice contained more degenerated neurons as determined by Fluoro-Jade B staining. The abundance of the small neutral amino acids, serine, alanine, and glycine, was lower and/or was poorly induced after methamphetamine administration in the frontoparietal cortex and striatum of FosB(-/-) mice. In addition, methamphetamine-treated FosB(-/-) frontoparietal and piriform cortices showed more extravasation of immunoglobulin, which is indicative of blood-brain barrier dysfunction. Methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia, brain dopamine content, and loss of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the striatum, however, were not different between genotypes. These data indicate that FosB is involved in thermoregulation-independent protective functions against methamphetamine neurotoxicity in postsynaptic neurons. Our findings suggest two possible mechanisms of FosB-mediated neuroprotection: one is induction of negative feedback regulation within postsynaptic neurons through Sprouty and RGK. Another is supporting astroglial function such as maintenance of the blood-brain barrier, and metabolism of serine and glycine, which are important glial modulators of nerve cells.
|Loss of PINK1 in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) causes late-onset decrease in spontaneous movement. |
H Matsui, Y Taniguchi, H Inoue, Y Kobayashi, Y Sakaki, A Toyoda, K Uemura, D Kobayashi, S Takeda, R Takahashi
Neuroscience research 66 151-61 2010
Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease associated with the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. The PTEN-induced kinase 1 gene (PINK1) is responsible for recessive inherited familial Parkinson's disease (PARK6). Neither the function of PINK1 nor its role in the prevention of Parkinson's disease is fully understood. Gene disruption of PINK1 causes remarkably different phenotypes in animal models such as Drosophila melanogaster, zebrafish, and mouse, none of which recapitulate Parkinson's-disease-like symptoms. We established PINK1-gene-disrupted medaka fish. These mutant fish grew normally at first, then developed significant decrease in the frequency of spontaneous swimming movements in the late-adult stage. Although the mutants did not show any dopaminergic cell loss, the amount of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, a major metabolite of dopamine, decreased. Thus, PINK1 contributes to the maintenance of dopamine metabolism, even before the selective death of dopaminergic neurons. Our animal model is therefore a valuable tool to detect pathogenesis in Parkinson's patients in the early stages.
|Expression of PTPRO in the interneurons of adult mouse olfactory bulb. |
Kotani, T; Murata, Y; Ohnishi, H; Mori, M; Kusakari, S; Saito, Y; Okazawa, H; Bixby, JL; Matozaki, T
The Journal of comparative neurology 518 119-36 2010
PTPRO is a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) with a single catalytic domain in its cytoplasmic region and multiple fibronectin type III-like domains in its extracellular region. In the chick, PTPRO mRNA has been shown to be particularly abundant in embryonic brain, and PTPRO is implicated in axon growth and guidance during embryonic development. However, the temporal and spatial expression of PTPRO protein in the mammalian CNS, particularly in the juvenile and adult mammalian brain, has not been evaluated in any detail. By immunohistofluorescence analysis with a monoclonal antibody to PTPRO, we show that PTPRO is widely expressed throughout the mouse brain from embryonic day 16 to postnatal day 1, while expression is largely confined to the olfactory bulb (OB) and olfactory tubercle in the adult brain. In the OB, PTPRO protein is expressed predominantly in the external plexiform layer, the granule cell layer, and the glomerular layer (GL). In these regions, expression of PTPRO is predominant in interneurons such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic or calretinin (CR)-positive granule cells. In addition, PTPRO is expressed in GABAergic, CR-positive, tyrosine hydroxylase-positive, or neurocalcin-positive periglomerular cells in the GL. Costaining of PTPRO with other neuronal markers suggests that PTPRO is likely to be localized to the dendrites or dendritic spines of these olfactory interneurons. Thus, PTPRO might participate in regulation of dendritic morphology or synapse formation of interneurons in the adult mouse OB.
|A microinjection technique for targeting regions of embryonic and neonatal mouse brain in vivo. |
Davidson, S; Truong, H; Nakagawa, Y; Giesler, GJ
Brain research 1307 43-52 2010
A simple pressure injection technique was developed to deliver substances into specific regions of the embryonic and neonatal mouse brain in vivo. The retrograde tracers Fluorogold and cholera toxin B subunit were used to test the validity of the technique. Injected animals survived the duration of transport (24-48 h) and then were sacrificed and perfused with fixative. Small injections (less than or=50 nL) were contained within targeted structures of the perinatal brain and labeled distant cells of origin in several model neural pathways. Traced neural pathways in the perinatal mouse were further examined with immunohistochemical methods to test the feasibility of double labeling experiments during development. Several experimental situations in which this technique would be useful are discussed, for example, to label projection neurons in slice or culture preparations of mouse embryos and neonates. The administration of pharmacological or genetic vectors directly into specific neural targets during development should also be feasible. An examination of the form of neural pathways during early stages of life may lead to insights regarding the functional changes that occur during critical periods of development and provide an anatomic basis for some neurodevelopmental disorders.
|Glutamatergic and nonglutamatergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area establish local synaptic contacts with dopaminergic and nondopaminergic neurons. |
Dobi, A; Margolis, EB; Wang, HL; Harvey, BK; Morales, M
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 30 218-29 2010
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) contributes to reward and motivation signaling. In addition to the well established populations of dopamine (DA) or GABA VTA neurons, glutamatergic neurons were recently discovered in the VTA. These glutamatergic neurons express the vesicular glutamate transporter 2, VGluT2. To investigate whether VTA glutamatergic neurons establish local synapses, we tagged axon terminals from resident VTA neurons by intra-VTA injection of Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) or an adeno-associated virus encoding wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and by immunoelectron microscopy determined the presence of VGluT2 in PHA-L- or WGA-positive terminals. We found that PHA-L- or WGA-positive terminals from tagged VTA cells made asymmetric or symmetric synapses within the VTA. VGluT2 immunoreactivity was detected in the vast majority of PHA-L- or WGA-positive terminals forming asymmetric synapses. These results indicate that both VTA glutamatergic and nonglutamatergic (likely GABAergic) neurons establish local synapses. To examine the possible DAergic nature of postsynaptic targets of VTA glutamatergic neurons, we did triple immunolabeling with antibodies against VGluT2, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and PHA-L. From triple-labeled tissue, we found that double-labeled PHA-L (+)/VGluT2 (+) axon terminals formed synaptic contacts on dendrites of both TH-positive and TH-negative cells. Consistent with these anatomical observations, in whole-cell slice recordings of VTA neurons we observed that blocking action potential activity significantly decreased the frequency of synaptic glutamatergic events in DAergic and non-DAergic neurons. These observations indicate that resident VTA glutamatergic neurons are likely to affect both DAergic and non-DAergic neurotransmission arising from the VTA.
|Age-related changes in glial cells of dopamine midbrain subregions in rhesus monkeys. |
Kanaan, NM; Kordower, JH; Collier, TJ
Neurobiology of aging 31 937-52 2010
Aging remains the strongest risk factor for developing Parkinson's disease (PD), and there is selective vulnerability in midbrain dopamine (DA) neuron degeneration in PD. By tracking normal aging-related changes with an emphasis on regional specificity, factors involved in selective vulnerability and resistance to degeneration can be studied. Towards this end, we sought to determine whether age-related changes in microglia and astrocytes in rhesus monkeys are region-specific, suggestive of involvement in regional differences in vulnerability to degeneration that may be relevant to PD pathogenesis. Gliosis in midbrain DA subregions was measured by estimating glia number using unbiased stereology, assessing fluorescence intensity for proteins upregulated during activation, and rating morphology. With normal aging, microglia exhibited increased staining intensity and a shift to more activated morphologies preferentially in the vulnerable substantia nigra-ventral tier (vtSN). Astrocytes did not exhibit age-related changes consistent with an involvement in regional vulnerability in any measure. Our results suggest advancing age is associated with chronic mild inflammation in the vtSN, which may render these DA neurons more vulnerable to degeneration.
|Setting the pace for retinal development: environmental enrichment acts through insulin-like growth factor 1 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. |
Landi S, Ciucci F, Maffei L, Berardi N, Cenni MC
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the 29 10809-10819 2009
Environmental enrichment strongly affects visual system maturation both at retinal and cortical levels. Which molecular pathways are activated by an enriched environment (EE) to regulate visual system development has not been clarified. Here, we show that early [postnatal day 1 (P1) to P7] insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) injections in the eyes of non-EE rat pups mimic EE effects both in increasing BDNF levels in the retinal ganglion cell layer at P10 and in determining a more adult-like retinal acuity, assessed with pattern electroretinogram at P25. Blocking IGF-1 action in EE animals during the same early postnatal time window by injecting the IGF-1 receptor antagonist JB1 prevents EE effects both on BDNF expression and on retinal acuity maturation. Reducing BDNF expression in the retina of IGF-1-treated rats prevents IGF-1 effects on retinal acuity development. Finally, we show that tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression is increased in the retina of P10 EE and IGF-1-treated rats and that blocking TH expression in EE animals prevents EE from affecting retinal acuity development. Thus, early levels of IGF-1 play a key role in mediating EE effects on retinal development through an action that requires BDNF and involves dopaminergic amacrine cell network.,
|Melatonin attenuates methamphetamine-induced reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase, synaptophysin and growth-associated protein-43 levels in the neonatal rat brain. |
Sukit Kaewsuk,Kwankanit Sae-ung,Pansiri Phansuwan-Pujito,Piyarat Govitrapong
Neurochemistry international 55 2009
Methamphetamine (METH) is a most commonly abused drug which damages nerve terminals by causing formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), apoptosis, and finally neuronal damage. Fetal exposure to neurotoxic METH causes significant behavioral effects. The developing fetus is substantially deficient in most antioxidative enzymes, and may therefore be at high risk from both endogenous and drug-enhanced oxidative stress. Little is known about the effects of METH on vesicular proteins such as synaptophysin and growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) in the immature brain. The present study attempted to investigate the effects of METH-induced neurotoxicity in the dopaminergic system of the neonatal rat brain. Neonatal rats were subcutaneously exposed to 5-10mg/kg METH daily from postnatal day 4-10 for 7 consecutive days. The results showed that tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme levels were significantly decreased in the dorsal striatum, prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens and substantia nigra, synaptophysin levels decreased in the striatum and prefrontal cortex and growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) levels significantly decreased in the nucleus accumbens of neonatal rats. Pretreatment with 2mg/kg melatonin 30 min prior to METH administration prevented METH-induced reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase, synaptophysin and growth-associated protein-43 protein levels in different brain regions. These results suggest that melatonin provides a protective effect against METH-induced nerve terminal degeneration in the immature rat brain probably via its antioxidant properties.
|Dose optimization for long-term rAAV-mediated RNA interference in the nigrostriatal projection neurons. |
Ayse Ulusoy, Gurdal Sahin, Tomas Björklund, Patrick Aebischer, Deniz Kirik
Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy 17 1574-84 2009
Short-hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated gene knockdown is a powerful tool for targeted gene silencing and an emerging novel therapeutic strategy. Recent publications, however, reported unexpected toxicity after utilizing viral-mediated shRNA knockdown in vivo. Thus, it is currently unclear whether shRNA-mediated knockdown strategy can be used as a safe and efficient tool for gene silencing. In this study, we have generated rAAV vectors expressing shRNAs targeting the rat tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA (shTH) for testing the efficacy of in vivo TH knockdown in the nigral dopaminergic neurons. At high titers, not only the shTH vectors but also the scrambled and green fluorescence protein (GFP)-only controls caused cell death. In a dose-response study, we identified a dose window leading to 60% decrease in TH(+) neurons without any change in vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) expression. Moreover, using the safe and efficient dose, we showed that dopamine (DA) synthesis rate was significantly reduced and this lead to emergence of motor deficits in the shTH-expressing rats. Interestingly, these animals showed very robust and long-lasting recovery after a single systemic L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) administration beyond what can be achieved in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats. Our results have implications for both mechanistic and therapeutic studies utilizing long-term shRNA-mediated gene silencing in the nigrostriatal projection system.
|A chemical neurotoxin, MPTP induces Parkinson's disease like phenotype, movement disorders and persistent loss of dopamine neurons in medaka fish. |
Matsui H, Taniguchi Y, Inoue H, Uemura K, Takeda S, Takahashi R
Neuroscience research 65 263-271 2009
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease associated with the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. To create a new model of PD, we used medaka (Oryzias latipes), a small teleost that has been used in genetics and environmental biology. We identified tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunopositive dopaminergic and noradrenergic fibers and neurons in the medaka brain. Following establishment of a method for counting the number of dopaminergic neurons and an assay for the evaluation of the medaka behavior, we exposed medaka to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). The treatment of medaka at the larval stage, but not at adult stage, decreased the number of dopaminergic cells in the diencephalon and reduced spontaneous movement, which is reminiscent of human PD patients and other MPTP-induced animal PD models. Among TH(+) neurons in the medaka brain, only a specific cluster in the paraventricular area of the middle diencephalon was vulnerable to MPTP toxicity. Detailed examinations of medaka transiently exposed to MPTP at the larval stage revealed that the number of dopaminergic cells was not fully recovered at their adult stage. Moreover, the amounts of dopamine persistently decreased in the brain of these MPTP-treated fish. MPTP-treated medaka is valuable for modeling human PD.
|Improved RNA preservation for immunolabeling and laser microdissection. |
Brown AL, Smith DW
RNA (New York, N.Y.) 15 2364-2374 2009
Microdissection techniques have the potential to allow for transcriptome analyses in specific populations of cells that are isolated from heterogeneous tissues such as the nervous system and certain cancers. Problematically, RNA is not stable under the labeling conditions usually needed to identify the cells of interest for microdissection. We have developed an immunolabeling method that utilizes a high salt buffer to stabilize RNA during prolonged antibody incubations. We first assessed RNA integrity by three methods and found that tissue incubated in high salt buffer for at least 20 h yielded RNA of similar quality to that for RNA extracted from fresh-frozen tissue, which is considered highest quality. Notably, the integrity was superior to that for RNA extracted from tissue processed using rapid immunolabeling procedures (5 min total duration). We next established that high salt buffer was compatible with immunolabeling, as demonstrated by immunofluorescent detection of dopamine neurons in the brain. Finally, we laser microdissected dopamine neurons that were immunolabeled using high salt buffer and demonstrated that RNA integrity was preserved. Our described method yields high quality RNA from immunolabeled microdissected cells, an essential requirement for meaningful genomics investigations of normal and pathological cells isolated from complex tissues.
|Methylphenidate to adolescent rats drives enduring changes of accumbal Htr7 expression: implications for impulsive behavior and neuronal morphology. |
Leo D, Adriani W, Cavaliere C, Cirillo G, Marco EM, Romano E, di Porzio U, Papa M, Perrone-Capano C, Laviola G
Genes Brain Behav 8 356-68. Epub 2009 Feb 19. 2009
Methylphenidate (MPH) administration to adolescent rodents produces persistent region-specific changes in brain reward circuits and alterations of reward-based behavior. We show that these modifications include a marked increment of serotonin (5-hydroxy-tryptamine) receptor type 7 (Htr7) expression and synaptic contacts, mainly in the nucleus accumbens, and a reduction of basal behavioral impulsivity. We show that neural and behavioral consequences are functionally related: administration of a selective Htr7 antagonist fully counteracts the MPH-reduced impulsive behavior and enhances impulsivity when administered alone in naive rats. Agonist-induced activation of endogenous Htr7 significantly increases neurite length in striatal neuron primary cultures, thus suggesting plastic remodeling of neuronal morphology. The mixed Htr (1a/7) agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, reduces impulsive behavior in adolescent rats and in naive adults, whose impulsivity is enhanced by the Htr7 antagonist. In summary, behavioral pharmacology experiments show that Htr7 mediates self-control behavior, and brain primary cultures experiments indicate that this receptor may be involved in the underlying neural plasticity, through changes in neuronal cytoarchitecture.
|Brain injury does not alter the intrinsic differentiation potential of adult neuroblasts. |
Liu, F; You, Y; Li, X; Ma, T; Nie, Y; Wei, B; Li, T; Lin, H; Yang, Z
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 29 5075-87 2009
Neuroblasts produced by the neural stem cells of the adult subventricular zone (SVZ) migrate into damaged brain areas after stroke or other brain injuries, and previous data have suggested that they generate regionally appropriate new neurons. To classify the types of neurons produced subsequent to ischemic injury, we combined BrdU or virus labeling with multiple neuronal markers to characterize new cells at different times after the induction of stroke. We show that SVZ neuroblasts give rise almost exclusively to calretinin-expressing cells in the damaged striatum, resulting in the accumulation of these cells during long term recovery after stroke. The vast majority of SVZ neuroblasts as well as newly born young and mature neurons in the damaged striatum constitutively express the transcription factor Sp8, but do not express transcription factors characteristic of medium-sized spiny neurons, the primary striatal projection neurons lost after stroke. Our results suggest that adult neuroblasts do not alter their intrinsic differentiation potential after brain injury.
|Social contact elicits immediate-early gene expression in dopaminergic cells of the male prairie vole extended olfactory amygdala. |
Northcutt KV, Lonstein JS
Neuroscience 163 9-22 2009
Male prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are a valuable model in which to study the neurobiology of sociality because, unlike most mammals, they pair bond after mating and display paternal behaviors. Research on the regulation of these social behaviors has highlighted dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in both pair bonding and parenting. We recently described large numbers of dopaminergic cells in the male prairie vole principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (pBST) and posterodorsal medial amygdala (MeApd), but such cells were very few in number or absent in the non-monogamous species we examined, including meadow voles. This suggests that DA cells in these sites may be important for sociosexual behaviors in male prairie voles. To gain some insight into the function of these DAergic neurons in male prairie voles, we examined expression of the immediate-early genes (IEGs) Fos and Egr-1 in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive (TH-ir) cells of the pBST and MeApd after males interacted or not with one of several social stimuli. We found that IEGs were constitutively expressed in some TH-ir neurons under any social condition, but that IEG expression in these cells decreased after a 3.5-h social isolation. Thirty-minute mating bouts (but not 6- or 24-h bouts) that included ejaculation elicited greater IEG expression in TH-ir cells than did non-ejaculatory mating, interactions with a familiar female sibling, or interactions with pups. Furthermore, Fos expression in TH-ir cells was positively correlated with the display of copulatory, but not parental, behaviors. These effects of mating were not found in other DA-rich sites of the forebrain (including the anteroventral periventricular preoptic area, periventricular anterior hypothalamus, zona incerta, and arcuate nucleus). Thus, activity in DAergic cells of the male prairie vole pBST and MeApd is influenced by their social environment, and may be particularly involved in mating and its consequences, including pair bonding.
|The meningococcal ABC-Type L-glutamate transporter GltT is necessary for the development of experimental meningitis in mice. |
Roberta Colicchio, Susanna Ricci, Florentia Lamberti, Caterina Pagliarulo, Chiara Pagliuca, Velia Braione, Tiziana Braccini, Adelfia Talà, Donatella Montanaro, Sergio Tripodi, Marcella Cintorino, Giancarlo Troncone, Cecilia Bucci, Gianni Pozzi, Carmelo B Bruni, Pietro Alifano, Paola Salvatore, Roberta Colicchio, Susanna Ricci, Florentia Lamberti, Caterina Pagliarulo, Chiara Pagliuca, Velia Braione, Tiziana Braccini, Adelfia Talà, Donatella Montanaro, Sergio Tripodi, Marcella Cintorino, Giancarlo Troncone, Cecilia Bucci, Gianni Pozzi, Carmelo B Bruni, Pietro Alifano, Paola Salvatore, Roberta Colicchio, Susanna Ricci, Florentia Lamberti, Caterina Pagliarulo, Chiara Pagliuca, Velia Braione, Tiziana Braccini, Adelfia Talà, Donatella Montanaro, Sergio Tripodi, Marcella Cintorino, Giancarlo Troncone, Cecilia Bucci, Gianni Pozzi, Carmelo B Bruni, Pietro Alifano, Paola Salvatore
Infection and immunity 77 3578-87 2009
Experimental animal models of bacterial meningitis are useful to study the host-pathogen interactions occurring at the cerebral level and to analyze the pathogenetic mechanisms behind this life-threatening disease. In this study, we have developed a mouse model of meningococcal meningitis based on the intracisternal inoculation of bacteria. Experiments were performed with mouse-passaged serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis. Survival and clinical parameters of infected mice and microbiological and histological analysis of the brain demonstrated the establishment of meningitis with features comparable to those of the disease in humans. When using low bacterial inocula, meningococcal replication in the brain was very efficient, with a 1,000-fold increase of viable counts in 18 h. Meningococci were also found in the blood, spleens, and livers of infected mice, and bacterial loads in different organs were dependent on the infectious dose. As glutamate uptake from the host has been implicated in meningococcal virulence, mice were infected intracisternally with an isogenic strain deficient in the ABC-type L-glutamate transporter GltT. Noticeably, the mutant was attenuated in virulence in mixed infections, indicating that wild-type bacteria outcompeted the GltT-deficient meningococci. The data show that the GltT transporter plays a role in meningitis and concomitant systemic infection, suggesting that meningococci may use L-glutamate as a nutrient source and as a precursor to synthesize the antioxidant glutathione.Artículo Texto completo
|Impact of grafted serotonin and dopamine neurons on development of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in parkinsonian rats is determined by the extent of dopamine neuron degeneration. |
Carlsson, T; Carta, M; Muñoz, A; Mattsson, B; Winkler, C; Kirik, D; Björklund, A
Brain : a journal of neurology 132 319-35 2009
Previous studies have shown that serotonin neurons play an important role in the induction and maintenance of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in animals with lesion of the nigrostriatal dopamine system. Patients with Parkinson's disease that receive transplants of foetal ventral mesencephalic tissue, the graft cell preparation is likely to contain, in addition to dopamine neurons, serotonin neurons that will vary in number depending on the landmarks used for dissection. Here, we have studied the impact of grafted serotonin neurons--alone or mixed with dopamine neurons--on the development of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in rats with a partial 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the host nigrostriatal projection. In these rats, which showed only low-level dyskinesia at the time of transplantation, serotonin grafts induced a worsening in the severity of dyskinesia that developed during continued L-DOPA treatment, while the dopamine-rich graft had the opposite, dampening effect. The detrimental effect seen in animals with serotonin neuron grafts was dramatically increased when the residual dopamine innervation in the striatum was removed by a second 6-hydroxydopamine lesion. Interestingly, rats with grafts that contained a mixture of dopamine and serotonin neurons (in approximately 2:1) showed a marked reduction in L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia over time, and the appearance of severe dyskinesia induced by the removal of the residual dopamine innervation, seen in the animals with transplants of serotonin neurons alone, was blocked. FosB expression in the striatal projection neurons, which is associated with dyskinesias, was also normalized by the dopamine-rich grafts, but not by the serotonin neuron grafts. These data indicate that as long as a sufficient portion, some 10-20%, of the dopamine innervation still remains, the increased host serotonin innervation generated by the grafted serotonin neurons will have limited effect on the development or severity of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias. At more advanced stages of the disease, when the dopamine innervation of the putamen is reduced below this critical threshold, grafted serotonin neurons are likely to aggravate l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in those cases where the dopamine re-innervation derived from the grafted neurons is insufficient in magnitude or do not cover the critical dyskinesia-inducing sub-regions of the grafted putamen. We conclude that it is not the absolute number of serotonin neurons in the grafts, but the relative densities of dopamine and serotonin innervations in the grafted striatum that is the critical factor in determining the long-term effect of foetal tissue graft, beneficial or detrimental, on dyskinesia in grafted Parkinson's disease patients.
|Dopaminergic innervation of pyramidal cells in the rat basolateral amygdala. |
Jay F Muller, Franco Mascagni, Alexander J McDonald, Jay F Muller, Franco Mascagni, Alexander J McDonald, Jay F Muller, Franco Mascagni, Alexander J McDonald
Brain structure function 213 275-88 2009
Dopaminergic (DA) inputs to the basolateral nuclear complex of the amygdala (BLC) are critical for several important functions, including reward-related learning, drug-stimulus learning, and fear conditioning. Despite the importance of the DA projection to the BLC, very little is known about which neuronal subpopulations are innervated. The present study utilized dual-labeling immunohistochemistry at the electron microscopic level to examine DA inputs to pyramidal cells in the anterior basolateral amygdalar nucleus (BLa) in the rat. DA axon terminals and BLa pyramidal cells were labeled using antibodies to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK), respectively. Serial section reconstructions of TH-positive (TH+) terminals were performed to determine the extent to which these axon terminals formed synapses versus non-synaptic appositions in the BLa. Our results demonstrate that at least 77% of TH+ terminals form synapses in the BLa, and that 90% of these synapses are with pyramidal cells. The distal dendritic compartment received the great majority of these synaptic contacts, with CaMK+ distal dendrites and spines receiving one-third and one-half, respectively, of all synaptic inputs to pyramidal cells. Many spines receiving innervation from TH+ terminals also received asymmetrical synaptic inputs from putative excitatory terminals. In addition, TH+ terminals often formed non-synaptic appositions with axon terminals, most of which were putatively excitatory in that they were CaMK+ and/or made asymmetrical synapses. Thus, using CaMK as a marker, the present study demonstrates that pyramidal cells, especially their distal dendritic compartments, are the primary targets of dopaminergic inputs to the basolateral amygdala.
|Galanin is a selective marker of the retrotrapezoid nucleus in rats. |
Ruth L Stornetta, Darko Spirovski, Thiago S Moreira, Ana C Takakura, Gavin H West, Justin M Gwilt, Paul M Pilowsky, Patrice G Guyenet, Ruth L Stornetta, Darko Spirovski, Thiago S Moreira, Ana C Takakura, Gavin H West, Justin M Gwilt, Paul M Pilowsky, Patrice G Guyenet
The Journal of comparative neurology 512 373-83 2009
The rat retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) contains CO(2)-activated neurons that contribute to the central chemoreflex and to breathing automaticity. These neurons have two known markers, the transcription factor Phox2b and vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2). Noncatecholaminergic galanin-immunoreactive (ir) neurons within a region of the lower brainstem that seems identical to what is currently defined as the RTN have been previously described. Here we ask whether these galanin-expressing neurons are the same cells as the recently characterized CO(2)-sensitive neurons of the RTN. By using in situ hybridization, we found that pre-pro-galanin (PPGal) mRNA is expressed by an isolated cluster of neurons that is co-extensive with the RTN as defined by a population of strongly Phox2b-ir neurons devoid of tyrosine hydroxylase (Phox2b(+)/TH(-) neurons). This bilateral structure contains about 1,000 PPGal mRNA-positive neurons in the rat. The PPGal mRNA-positive neurons were Phox2b(+)/TH(-) and as susceptible to destruction by the toxin [Sar(9), Met (O(2))(11)]-substance P as the rest of the RTN Phox2b(+)/TH(-) cells of the RTN. CO(2)-activated neurons were recorded in the RTN of anesthetized rats and were labeled with biotinamide. Many of those cells (7/17, 41%, five rats) contained PPGal-mRNA. In conclusion, galanin mRNA is a very specific marker of the glutamatergic Phox2b(+)/TH(-) neurons of the RTN, but galanin mRNA identifies only half of these putative central respiratory chemoreceptors.Artículo Texto completo
|Expression of Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors on phenotypically different cells within the nucleus of the solitary tract in the rat. |
J R Austgen, A Y Fong, C M Foley, P J Mueller, D D Kline, C M Heesch, E M Hasser, J R Austgen, A Y Fong, C M Foley, P J Mueller, D D Kline, C M Heesch, E M Hasser, J R Austgen, A Y Fong, C M Foley, P J Mueller, D D Kline, C M Heesch, E M Hasser
Neuroscience 159 701-16 2009
Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are G-coupled receptors that modulate synaptic activity. Previous studies have shown that Group I mGluRs are present in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), in which many visceral afferents terminate. Microinjection of selective Group I mGluR agonists into the NTS results in a depressor response and decrease in sympathetic nerve activity. There is, however, little evidence detailing which phenotypes of neurons within the NTS express Group I mGluRs. In brainstem slices, we performed immunohistochemical localization of Group I mGluRs and either glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 kDa isoform (GAD67), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Fluoro-Gold (FG, 2%; 15 nl) was microinjected in the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM) of the rat to retrogradely label NTS neurons that project to CVLM. Group I mGluRs were distributed throughout the rostral-caudal extent of the NTS and were found within most NTS subregions. The relative percentages of Group I mGluR expressing neurons colabeled with the different markers were FG (6.9+/-0.7) nNOS (5.6+/-0.9), TH (3.9+/-1.0), and GAD67 (3.1+/-1.4). The percentage of FG containing cells colabeled with Group I mGluR (13.6+/-2.0) was greater than the percent colabeled with GAD67 (3.1+/-0.5), nNOS (4.7+/-0.5), and TH (0.1+/-0.08). Cells triple labeled for FG, nNOS, and Group I mGluRs were identified in the NTS. Thus, these data provide an anatomical substrate by which Group I mGluRs could modulate activity of CVLM projecting neurons in the NTS.
|Natural and lesion-induced apoptosis in the rat striatum during development. |
Mellios, K, et al.
Brain Res., 1252: 30-44 (2009) 2009
We evaluated the pattern of apoptosis in the rat striatum during normal development and in two models of lesion-induced cell death. Lesions included i) unilateral ablations of the cerebral cortex at different postnatal ages, and ii) early postnatal lesions of the catecholaminergic afferent systems of the striatum with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Dying cells were identified as apoptotic using the TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling) method at the light and electron microscopic levels. Moreover, we used immunohistochemistry for the apoptotic markers active caspase-3 and fractin. TUNEL+ cells were present in the striatum during the first four postnatal weeks. Their frequency was high during the first postnatal week and peaked at postnatal day (P)5. Cortical lesions at birth, in contrast to those performed at later stages, induced a significant increase in the frequency of TUNEL+ cells in the ipsilateral striatum, which peaked at seven days postlesion. 6-OHDA lesions resulted in a similar and significant increase in the frequency of TUNEL+ cells in the striatum, which also peaked at P7. We also showed that cortical lesions at P0 and 6-OHDA lesions resulted in a reduction in the frequency, as well as in alterations of the morphology of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the striatum. We suggest that: i) apoptosis in the striatum is temporally coordinated with maturation events in this area and ii) early developmental lesions of major afferent pathways to the striatum affect both the survival and phenotype of striatal neurons.
|A novel transferrin/TfR2-mediated mitochondrial iron transport system is disrupted in Parkinson's disease. |
Mastroberardino, PG; Hoffman, EK; Horowitz, MP; Betarbet, R; Taylor, G; Cheng, D; Na, HM; Gutekunst, CA; Gearing, M; Trojanowski, JQ; Anderson, M; Chu, CT; Peng, J; Greenamyre, JT
Neurobiology of disease 34 417-31 2009
More than 80 years after iron accumulation was initially described in the substantia nigra (SN) of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are still unknown. Similarly, how iron is delivered to its major recipients in the cell - mitochondria and the respiratory complexes - has yet to be elucidated. Here, we report a novel transferrin/transferrin receptor 2 (Tf/TfR2)-mediated iron transport pathway in mitochondria of SN dopamine neurons. We found that TfR2 has a previously uncharacterized mitochondrial targeting sequence that is sufficient to import the protein into these organelles. Importantly, the Tf/TfR2 pathway can deliver Tf bound iron to mitochondria and to the respiratory complex I as well. The pathway is redox-sensitive and oxidation of Tf thiols to disulfides induces release from Tf of highly reactive ferrous iron, which contributes to free radical production. In the rotenone model of PD, Tf accumulates in dopamine neurons, with much of it accumulating in the mitochondria. This is associated with iron deposition in SN, similar to what occurs in PD. In the human SN, TfR2 is also found in mitochondria of dopamine neurons, and in PD there is a dramatic increase of oxidized Tf in SN. Thus, we have discovered a novel mitochondrial iron transport system that goes awry in PD, and which may provide a new target for therapeutic intervention.
|A highly reproducible rotenone model of Parkinson's disease. |
Cannon, JR; Tapias, V; Na, HM; Honick, AS; Drolet, RE; Greenamyre, JT
Neurobiology of disease 34 279-90 2009
The systemic rotenone model of Parkinson's disease (PD) accurately replicates many aspects of the pathology of human PD and has provided insights into the pathogenesis of PD. The major limitation of the rotenone model has been its variability, both in terms of the percentage of animals that develop a clear-cut nigrostriatal lesion and the extent of that lesion. The goal here was to develop an improved and highly reproducible rotenone model of PD. In these studies, male Lewis rats in three age groups (3, 7 or 12-14 months) were administered rotenone (2.75 or 3.0 mg/kg/day) in a specialized vehicle by daily intraperitoneal injection. All rotenone-treated animals developed bradykinesia, postural instability, and/or rigidity, which were reversed by apomorphine, consistent with a lesion of the nigrostriatal dopamine system. Animals were sacrificed when the PD phenotype became debilitating. Rotenone treatment caused a 45% loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive substantia nigra neurons and a commensurate loss of striatal dopamine. Additionally, in rotenone-treated animals, alpha-synuclein and poly-ubiquitin positive aggregates were observed in dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra. In summary, this version of the rotenone model is highly reproducible and may provide an excellent tool to test new neuroprotective strategies.
|Embryonic substantia nigra grafts in the mesencephalon send neurites to the host striatum in non-human primate after overexpression of GDNF. |
Redmond, DE; Elsworth, JD; Roth, RH; Leranth, C; Collier, TJ; Blanchard, B; Bjugstad, KB; Samulski, RJ; Aebischer, P; Sladek, JR
The Journal of comparative neurology 515 31-40 2009
In spite of partial success in treating Parkinson's disease by using ectopically placed grafts of dopamine-producing cells, restoration of the original neuroanatomical circuits, if possible, might work better. Previous evidence of normal anatomic projections from ventral mesencephalic (VM) grafts placed in the substantia nigra (SN) has been limited to neonatal rodents and double grafting or bridging procedures. This study attempted to determine whether injection of a potent growth-promoting factor, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), into the target regions or placement of fetal striatal co-grafts in the nigrostriatal pathway might elicit neuritic outgrowth to the caudate nucleus. Four adult St. Kitts green monkeys received embryonic VM grafts into the rostral mesencephalon near the host SN, and injections of adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2)/GDNF or equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV)/GDNF into the caudate. Three adult monkeys were co-grafted with fetal VM tissue near the SN and fetal striatal grafts (STR) 2.5 mm rostral in the nigrostriatal pathway. Before sacrifice, the striatal target regions were injected with the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold (FG). FG label was found in tyrosine hydroxylase-labeled neurons in VM grafts in the SN of only those monkeys that received AAV2/GDNF vector injections into the ipsilateral striatum. All monkeys showed FG labeling in the host SN when FG labeling was injected on the same side. These data show that grafted dopaminergic neurons can extend neurites to a distant target releasing an elevated concentration of GDNF, and suggest that grafted neurons can be placed into appropriate loci for potential tract reconstruction.
|The somatostatin 2A receptor is enriched in migrating neurons during rat and human brain development and stimulates migration and axonal outgrowth. |
Le Verche, V; Kaindl, AM; Verney, C; Csaba, Z; Peineau, S; Olivier, P; Adle-Biassette, H; Leterrier, C; Vitalis, T; Renaud, J; Dargent, B; Gressens, P; Dournaud, P
PloS one 4 e5509 2009
The neuropeptide somatostatin has been suggested to play an important role during neuronal development in addition to its established modulatory impact on neuroendocrine, motor and cognitive functions in adults. Although six somatostatin G protein-coupled receptors have been discovered, little is known about their distribution and function in the developing mammalian brain. In this study, we have first characterized the developmental expression of the somatostatin receptor sst2A, the subtype found most prominently in the adult rat and human nervous system. In the rat, the sst2A receptor expression appears as early as E12 and is restricted to post-mitotic neuronal populations leaving the ventricular zone. From E12 on, migrating neuronal populations immunopositive for the receptor were observed in numerous developing regions including the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and ganglionic eminences. Intense but transient immunoreactive signals were detected in the deep part of the external granular layer of the cerebellum, the rostral migratory stream and in tyrosine hydroxylase- and serotonin- positive neurons and axons. Activation of the sst2A receptor in vitro in rat cerebellar microexplants and primary hippocampal neurons revealed stimulatory effects on neuronal migration and axonal growth, respectively. In the human cortex, receptor immunoreactivity was located in the preplate at early development stages (8 gestational weeks) and was enriched to the outer part of the germinal zone at later stages. In the cerebellum, the deep part of the external granular layer was strongly immunoreactive at 19 gestational weeks, similar to the finding in rodents. In addition, migrating granule cells in the internal granular layer were also receptor-positive. Together, theses results strongly suggest that the somatostatin sst2A receptor participates in the development and maturation of specific neuronal populations during rat and human brain ontogenesis.
|Mobilization of calcium from intracellular stores facilitates somatodendritic dopamine release. |
Patel, JC; Witkovsky, P; Avshalumov, MV; Rice, ME
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 29 6568-79 2009
Somatodendritic dopamine (DA) release in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) shows a limited dependence on extracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](o)), suggesting the involvement of intracellular Ca(2+) stores. Here, using immunocytochemistry we demonstrate the presence of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase 2 (SERCA2) that sequesters cytosolic Ca(2+) into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), as well as inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptors (IP(3)Rs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs) in DAergic neurons. Notably, RyRs were clustered at the plasma membrane, poised for activation by Ca(2+) entry. Using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to monitor evoked extracellular DA concentration ([DA](o)) in midbrain slices, we found that SERCA inhibition by cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) decreased evoked [DA](o) in the SNc, indicating a functional role for ER Ca(2+) stores in somatodendritic DA release. Implicating IP(3)R-dependent stores, an IP(3)R antagonist, 2-APB, also decreased evoked [DA](o). Moreover, DHPG, an agonist of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1s, which couple to IP(3) production), increased somatodendritic DA release, whereas CPCCOEt, an mGluR1 antagonist, suppressed it. Release suppression by mGluR1 blockade was prevented by 2-APB or CPA, indicating facilitation of DA release by endogenous glutamate acting via mGluR1s and IP(3)R-gated Ca(2+) stores. Similarly, activation of RyRs by caffeine increased [Ca(2+)](i) and elevated evoked [DA](o). The increase in DA release was prevented by a RyR blocker, dantrolene, and by CPA. Importantly, the efficacy of dantrolene was enhanced in low [Ca(2+)](o), suggesting a mechanism for maintenance of somatodendritic DA release with limited Ca(2+) entry. Thus, both mGluR1-linked IP(3)R- and RyR-dependent ER Ca(2+) stores facilitate somatodendritic DA release in the SNc.
|Ultrastructural analysis of local collaterals of rat ventral tegmental area neurons: GABA phenotype and synapses onto dopamine and GABA cells. |
Omelchenko, N; Sesack, SR
Synapse (New York, N.Y.) 63 895-906 2009
Local synapses formed by nondopamine cells within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are thought to provide an important regulatory influence on the activity patterns of dopamine (DA) neurons. However, ultrastructural confirmation of intra-areal synapses formed by VTA neurons is lacking, and the synaptic targets of these connections have not been examined. We performed discrete injections of the specific anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHAL) and used electron microscopy to visualize immunoperoxidase labeling within the local collaterals of VTA cells. The phenotype of target neurons was determined by immunogold-silver labeling for GABA or for tyrosine hydroxylase within DA neurons. Within or immediately adjacent to the VTA injection sites, PHAL was incorporated into the soma and dendrites of both GABA and DA cells. Tracer was also detected within myelinated and unmyelinated axons as well as axon terminals. Some labeled terminals formed identifiable synapses, the majority of which (78%) had symmetric morphology (presumably inhibitory). Both DA and GABA dendrites were contacted by these intrinsic axons. Postembedding immunogold labeling verified that local axon collaterals arose mainly from GABA cells (DA neurons are not known to issue recurrent collaterals). Nevertheless, a few synapses with asymmetric morphology (presumably excitatory) were also noted; whether these derive from local glutamate neurons requires further investigation. Hence, our data provide ultrastructural support for the long standing assumption that GABA VTA neurons synapse locally onto DA cells. The findings also suggest the presence of disinhibitory and possibly excitatory circuitry intrinsic to the VTA.
|Acid sensitivity and ultrastructure of the retrotrapezoid nucleus in Phox2b-EGFP transgenic mice. |
Lazarenko, RM; Milner, TA; Depuy, SD; Stornetta, RL; West, GH; Kievits, JA; Bayliss, DA; Guyenet, PG
The Journal of comparative neurology 517 69-86 2009
The retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) contains noncholinergic noncatecholaminergic glutamatergic neurons that express the transcription factor Phox2b (chemically coded or "cc" RTN neurons). These cells regulate breathing and may be central chemoreceptors. Here we explore their ultrastructure and their acid sensitivity by using two novel BAC eGFP-Phox2b transgenic mice (B/G, GENSAT JX99) in which, respectively, 36% and 100% of the cc RTN neurons express the transgene in complete or partial anatomical isolation from other populations of eGFP neurons. All but one of the eGFP-labeled RTN neurons recorded in these mice were acid activated in slices. These cells contained VGLUT2 mRNA, and 50% contained preprogalanin mRNA (determined by single-cell PCR in the B/G mouse). Two neuronal subgroups were revealed, which differed in discharge rate at pH 7.3 (type I approximately 2; type II approximately 4 Hz) and the degree of alkalization that silenced the cells (type I 7.4-7.6, type II 7.8-8.0). Medial to the RTN, C1 neurons recorded in a tyrosine hydroxylase-GFP mouse were pH insensitive between pH 6.9 and pH 7.5. Ultrastructural studies demonstrated that eGFP-labeled RTN neurons were surrounded by numerous capillaries and were often in direct contact with glial cells, pericytes, and the basement membrane of capillaries. Terminals contacting large proximal eGFP dendrites formed mainly symmetric, likely inhibitory, synapses. Terminals on more distal eGFP dendrites formed preferentially asymmetric, presumably excitatory, synapses. In sum, C1 cells are pH insensitive, whereas cc RTN neurons are uniformly acid sensitive. The RTN neurons receive inhibitory and excitatory synaptic inputs and may have unfettered biochemical interactions with glial cells and the local microvasculature.
|Central nesfatin-1-expressing neurons are sensitive to peripheral inflammatory stimulus. |
Bonnet, MS; Pecchi, E; Trouslard, J; Jean, A; Dallaporta, M; Troadec, JD
Journal of neuroinflammation 6 27 2009
Recently, a novel factor with anorexigenic properties was identified and called nesfatin-1. This protein (82 aac) is not only expressed in peripheral organs but it is also found in neurons located in specific structures including the hypothalamus and the brainstem, two sites strongly involved in food intake regulation. Here, we studied whether some of the neurons that become activated following an injection of an anorectic dose of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) exhibit a nesfatin-1 phenotype. To this end, we used double immunohistochemistry to target the expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos and of nesfatin-1 on coronal frozen sections of the rat brain. The number of c-Fos+/nesfatin-1+ neurons was evaluated in the immunosensitive structures reported to contain nesfatin-1 neurons; i.e. paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), supraoptic nucleus (SON), arcuate nucleus (ARC) and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). LPS strongly increased the number of c-Fos+/nesfatin-1+ neurons in the PVN, SON and NTS, and to a lesser extent in the ARC. Triple labeling showed that a portion of the nesfatin-1 neurons activated in response to LPS within the NTS are catecholaminergic since they co-express tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Our data therefore indicate that a portion of nesfatin-1 neurons of both the hypothalamus and brainstem are sensitive to peripheral inflammatory signals, and provide the first clues suggesting that centrally released nesfatin-1 may contribute to the neural mechanisms leading to endotoxaemic anorexia.
|Lateral habenula projections to dopamine and GABA neurons in the rat ventral tegmental area. |
Omelchenko, N; Bell, R; Sesack, SR
The European journal of neuroscience 30 1239-50 2009
Ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons and their forebrain projections are critically involved in reward processing and cognitive functions. Descending projections from the lateral habenula (LHb) play a central role in inhibiting DA cell activity in response to the absence of expected rewards. As LHb efferents are reportedly glutamatergic, their ability to inhibit DA cells would theoretically require a disynaptic connection involving VTA GABA neurons and their local collateral inputs to DA cells. We therefore used anterograde tract-tracing from the LHb to investigate the relative selectivity of LHb synapses onto GABA versus DA VTA neurons. LHb axons were visualized using immunoperoxidase, and DA and GABA cells were marked by immunogold-silver labeling for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) or GABA, respectively. By ultrastructural analysis, 16% of LHb axons were observed to form synaptic contacts in the VTA, and most of these were of an intermediate morphological type that did not exhibit definitive asymmetric or symmetric character. LHb axons synaptically targeted TH- and GABA-labeled dendrites to a comparable extent (45 and 52% observed incidence, respectively). Pre-embedding immunogold labeling for the vesicular glutamate transporter type 2 and post-embedding immunogold staining for GABA confirmed that approximately 85% of LHb terminals were glutamatergic and not GABAergic. These results suggest that the robust inhibition of DA cells evoked by the LHb is unlikely to arise from a selective innervation of VTA GABA neurons. Moreover, the LHb may mediate a direct excitation of DA cells that is over-ridden by indirect inhibition originating from an extrinsic source.
|Human orbital sympathetic nerve pathways. |
Manoj M Thakker, Jing Huang, Daniel E Possin, A J Ahmadi, Raghu Mudumbai, James C Orcutt, Kristin J Tarbet, Bryan S Sires
Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery 24 360-6 2008
PURPOSE: To determine pathways of sympathetic nerves from the orbital apex to the eyelids in human cadaver tissue using immunohistochemistry. METHODS: Human cadaver orbit tissue was sectioned and immunolabeled with a monoclonal antityrosine hydroxylase antibody. RESULTS: In the orbital apex, the nasociliary, frontal, lacrimal, and maxillary branches of the trigeminal nerve demonstrated intense staining upon entering the orbit. Immunoreactive axons from the nasociliary and frontal nerves were observed to join the extraocular motor nerves in the posterior orbit. A plexus of immunolabeled nerves was observed to accompany the ophthalmic artery as it entered the orbital apex. The ophthalmic artery and its branches throughout the orbit demonstrated staining of nerve fibers in the peripheral muscularis. The nasociliary nerve contributed sympathetic branches to the ciliary ganglion. Nerves passing through the ciliary ganglion and a few ganglion cell bodies demonstrated mild to moderate tyrosine hydroxylase reactivity. Axons within the short and long ciliary nerves demonstrated strong tyrosine hydroxylase reactivity and were observed to enter the posterior sclera and the suprachoroidal space. The lacrimal gland demonstrated mild pericapillary staining and occasional stromal nerve fibers reactive to the antityrosine hydroxylase antibody. Müller muscle and the inferior tarsal muscle possessed a strong tyrosine hydroxylase-reactive nerve supply that appeared to originate from the anterior terminal branches of the nasociliary and lacrimal nerves. CONCLUSIONS: Sympathetic nerves enter the orbit via the first and second divisions of the trigeminal nerve and a plexus of nerves surrounding the ophthalmic artery. Extraocular motor nerves receive a sympathetic nerve supply from the sensory nerves in the posterior orbit. Some ciliary ganglion cell bodies demonstrated tyrosine hydroxylase-like reactivity, suggesting a sympathetic modulatory role for the ciliary ganglion. Sympathetics innervate ocular structures via the posterior ciliary nerves. Sympathetic axons travel anteriorly in the orbit via the nasociliary and lacrimal nerves to innervate the sympathetic eyelid muscles. Sympathetic nerves also travel with the frontal branch of the ophthalmic nerve to innervate the forehead skin. The ophthalmic artery and all of its branches contain a perivascular sympathetic nerve supply that may be involved in regulation of blood flow to ocular and orbital structures.
|Effects on differentiation of embryonic ventral midbrain progenitors by Lmx1a, Msx1, Ngn2, and Pitx3. |
Roybon, L; Hjalt, T; Christophersen, NS; Li, JY; Brundin, P
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 28 3644-56 2008
Neurons derived from neural stem cells could potentially be used for cell therapy in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. To achieve controlled differentiation of neural stem cells, we expressed transcription factors involved in the development of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in rat and human neural progenitors. Using retroviral-mediated transgene delivery, we overexpressed Lmx1a (LIM homeobox transcription factor 1, alpha), Msx1 (msh homeobox homolog 1), Ngn2 (neurogenin 2), or Pitx3 (paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 3) in neurospheres derived from embryonic day 14.5 rat ventral mesencephalic progenitors. We also expressed either Lmx1a or Msx1 in the human embryonic midbrain-derived progenitor cell line NGC-407. Rat cells transduced with Ngn2 exited the cell cycle and expressed the neuronal marker microtubule-associated protein 2 and catecholamine-neuron protein vesicular monoamine transporter 2. Interestingly, Pitx3 downregulated the expression of SOX2 (SRY-box containing gene 2) and Nestin, altered cell morphology, but never induced neuronal or glial differentiation. Ngn2 exhibited a strong neuron-inducing effect. In contrast, few Lmx1a-transduced cells matured into neurons, and Msx1 overexpression promoted oligodendrogenesis rather than neuronal differentiation. Importantly, none of these four genes, alone or in combination, enhanced differentiation of rat neural stem cells into dopaminergic neurons. Notably, the overexpression of Lmx1a, but not Msx1, in human neural progenitors increased the yield of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cells by threefold. Together, we demonstrate that induced overexpression of transcription factor genes has profound and specific effects on the differentiation of rat and human midbrain progenitors, although few dopamine neurons are generated.
|Pramipexole has astrocyte-mediated neuroprotective effects against lactacystin toxicity. |
Keiko Imamura, Takao Takeshima, Kazuhiro Nakaso, Satoru Ito, Kenji Nakashima, Keiko Imamura, Takao Takeshima, Kazuhiro Nakaso, Satoru Ito, Kenji Nakashima
Neuroscience letters 440 97-102 2008
Pramipexole, a dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, has been reported to have neuroprotective potential. We investigated the effect of pramipexole against cell death induced by a proteasome inhibitor, lactacystin, using primary mecencephalic neuronal cultures and SH-SY5Y cells. In E14 rat primary mesencephalic cultures, the number of surviving tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons and microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2)-positive neurons was decreased by exposure to 1-5 microM lactacystin in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with 100 microM pramipexole rescued TH-positive neurons and MAP2-positive neurons from the toxicity of lactacystin. The protective effect of pramipexole was not selective for TH-positive dopaminergic neurons. However, the treatment with 100 microM pramipexole did not protect SH-SY5Y cells against lactacystin-induced cell toxicity and proteasome dysfunction. We hypothesized that the protective effect of pramipexole against the lactacystin-toxicity was not direct but a secondary effect mediated by astrocytes. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy of conditioned medium collected from mecencephalic astrocytes treated with pramipexole. The conditioned medium increased the viability of SH-SY5Y cells against the toxicity of lactacystin. Pramipexole increased the levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the conditioned medium of astrocyte cultures. These protective effects were not significantly inhibited by dopamine D2 or D3 receptor antagonists. We demonstrated that pramipexole had the protective effect against lactacystin toxicity, mediated by a neurotrophic effect of astrocyte-produced factors including BDNF.
|Differential expression of duplicated VAL-opsin genes in the developing zebrafish. |
Daisuke Kojima, Masaki Torii, Yoshitaka Fukada, John E Dowling, Daisuke Kojima, Masaki Torii, Yoshitaka Fukada, John E Dowling
Journal of neurochemistry 104 1364-71 2008
Non-visual opsins mediate various light-dependent physiological events. Our previous search for non-visual opsin genes in zebrafish led to the discovery of VAL-opsin (VAL-opsinA) in deep brain cells and retinal horizontal cells of the adult fish. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of its duplicated gene, VAL-opsinB, in zebrafish. A molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that VAL-opsinB is orthologous to a previously reported salmon gene and that the duplication of the VAL-opsin gene occurred in the teleost lineage. The recombinant protein of zebrafish VAL-opsinB forms a green-sensitive photopigment when reconstituted with 11-cis-retinal. VAL-opsinB expression was detected in a limited number of cells of the brain and the eye, and the expression pattern is distinct from that of the VAL-opsinA gene. Such a differential expression pattern suggests that VAL-opsinA and VAL-opsinB are involved in different physiological events in zebrafish.Artículo Texto completo
|Endogenous dopamine suppresses initiation of swimming in prefeeding zebrafish larvae. |
Thirumalai, V; Cline, HT
Journal of neurophysiology 100 1635-48 2008
Dopamine is a key neuromodulator of locomotory circuits, yet the role that dopamine plays during development of these circuits is less well understood. Here, we describe a suppressive effect of dopamine on swim circuits in larval zebrafish. Zebrafish larvae exhibit marked changes in swimming behavior between 3 days postfertilization (dpf) and 5dpf. We found that swim episodes were fewer and of longer durations at 3 than at 5dpf. At 3dpf, application of dopamine as well as bupropion, a dopamine reuptake blocker, abolished spontaneous fictive swim episodes. Blocking D2 receptors increased frequency of occurrence of episodes and activation of adenylyl cyclase, a downstream target inhibited by D2-receptor signaling, blocked the inhibitory effect of dopamine. Dopamine had no effect on motor neuron firing properties, input impedance, resting membrane potential, or the amplitude of spike afterhyperpolarization. Application of dopamine either to the isolated spinal cord or locally within the cord does not decrease episode frequency, whereas dopamine application to the brain silences episodes, suggesting a supraspinal locus of dopaminergic action. Treating larvae with 10 microM MPTP reduced catecholaminergic innervation in the brain and increased episode frequency. These data indicate that dopamine inhibits the initiation of fictive swimming episodes at 3dpf. We found that at 5dpf, exogenously applied dopamine inhibits swim episodes, yet the dopamine reuptake blocker or the D2-receptor antagonist have no effect on episode frequency. These results led us to propose that endogenous dopamine release transiently suppresses swim circuits in developing zebrafish.Artículo Texto completo
|Expression patterns of the opsin 5-related genes in the developing chicken retina. |
Sayuri Tomonari,Kyoichi Migita,Akira Takagi,Sumihare Noji,Hideyo Ohuchi
Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists 237 2008
The opsin gene family encodes G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane proteins that bind to a retinaldehyde chromophore for photoreception. It has been reported that opsin 5 is expressed in mammalian neural tissue, but its function has been elusive. As a first step to understand the function for opsin 5 in the developing eye, we searched for chicken opsin 5-related genes in the genome by a bioinformatic approach and isolated opsin 5 cDNA fragments from the embryonic retina by RT-PCR. We found that there are three opsin 5-related genes, designated cOpn5m (chicken opsin 5, mammalian type), cOpn5L1 (chicken opsin 5-like 1), and cOpn5L2 (chicken opsin 5-like 2), in the chicken genome. Quantitative PCR analysis has revealed that cOpn5m is the most abundant in the developing and early posthatching neural retina. In situ hybridization analysis has shown that cOpn5m is specifically expressed in subsets of differentiating ganglion cells and amacrine cells. These results suggest that the mammalian type opsin 5 may contribute to the development of these retinal cells in the chicken.
|Immunocytochemistry and laser capture microdissection for real-time quantitative PCR identify hindbrain neurons activated by interaction between leptin and cholecystokinin. |
Williams, DL; Schwartz, MW; Bastian, LS; Blevins, JE; Baskin, DG
The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society 56 285-93 2008
Current evidence suggests that leptin reduces food intake in part by enhancing the hindbrain neuronal response to meal-related gastrointestinal signals, including cholecystokinin (CCK), but the phenotypes of the relevant cells are not known. To identify neurons that participate in this interaction in the rat nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), we induced c-Fos gene expression in NTS neurons with leptin and CCK. We focused on NTS catecholamine neurons because these cells have been implicated in the feeding response to CCK. Hindbrain sections from rats that received CCK with or without leptin pretreatment were immunostained for c-Fos and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) by a double immunofluorescence procedure. Leptin pretreatment increased the number of NTS cells expressing c-Fos-like immunoreactivity (cFLI) 3-fold relative to CCK alone, but the number of TH-positive cells with cFLI was increased 6-fold. Next, cells detected by immunofluorescence for TH were collected by laser capture microdissection and pooled for real-time quantitative PCR of c-Fos mRNA. Here, neither le0ptin nor CCK alone affected the relative amount of mRNA in the TH cell-enriched samples, but leptin plus CCK substantially increased c-Fos mRNA content. These histochemical findings identify hindbrain catecholamine cells as potential mediators of the interaction between leptin and CCK.Artículo Texto completo
|Aggrecan-based extracellular matrix is an integral part of the human basal ganglia circuit. |
G Brückner, M Morawski, T Arendt
Neuroscience 151 489-504 2008
The extracellular matrix is known to be involved in neuronal communication and the regulation of plastic changes, and also considered to protect neurons and synapses against damage. The goal of this study was to investigate how major extracellular matrix components (aggrecan, link protein, hyaluronan) constitute the pathways of the nigral system in the human basal ganglia circuit affected by neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. Here we show that aggrecan- and link protein-related components form clear regional distribution patterns, whereas hyaluronan is widely distributed in gray and white matter. Two predominant phenotypes of the aggrecan-based matrix can be discriminated: (1) perineuronal nets (PNs) and (2) axonal coats (ACs) encapsulating preterminal fibers and synaptic boutons. Clearly contoured PNs are associated with GABAergic projection neurons in the external and internal division of the globus pallidus, the lateral and reticular part of the substantia nigra, as well as subpopulations of striatal and thalamic inhibitory interneurons. Dopaminergic nigral neurons are devoid of PNs but are contacted to a different extent by matrix-coated boutons forming subnucleus-specific patterns. A very dense network of ACs is characteristic especially of the posterior lateral cell groups of the compact substantia nigra (nigrosome 1). In the subthalamic nucleus and the lateral thalamic nuclei numerous AC-associated axons were attached to principal neurons devoid of PNs. We conclude from the region-specific patterns that the aggrecan-based extracellular matrix is adapted to the fast processing of sensorimotor activities which are the therapeutic target of surgery and deep brain stimulation in the treatment of advanced stages of Parkinson's disease.
|Tissue plasminogen activator is not involved in methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. |
Ayumi Fukakusa, Hiroyuki Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki Koike, Toshitaka Nabeshima, Kazuhiro Takuma, Kiyofumi Yamada
Journal of pharmacological sciences 106 321-4 2008
To investigate the role of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in methamphetamine (METH)-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity, we compared the changes in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine transporter (DAT) levels in the striatum after repetitive treatment of METH at 4 mg/kg among wild-type, tPA-deficient (tPA-/-), and protease activated receptor-1-deficient (PAR-1-/-) mice. METH treatment caused a marked decrease in TH and DAT levels in the striatum of those mice with a similar magnitude. No difference in METH-induced abnormal behavior and hyperthermia was observed among the three types of mice. These results suggest that neither tPA nor PAR-1 is involved in METH-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in vivo.
|A FRET-based method to study protein thiol oxidation in histological preparations. |
Mastroberardino, PG; Orr, AL; Hu, X; Na, HM; Greenamyre, JT
Free radical biology & medicine 45 971-81 2008
Cysteine residues in proteins have important biological roles. For example, disulfide bonds are important structural elements; additionally, reversible oxidation of thiols to disulfides functions as a molecular switch and constitutes an early response to oxidative damage. Because organs are heterogeneous structures composed of diverse cell types, there is a compelling need for a histological approach to investigate thiol oxidation in situ in order to address the role of specific cell types in oxidative imbalance. Here we describe a fluorescence technique-which can be used in association with standard immunological staining procedures-to detect variations in disulfides in histological preparations. Moreover, by monitoring the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between a labeled specific primary antibody and the thiol probe described here, this method can detect thiol oxidation in candidate proteins of interest. When applied to an animal model of Parkinson's disease, our technique demonstrated that thiol oxidation occurs selectively in the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra, the same neurons that are lost selectively in the disease. In summary, this technique provides a new, powerful tool for providing further understanding of oxidative imbalance, a phenomenon common to many diseases.Artículo Texto completo
|Relationship between pancreatic vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) and insulin expression in human pancreas. |
Saisho, Y; Harris, PE; Butler, AE; Galasso, R; Gurlo, T; Rizza, RA; Butler, PC
Journal of molecular histology 39 543-51 2008
Vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) is expressed in pancreatic beta cells and has recently been proposed as a target for measurement of beta cell mass in vivo. We questioned, (1) What proportion of beta cells express VMAT2? (2) Is VMAT2 expressed by other pancreatic endocrine or non-endocrine cells? (3) Is the relationship between VMAT2 and insulin expression disturbed in type 1 (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes (T2DM)? Human pancreas (7 non-diabetics, 5 T2DM, 10 T1DM) was immunostained for insulin, VMAT2 and other pancreatic hormones. Most beta cells expressed VMAT2. VMAT2 expression was not changed by the presence of diabetes. In tail of pancreas VMAT2 immunostaining closely correlated with insulin staining. However, VMAT2 was also expressed in some pancreatic polypeptide (PP) cells. Although VMAT2 was not excluded as a target for beta cell mass measurement, expression of VMAT2 in PP cells predicts residual VMAT2 expression in human pancreas even in the absence of beta cells.Artículo Texto completo
|Glutamate signaling proteins and tyrosine hydroxylase in the locus coeruleus of alcoholics. |
Beata Karolewicz, Laurel Johnson, Katalin Szebeni, Craig A Stockmeier, Gregory A Ordway, Beata Karolewicz, Laurel Johnson, Katalin Szebeni, Craig A Stockmeier, Gregory A Ordway, Beata Karolewicz, Laurel Johnson, Katalin Szebeni, Craig A Stockmeier, Gregory A Ordway
Journal of psychiatric research 42 348-55 2008
It has been postulated that alcoholism is associated with abnormalities in glutamatergic neurotransmission. This study examined the density of glutamate NMDA receptor subunits and its associated proteins in the noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) in deceased alcoholic subjects. Our previous research indicated that the NMDA receptor in the human LC is composed of obligatory NR1 and regulatory NR2C subunits. At synapses, NMDA receptors are stabilized through interactions with postsynaptic density protein (PSD-95). PSD-95 provides structural and functional coupling of the NMDA receptor with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), an intracellular mediator of NMDA receptor activation. LC tissue was obtained from 10 alcohol-dependent subjects and eight psychiatrically healthy controls. Concentrations of NR1 and NR2C subunits, as well as PSD-95 and nNOS, were measured using Western blotting. In addition, we have examined tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of norepinephrine. The amount of NR1 was lower in the rostral (-30%) and middle (-41%) portions of the LC of alcoholics as compared to control subjects. No differences in the amounts of NR2C, PSD-95, nNOS and TH were detected comparing alcoholic to control subjects. Lower levels of NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor in the LC implicates altered glutamate-norepinephrine interactions in alcoholism.Artículo Texto completo
|AAV2-mediated gene transfer of GDNF to the striatum of MPTP monkeys enhances the survival and outgrowth of co-implanted fetal dopamine neurons. |
J D Elsworth, D E Redmond, C Leranth, K B Bjugstad, J R Sladek, T J Collier, S B Foti, R J Samulski, K P Vives, R H Roth
Experimental neurology 211 252-8 2008
Neural transplantation offers the potential of treating Parkinson's disease by grafting fetal dopamine neurons to depleted regions of the brain. However, clinical studies of neural grafting in Parkinson's disease have produced only modest improvements. One of the main reasons for this is the low survival rate of transplanted neurons. The inadequate supply of critical neurotrophic factors in the adult brain is likely to be a major cause of early cell death and restricted outgrowth of fetal grafts placed into the mature striatum. Glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent neurotrophic factor that is crucial to the survival, outgrowth and maintenance of dopamine neurons, and so is a candidate for protecting grafted fetal dopamine neurons in the adult brain. We found that implantation of adeno-associated virus type 2 encoding GDNF (AAV2-GDNF) in the normal monkey caudate nucleus induced overexpression of GDNF that persisted for at least 6 months after injection. In a 6-month within-animal controlled study, AAV2-GDNF enhanced the survival of fetal dopamine neurons by 4-fold, and increased the outgrowth of grafted fetal dopamine neurons by almost 3-fold in the caudate nucleus of MPTP-treated monkeys, compared with control grafts in the other caudate nucleus. Thus, the addition of GDNF gene therapy to neural transplantation may be a useful strategy to improve treatment for Parkinson's disease.
|Emotional, cognitive and neurochemical alterations in a premotor stage model of Parkinson's disease. |
M T Tadaiesky, P A Dombrowski, C P Figueiredo, E Cargnin-Ferreira, C Da Cunha, R N Takahashi, M T Tadaiesky, P A Dombrowski, C P Figueiredo, E Cargnin-Ferreira, C Da Cunha, R N Takahashi
Neuroscience 156 830-40 2008
In addition to classic motor symptoms, Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by cognitive and emotional deficits, which have been demonstrated to precede motor impairments. The present study addresses the question of whether a partial degeneration of dopaminergic neurons using 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in rats is able to induce premotor behavioral signs. The time-course of nigrostriatal damage was evaluated by tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry and the levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and 5-HT in various brain regions were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Behavioral tests that assessed a variety of psychological functions, including locomotor activity, emotional reactivity and depression, anxiety and memory were conducted on 6-OHDA lesioned rats. Bilateral infusion of 6-OHDA in the striatum of rats caused early (1 week) damage of dopaminergic terminals in striatum and in cell bodies in substantia nigra pars compacta. The nigrostriatal lesion was accompanied by early loss of dopamine in the striatum, which remained stable through a 3-week period of observation. In addition, a late (3 weeks) loss of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex, but not in the hippocampus, was seen. Additional noradrenergic and serotonergic alterations were observed after 6-OHDA administration. The results indicated that 6-OHDA lesioned rats show decreased sucrose consumption and an increased immobility time in the forced swimming test, an anhedonic-depressive-like effect. In addition, an anxiogenic-like activity in the elevated plus maze test and cognitive impairments were observed on the cued version of the Morris water maze and social recognition tests. These findings suggest that partial striatal dopaminergic degeneration and parallel dopaminergic, noradrenergic and serotonergic alterations in striatum and prefrontal cortex may have caused the emotional and cognitive deficits observed in this rat model of early phase PD.
|Functional convergence of dopaminergic and cholinergic input is critical for hippocampus-dependent working memory. |
Wisman, LA; Sahin, G; Maingay, M; Leanza, G; Kirik, D
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 28 7797-807 2008
Although Parkinson's disease is a movement disorder, in many patients cognitive dysfunction is an important clinical sign. It is not yet clear whether this is attributable solely to a decrease in dopamine levels, or whether other neurotransmitter systems might be involved as well. In the present study, the importance of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine pathway and a possible convergence with forebrain cholinergic projections to neocortex and hippocampus in the regulation of learning and memory abilities were investigated by using specific lesion paradigms in one or both systems. Lesioning of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area resulted in an impaired performance in the reference memory task, whereas the execution of the working memory tasks appeared to be unaffected in the Morris water maze. Analysis of the swim paths revealed that the dopamine-depleted animals were capable of adapting a search strategy on a given testing day but failed to transfer this information to the next day, suggesting a deficit in information storage and/or recall. In contrast, cholinergic lesions alone were without effect in all test paradigms. However, when both dopamine and acetylcholine were depleted, animals were also impaired in the working memory task, indicating that a functional convergence of the inputs from these systems was critical for acquisition of spatial memory. Interestingly, such an additional acquisition deficit appeared only after hippocampal cholinergic depletion regardless of a concurrent disruption of basalo cortical cholinergic afferents. Thus, further analyses of cholinergic alterations may prove useful in better understanding the cognitive symptoms in Parkinson's disease.
|3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-methamphetamine (ecstasy) promotes the survival of fetal dopamine neurons in culture. |
Lipton, JW; Tolod, EG; Thompson, VB; Pei, L; Paumier, KL; Terpstra, BT; Lynch, KA; Collier, TJ; Sortwell, CE
Neuropharmacology 55 851-9 2008
The current study examined whether modest concentrations of MDMA could increase the survival and/or neurite outgrowth of fetal midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons in vitro since increased DA neurite outgrowth has been previously observed in vivo from prenatal exposure. MDMA concentrations in fetal brain were quantified to determine relevant in vivo concentrations to employ in vitro. A dose response study in vitro demonstrated that MDMA, at concentrations observed in vivo, resulted in increased, DA-specific, neuron survival. Higher doses resulted in non-specific neurotoxicity. MDMA application immediately after culture establishment resulted in greater survival than delayed application, however both were superior to control. MDMA significantly increased the expression of the slc6a3 gene (dopamine transporter; DAT) in culture. Co-application of the DAT reuptake inhibitor methylphenidate (MPH) with MDMA attenuated this effect. Progressive reductions in MPH concentrations restored the MDMA-induced survival effect. This suggests that MDMA's action at DAT mediates the survival effect. Neurite density per neuron was unaffected by MDMA in vitro suggesting that MDMA promotes DA neuron survival but not neurite outgrowth in culture. Finally, animals prenatally exposed to MDMA and examined on postnatal day 35 showed an increase in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH+) neurons in the substantia nigra but not in the ventral tegmental area. These data suggest that during development, MDMA can increase the survival of DA neurons through its action at its transporter. Understanding how MDMA increases DA neuron survival may provide insight into normal DA neuron loss during development.
|Synapses between corticotropin-releasing factor-containing axon terminals and dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area are predominantly glutamatergic. |
Tagliaferro, P; Morales, M
The Journal of comparative neurology 506 616-26 2008
Interactions between stress and the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system have been suggested from behavioral and electrophysiological studies. Because corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) plays a role in stress responses, we investigated possible interactions between neurons containing CRF and those producing DA in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We first investigated the cellular distribution of CRF in the VTA by immunolabeling VTA sections with anti-CRF antibodies and analyzing these sections by electron microscopy. We found CRF immunoreactivity present mostly in axon terminals establishing either symmetric or asymmetric synapses with VTA dendrites. We established that nearly all CRF asymmetric synapses are glutamatergic, insofar as the CRF-immunolabeled axon terminals in these synapses coexpressed the vesicular glutamate transporter 2, and that the majority of CRF symmetric synapses are GABAergic, insofar as the CRF-immunolabeled axon terminals in these synapses coexpressed glutamic acid decarboxylase, findings that are of functional importance. We then looked for synaptic interactions between CRF- and DA-containing neurons, by using antibodies against CRF and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; a marker for DA neurons). We found that most synapses between CRF-immunoreactive axon terminals and TH neurons are asymmetric (in the majority likely to be glutamatergic) and suggest that glutamatergic neurons containing CRF may be part of the neuronal circuitry that mediates stress responses involving the mesocorticolimbic DA system. The presence of CRF synapses in the VTA offers a mechanism for interactions between the stress-associated neuropeptide CRF and the mesocorticolimbic DA system.
|Corticotropin-releasing factor binding protein within the ventral tegmental area is expressed in a subset of dopaminergic neurons. |
Wang, HL; Morales, M
The Journal of comparative neurology 509 302-18 2008
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and related peptides play a role in mediating neuronal effects of stress. These peptides mediate stress responses by their interactions with the CRF receptors and the CRF-binding protein (CRF-BP). Because the CRF-BP is implicated in neurotransmission within the ventral tegmental area (VTA), we investigated whether the CRF-BP is expressed in VTA neurons. By in situ hybridization, we detected cellular expression of CRF-BP mRNA in the VTA; no such expression was seen in neighboring substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC) or substantia nigra pars reticulata. By double in situ hybridization, we determined that VTA neurons with CRF-BP mRNA coexpressed transcripts encoding either tyrosine hydroxylase [TH; a marker for dopamine (DA) neurons] or glutamic acid decarboxylase [GAD; synthesizing enzyme of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)]. Neurons with CRF-BP mRNA represented 25% of the total population of TH-expressing neurons and 28% of the total population of GAD-expressing neurons, indicating that discrete subpopulations of dopaminergic and GABAergic neurons are present in the VTA. Within the total population of neurons containing CRF-BP mRNA, 70% coexpressed TH mRNA and only 27% coexpressed GAD mRNA. As far as we are aware, we provide the first anatomical evidence that a molecule, CRF-BP, is encoded by DAergic neurons of the VTA but not by those of the SNC. We propose, based on the observation that the majority of VTA neurons expressing CRF-BP mRNA are DAergic, that in the VTA interactions of CRF-BP with CRF, or with CRF-related peptides, are likely to be mediated predominantly by DAergic neurons.
|Age and region-specific responses of microglia, but not astrocytes, suggest a role in selective vulnerability of dopamine neurons after 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine exposure in monkeys. |
Kanaan, NM; Kordower, JH; Collier, TJ
Glia 56 1199-214 2008
Little is known about the effects of aging, the strongest risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD), on glial responses to dopamine (DA) neuron degeneration in midbrain subregions that display selective vulnerability to degeneration. We evaluated the impact of aging on astrocytes and microglia in a regionally specific manner in a monkey model of PD. 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) was delivered unilaterally via the internal carotid artery of young, middle-aged, and old-aged rhesus monkeys. Astrocytes and microglia were identified using glial fibrillary acidic protein and human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) immunolabeling, respectively. Glial reactivity was assessed using (1) stereological cell counting, (2) fluorescence intensity, and (3) a morphology rating scale. In the midbrain contralateral and ipsilateral to the MPTP injection, astrocyte number and intensity did not change with age. In both sides of the midbrain, cellular morphology suggested astrocyte hypertrophy in middle-age dissipated in old-age, irrespective of DA subregion and regional differences in vulnerability to degeneration. In the contralateral midbrain, microglia became mildly activated (increased cell number and intensity, and morphological changes) with advancing age. Inflammation was evident at 3 months postlesion by severe microglial activation in the ipsilateral midbrain. HLA-DR fluorescence intensity and an abundance of activated microglia (based on morphological criteria) were consistently exacerbated in the vtSN of both sides of the midbrain. These results suggest the glial responses accompanying aging and DA neuron degeneration following a toxic insult represent persistent alterations in the microenvironment of surviving DA neurons that are important factors in understanding regional differences in susceptibility to degeneration.
|Lymph heart in chick--somitic origin, development and embryonic oedema. |
Valasek, P; Macharia, R; Neuhuber, WL; Wilting, J; Becker, DL; Patel, K
Development (Cambridge, England) 134 4427-36 2007
The lymph heart is a sac-like structure on either side of avian tail. In some adult birds, it empties the lymph from the copulatory organ; however, during embryonic development, it is thought to circulate extra-embryonic lymph. Very little is known about the origin, innervation and the cellular changes it undergoes during development. Using immunohistochemistry and gene expression profiling we show that the musculature of the lymph heart is initially composed solely of striated skeletal muscle but later develops an additional layer composed of smooth myofibroblasts. Chick-quail fate-mapping demonstrates that the lymph heart originates from the hypaxial compartments of somites 34-41. The embryonic lymph heart is transiently innervated by somatic motoneurons with no autonomic input. In comparison to body muscles, the lymph heart has different sensitivity to neuromuscular junction blockers (sensitive only to decamethonium). Furthermore, its abundant bungarotoxin-positive acetylcholinesterase receptors are unique as they completely lack specific acetylcholinesterase activity. Several lines of evidence suggest that the lymph heart may possess an intrinsic pacing mechanism. Finally, we assessed the function of the lymph heart during embryogenesis and demonstrate that it is responsible for preventing embryonic oedema in birds, a role previously thought to be played by body skeletal muscle contractions.
|Potentiation of electrical and chemical synaptic transmission mediated by endocannabinoids. |
Cachope, R; Mackie, K; Triller, A; O'Brien, J; Pereda, AE
Neuron 56 1034-47 2007
Endocannabinoids are well established as inhibitors of chemical synaptic transmission via presynaptic activation of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R). Contrasting this notion, we show that dendritic release of endocannabinoids mediates potentiation of synaptic transmission at mixed (electrical and chemical) synaptic contacts on the goldfish Mauthner cell. Remarkably, the observed enhancement was not restricted to the glutamatergic component of the synaptic response but also included a parallel increase in electrical transmission. This effect involved the activation of CB1 receptors and was indirectly mediated via the release of dopamine from nearby varicosities, which in turn led to potentiation of the synaptic response via a cAMP-dependent protein kinase-mediated postsynaptic mechanism. Thus, endocannabinoid release can potentiate synaptic transmission, and its functional roles include the regulation of gap junction-mediated electrical synapses. Similar interactions between endocannabinoid and dopaminergic systems may be widespread and potentially relevant for the motor and rewarding effects of cannabis derivatives.
|Proteomic profiling of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 pheochromocytomas reveals different expression of chromogranin B. |
Brouwers, FM; Gläsker, S; Nave, AF; Vortmeyer, AO; Lubensky, I; Huang, S; Abu-Asab, MS; Eisenhofer, G; Weil, RJ; Park, DM; Linehan, WM; Pacak, K; Zhuang, Z
Endocrine-related cancer 14 463-71 2007
Pheochromocytomas are catecholamine-producing tumors that can occur in the context of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHL) and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2). Pheochromocytomas in these two syndromes differ in histopathological features, catecholamine metabolism, and clinical phenotype. To further investigate the nature of these differences, we compared the global protein expressions of 8 MEN2A-associated pheochromocytomas with 11 VHL-associated pheochromocytomas by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis proteomic profiling followed by sequencing and identification of differentially expressed proteins. Although both types of pheochromocytoma shared similarities in their protein expression patterns, the expression of several proteins was distinctly different between VHL- and MEN2A-associated pheochromocytomas. We identified several of these differentially expressed proteins. One of the proteins with higher expression in MEN2-associated tumors was chromogranin B, of which the differential expression was confirmed by western blot analysis. Our results expand the evidence for proteomic differences between these two tumor entities, and suggest that VHL-associated pheochromocytomas may be deficient in fundamental machinery for catecholamine storage. In light of these new findings, as well as existing evidence for differences between both types of pheochromocytomas, we propose that these tumors may have different developmental origins.
|Serotonin neuron transplants exacerbate L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. |
Carlsson, T; Carta, M; Winkler, C; Björklund, A; Kirik, D
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 27 8011-22 2007
Clinical trials in patients with Parkinson's disease have shown that transplants of fetal mesencephalic dopamine neurons can form a new functional innervation of the host striatum, but the clinical benefits have been highly variable: some patients have shown substantial recovery in motor function, whereas others have shown no improvement and even a worsening in the 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinetic side effects. Differences in the composition of the grafted cell preparation may contribute to these discrepancies. In particular, the number of serotonin neurons contained in the graft can vary greatly depending on the dissection of the fetal tissue. Importantly, serotonin neurons have the ability to store and release dopamine, formed from exogenously administered L-DOPA. Here, we have evaluated the effect of transplants containing serotonin neurons, or a mixture of dopamine and serotonin neurons, on L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned animals. As expected, dopamine neuron-rich grafts induced functional recovery, accompanied by a 60% reduction in L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia that developed gradually over the first 10 weeks. Rats with serotonin-rich grafts with few dopamine neurons, in contrast, showed a progressive worsening of their L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias over time, and no functional improvement. The antidyskinetic effect of dopamine-rich grafts was independent of the number of serotonin neurons present. We conclude that serotonin neurons in the grafts are likely to have a detrimental effect on L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in cases in which the grafts contain no or few dopamine neurons.
|Resonant antidromic cortical circuit activation as a consequence of high-frequency subthalamic deep-brain stimulation. |
Li, S; Arbuthnott, GW; Jutras, MJ; Goldberg, JA; Jaeger, D
Journal of neurophysiology 98 3525-37 2007
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) for many patients. The most effective stimulation consists of high-frequency biphasic stimulation pulses around 130 Hz delivered between two active sites of an implanted depth electrode to the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS). Multiple studies have shown that a key effect of STN-DBS that correlates well with clinical outcome is the reduction of synchronous and oscillatory activity in cortical and basal ganglia networks. We hypothesized that antidromic cortical activation may provide an underlying mechanism responsible for this effect, because stimulation is usually performed in proximity to cortical efferent pathways. We show with intracellular cortical recordings in rats that STN-DBS did in fact lead to antidromic spiking of deep layer cortical neurons. Furthermore, antidromic spikes triggered a dampened oscillation of local field potentials in cortex with a resonant frequency around 120 Hz. The amplitude of antidromic activation was significantly correlated with an observed suppression of slow wave and beta band activity during STN-DBS. These findings were seen in ketamine-xylazine or isoflurane anesthesia in both normal and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats. Thus antidromic resonant activation of cortical microcircuits may make an important contribution toward counteracting the overly synchronous and oscillatory activity characteristic of cortical activity in PD.
|Hypocretin/orexin overexpression induces an insomnia-like phenotype in zebrafish. |
Prober, DA; Rihel, J; Onah, AA; Sung, RJ; Schier, AF
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 26 13400-10 2006
As many as 10% of humans suffer chronic sleep disturbances, yet the genetic mechanisms that regulate sleep remain essentially unknown. It is therefore crucial to develop simple and cost-effective vertebrate models to study the genetic regulation of sleep. The best characterized mammalian sleep/wake regulator is hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt), whose loss results in the sleep disorder narcolepsy and that has also been implicated in feeding behavior, energy homeostasis, thermoregulation, reward seeking, addiction, and maternal behavior. Here we report that the expression pattern and axonal projections of embryonic and larval zebrafish Hcrt neurons are strikingly similar to those in mammals. We show that zebrafish larvae exhibit robust locomotive sleep/wake behaviors as early as the fifth day of development and that Hcrt overexpression promotes and consolidates wakefulness and inhibits rest. Similar to humans with insomnia, Hcrt-overexpressing larvae are hyperaroused and have dramatically reduced abilities to initiate and maintain rest at night. Remarkably, Hcrt function is modulated by but does not require normal circadian oscillations in locomotor activity. Our zebrafish model of Hcrt overexpression indicates that the ancestral function of Hcrt is to promote locomotion and inhibit rest and will facilitate the discovery of neural circuits, genes, and drugs that regulate Hcrt function and sleep.
|Distribution of plasma membrane-associated syntaxins 1 through 4 indicates distinct trafficking functions in the synaptic layers of the mouse retina. |
Sherry, DM; Mitchell, R; Standifer, KM; du Plessis, B
BMC neuroscience 7 54 2006
Syntaxins 1 through 4 are SNAP receptor (SNARE) proteins that mediate vesicular trafficking to the plasma membrane. In retina, syntaxins 1 and 3 are expressed at conventional and ribbon synapses, respectively, suggesting that synaptic trafficking functions differ among syntaxin isoforms. To better understand syntaxins in synaptic signaling and trafficking, we further examined the cell- and synapse-specific expression of syntaxins 1 through 4 in the mouse retina by immunolabeling and confocal microscopy.Each isoform was expressed in the retina and showed a unique distribution in the synaptic layers of the retina, with little or no colocalization of isoforms. Syntaxin 1 was present in amacrine cell bodies and processes and conventional presynaptic terminals in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). Syntaxin 2 was present in amacrine cells and their processes in the IPL, but showed little colocalization with syntaxin 1 or other presynaptic markers. Syntaxin 3 was found in glutamatergic photoreceptor and bipolar cell ribbon synapses, but was absent from putative conventional glutamatergic amacrine cell synapses. Syntaxin 4 was localized to horizontal cell processes in the ribbon synaptic complexes of photoreceptor terminals and in puncta in the IPL that contacted dopaminergic and CD15-positive amacrine cells. Syntaxins 2 and 4 often were apposed to synaptic active zones labeled for bassoon.These results indicate that each syntaxin isoform has unique, non-redundant functions in synaptic signaling and trafficking. Syntaxins 1 and 3 mediate presynaptic transmitter release from conventional and ribbon synapses, respectively. Syntaxins 2 and 4 are not presynaptic and likely mediate post-synaptic trafficking.
|Suppression of prolactin-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b signaling and induction of suppressors of cytokine signaling messenger ribonucleic acid in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of the rat during late pregnancy and lactation. |
Anderson, GM; Beijer, P; Bang, AS; Fenwick, MA; Bunn, SJ; Grattan, DR
Endocrinology 147 4996-5005 2006
During late pregnancy and lactation, the tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurons that regulate prolactin secretion by negative feedback become less able to produce dopamine in response to prolactin, leading to hyperprolactinemia. Because prolactin-induced activation of dopamine synthesis in these neurons requires the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b (STAT5b) signaling pathway, we investigated whether prolactin-induced STAT5b signaling is reduced during lactation and whether induction of suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) mRNAs occur at this time and in late pregnancy. During lactation, the ability of exogenous prolactin to induce STAT5 phosphorylation and STAT5b nuclear translocation was markedly reduced when compared with diestrous rats. In nonpregnant female rats, acute treatment with ovine prolactin markedly increased levels of SOCS-1 and -3 and cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein mRNA in arcuate nucleus micropunches. On gestation d 22, SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 mRNA levels were 10-fold that on G20. SOCS-1 and -3 and cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein mRNA levels were also elevated on lactation d 7. At these times, dopaminergic activity was decreased and the rats were hyperprolactinemic. The high levels of SOCS mRNA were prevented by bromocriptine pretreatment (gestation d 22) or pup removal (lactation d 7), which suppressed circulating prolactin to basal levels. These results demonstrate that around the end of pregnancy, prolactin loses the ability to activate STAT5b, associated with an increase in SOCS mRNAs. The loss of this stimulating pathway may underlie the reduced tuberoinfundibular dopamine neuron dopamine output and hyperprolactinemia that characterizes late pregnancy and lactation. The high maternal levels of SOCS mRNAs appear to be dependent on prolactin, presumably acting through an alternative signaling pathway to STAT5b.
|Transient and selective overexpression of dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum causes persistent abnormalities in prefrontal cortex functioning. |
Kellendonk, C; Simpson, EH; Polan, HJ; Malleret, G; Vronskaya, S; Winiger, V; Moore, H; Kandel, ER
Neuron 49 603-15 2006
Increased activity of D2 receptors (D2Rs) in the striatum has been linked to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. To determine directly the behavioral and physiological consequences of increased D2R function in the striatum, we generated mice with reversibly increased levels of D2Rs restricted to the striatum. D2 transgenic mice exhibit selective cognitive impairments in working memory tasks and behavioral flexibility without more general cognitive deficits. The deficit in the working memory task persists even after the transgene has been switched off, indicating that it results not from continued overexpression of D2Rs but from excess expression during development. To determine the effects that may mediate the observed cognitive deficits, we analyzed the prefrontal cortex, the brain structure mainly associated with working memory. We found that D2R overexpression in the striatum impacts dopamine levels, rates of dopamine turnover, and activation of D1 receptors in the prefrontal cortex, measures that are critical for working memory.
|Evidence of altered brain sexual differentiation in mice exposed perinatally to low, environmentally relevant levels of bisphenol A. |
Rubin, BS; Lenkowski, JR; Schaeberle, CM; Vandenberg, LN; Ronsheim, PM; Soto, AM
Endocrinology 147 3681-91 2006
Humans are routinely exposed to bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogenic chemical present in food and beverage containers, dental composites, and many products in the home and workplace. BPA binds both classical nuclear estrogen receptors and facilitates membrane-initiated estrogenic effects. Here we explore the ability of environmentally relevant exposure to BPA to affect anatomical and functional measures of brain development and sexual differentiation. Anatomical evidence of alterations in brain sexual differentiation were examined in male and female offspring born to mouse dams exposed to 0, 25, or 250 ng BPA/kg body weight per day from the evening of d 8 of gestation through d 16 of lactation. These studies examined the sexually dimorphic population of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) neurons in the rostral periventricular preoptic area, an important brain region for estrous cyclicity and estrogen-positive feedback. The significant sex differences in TH neuron number observed in control offspring were diminished or obliterated in offspring exposed to BPA primarily because of a decline in TH neuron number in BPA-exposed females. As a functional endpoint of BPA action on brain sexual differentiation, we examined the effects of perinatal BPA exposure on sexually dimorphic behaviors in the open field. Data from these studies revealed significant sex differences in the vehicle-exposed offspring that were not observed in the BPA-exposed offspring. These data indicate that BPA may be capable of altering important events during critical periods of brain development.
|Alpha-synuclein activation of protein phosphatase 2A reduces tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation in dopaminergic cells. |
Peng, X; Peng, XM; Tehranian, R; Dietrich, P; Stefanis, L; Perez, RG
Journal of cell science 118 3523-30 2005
alpha-Synuclein is an abundant presynaptic protein implicated in neuronal plasticity and neurodegenerative diseases. Although the function of alpha-synuclein is not thoroughly elucidated, we found that alpha-synuclein regulates dopamine synthesis by binding to and inhibiting tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis. Understanding alpha-synuclein function in dopaminergic cells should add to our knowledge of this key protein, which is implicated in Parkinson's disease and other disorders. Herein, we report a mechanism by which alpha-synuclein diminishes tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation and activity in stably transfected dopaminergic cells. Short-term regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase depends on the phosphorylation of key seryl residues in the amino-terminal regulatory domain of the protein. Of these, Ser40 contributes significantly to tyrosine hydroxylase activation and dopamine synthesis. We observed that alpha-synuclein overexpression caused reduced Ser40 phosphorylation in MN9D cells and inducible PC12 cells. Ser40 is phosphorylated chiefly by the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase PKA and dephosphorylated almost exclusively by the protein phosphatase, PP2A. Therefore, we measured the impact of alpha-synuclein overexpression on levels and activity of PKA and PP2A in our cells. PKA was unaffected by alpha-synuclein. PP2A protein levels also were unchanged, however, the activity of PP2A increased in parallel with alpha-synuclein expression. Inhibition of PP2A dramatically increased Ser40 phosphorylation only in alpha-synuclein overexpressors in which alpha-synuclein was also found to co-immunoprecipitate with PP2A. Together the data reveal a functional interaction between alpha-synuclein and PP2A that leads to PP2A activation and underscores a key role for alpha-synuclein in protein phosphorylation.
|Control of cellular pattern formation in the vertebrate inner retina by homotypic regulation of cell-fate decisions. |
Tyler, MJ; Carney, LH; Cameron, DA
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 25 4565-76 2005
The vertebrate retina is composed of cellular arrays that are nonrandom across two-dimensional space. The determinants of these nonrandom two-dimensional cellular patterns in the inner nuclear layer of the retina were investigated using empirical and computational modeling techniques. In normal and experimental models of goldfish retinal growth, the patterns of tyrosine hydroxylase- and serotonin-positive cells indicated that neither cell death nor lateral migration of differentiated cells were dominant mechanisms of cellular pattern formation. A computational model of cellular pattern formation that used a signaling mechanism arising from differentiated cells that inhibited homotypic cell-fate decisions generated accurate simulations of the empirically observed patterns in normal retina. This model also predicted the principal atypical cellular pattern characteristic, a transient cell-type-specific hyperplasia, which was empirically observed in the growing retina subsequent to selective ablation of differentiated retinal cells, either tyrosine hydroxylase positive or serotonin positive. The results support the hypothesis that inhibitory spatiotemporal regulation of homotypic cell-fate decisions is a dominant mechanistic determinant of nonrandom cellular patterns in the vertebrate retina.
|Disruption of ephrin signaling associates with disordered axophilic migration of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons. |
Gamble, JA; Karunadasa, DK; Pape, JR; Skynner, MJ; Todman, MG; Bicknell, RJ; Allen, JP; Herbison, AE
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 25 3142-50 2005
Ephrin signaling is involved in repulsive and attractive interactions mediating axon guidance and cell-boundary formation in the developing nervous system. As a result of a fortuitous transgene integration event, we have identified here a potential role for EphA5 in the axophilic migration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons from the nasal placode into the brain along ephrin-expressing vomeronasal axons. Transgene integration in the GNR23 mouse line resulted in a 26 kb deletion in chromosome 5, approximately 67 kb 3' to Epha5. This induced a profound, region-specific upregulation of EphA5 mRNA and protein expression in the developing mouse brain. The GnRH neurons in GNR23 mice overexpressed EphA5 from embryonic day 11, whereas ephrin A3 and A5 mRNA levels in olfactory neurons were unchanged. The GnRH neurons were found to be slow in commencing their migration from the olfactory placode and also to form abnormal clusters of cells on the olfactory axons, prohibiting their migration out of the nose. As a result, adult hemizygous mice had only 40% of the normal complement of GnRH neurons in the brain, whereas homozygous mice had less than 15%. This resulted in infertility in adult female homozygous GNR23 mice, suggesting that some cases of human hypogonadotropic hypogonadism may result from ephrin-related mutations. These data provide evidence for a role of EphA-ephrin signaling in the axophilic migration of the GnRH neurons during embryogenesis.
|Dedifferentiation of adult human myoblasts induced by ciliary neurotrophic factor in vitro. |
Chen, X; Mao, Z; Liu, S; Liu, H; Wang, X; Wu, H; Wu, Y; Zhao, T; Fan, W; Li, Y; Yew, DT; Kindler, PM; Li, L; He, Q; Qian, L; Wang, X; Fan, M
Molecular biology of the cell 16 3140-51 2005
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is primarily known for its important cellular effects within the nervous system. However, recent studies indicate that its receptor can be highly expressed in denervated skeletal muscle. Here, we investigated the direct effect of CNTF on skeletal myoblasts of adult human. Surprisingly, we found that CNTF induced the myogenic lineage-committed myoblasts at a clonal level to dedifferentiate into multipotent progenitor cells--they not only could proliferate for over 20 passages with the expression absence of myogenic specific factors Myf5 and MyoD, but they were also capable of differentiating into new phenotypes, mainly neurons, glial cells, smooth muscle cells, and adipocytes. These "progenitor cells" retained their myogenic memory and were capable of redifferentiating into myotubes. Furthermore, CNTF could activate the p44/p42 MAPK and down-regulate the expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs). Finally, PD98059, a specific inhibitor of p44/p42 MAPK pathway, was able to abolish the effects of CNTF on both myoblast fate and MRF expression. Our results demonstrate the myogenic lineage-committed human myoblasts can dedifferentiate at a clonal level and CNTF is a novel regulator of skeletal myoblast dedifferentiation via p44/p42 MAPK pathway.
|Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and allopregnanolone directly stimulate catecholamine production via induction of tyrosine hydroxylase and secretion by affecting actin polymerization. |
Charalampopoulos, I; Dermitzaki, E; Vardouli, L; Tsatsanis, C; Stournaras, C; Margioris, AN; Gravanis, A
Endocrinology 146 3309-18 2005
Adrenal cortical cells of zona reticularis produce the neuroactive steroids dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), its sulfate ester dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and allopregnanolone (ALLO). An interaction between zona reticularis and adrenal medulla has been postulated based on their close proximity and their interwoven borders. The aim of this paper was to examine in vitro the possible paracrine effects of these steroids on catecholamine production from adrenomedullary chromaffin cells, using an established in vitro model of chromaffin cells, the PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cell line. We have found the following: 1) DHEA, DHEAS, and ALLO increased acutely (peak effect between 10-30 min) and dose-dependently (EC50 in the nanomolar range) catecholamine levels (norepinephrine and dopamine). 2) It appears that the acute effect of these steroids involved actin depolymerization/actin filament disassembly, a fast-response cellular system regulating trafficking of catecholamine vesicles. Specifically, 10(-6) m phallacidin, an actin filament stabilizer, completely prevented steroid-induced catecholamine secretion. 3) DHEAS and ALLO, but not DHEA, also affected catecholamine synthesis. Indeed, DHEAS and ALLO increased catecholamine levels at 24 h, an effect blocked by L-2-methyl-3-(-4-hydroxyphenyl)alanine and 3-(hydrazinomethyl)phenol hydrochloride, inhibitors of tyrosine hydroxylase and L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase, respectively, suggesting that this effect involved catecholamine synthesis. The latter hypothesis was confirmed by finding that DHEAS and ALLO increased both the mRNA and protein levels of tyrosine hydroxylase. In conclusion, our findings suggest that neuroactive steroids exert a direct tonic effect on adrenal catecholamine synthesis and secretion. These data associate the adrenomedullary malfunction observed in old age and neuroactive steroids.
|The primate thalamus is a key target for brain dopamine. |
Sánchez-González, MA; García-Cabezas, MA; Rico, B; Cavada, C
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 25 6076-83 2005
The thalamus relays information to the cerebral cortex from subcortical centers or other cortices; in addition, it projects to the striatum and amygdala. The thalamic relay function is subject to modulation, so the flow of information to the target regions may change depending on behavioral demands. Modulation of thalamic relay by dopamine is not currently acknowledged, perhaps because dopamine innervation is reportedly scant in the rodent thalamus. We show that dopaminergic axons profusely target the human and macaque monkey thalamus using immunolabeling with three markers of the dopaminergic phenotype (tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine, and the dopamine transporter). The dopamine innervation is especially prominent in specific association, limbic, and motor thalamic nuclei, where the densities of dopaminergic axons are as high as or higher than in the cortical area with the densest dopamine innervation. We also identified the dopaminergic neurons projecting to the macaque thalamus using retrograde tract-tracing combined with immunohistochemistry. The origin of thalamic dopamine is multiple, and thus more complex, than in any other dopaminergic system defined to date: dopaminergic neurons of the hypothalamus, periaqueductal gray matter, ventral mesencephalon, and the lateral parabrachial nucleus project bilaterally to the monkey thalamus. We propose a novel dopaminergic system that targets the primate thalamus and is independent from the previously defined nigrostriatal, mesocortical, and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems. Investigating this "thalamic dopaminergic system" should further our understanding of higher brain functions and conditions such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and drug addiction.
|Progressive degeneration of human mesencephalic neuron-derived cells triggered by dopamine-dependent oxidative stress is dependent on the mixed-lineage kinase pathway. |
Lotharius, J; Falsig, J; van Beek, J; Payne, S; Dringen, R; Brundin, P; Leist, M
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 25 6329-42 2005
Models of Parkinson's disease (PD) based on selective neuronal death have been used to study pathogenic mechanisms underlying nigral cell death and in some instances to develop symptomatic therapies. For validation of putative neuroprotectants, a model is desirable in which the events leading to neurodegeneration replicate those occurring in the disease. We developed a human in vitro model of PD based on the assumption that dysregulated cytoplasmic dopamine levels trigger cell loss in this disorder. Differentiated human mesencephalic neuron-derived cells were exposed to methamphetamine (METH) to promote cytoplasmic dopamine accumulation. In the presence of elevated iron concentrations, as observed in PD, increased cytosolic dopamine led to oxidative stress, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway activation, neurite degeneration, and eventually apoptosis. We examined the role of the mixed-lineage kinases (MLKs) in this complex degenerative cascade by using the potent inhibitor 3,9-bis[(ethylthio)methyl]-K-252a (CEP1347). Inhibition of MLKs not only prevented FeCl2+/METH-induced JNK activation and apoptosis but also early events such as neurite degeneration and oxidative stress. This broad neuroprotective action of CEP1347 was associated with increased expression of an oxidative stress-response modulator, activating transcription factor 4. As a functional consequence, transcription of the cystine/glutamate and glycine transporters, cellular cystine uptake and intracellular levels of the redox buffer glutathione were augmented. In conclusion, this new human model of parkinsonian neurodegeneration has the potential to yield new insights into neurorestorative therapeutics and suggests that enhancement of cytoprotective mechanisms, in addition to blockade of apoptosis, may be essential for disease modulation.
|Normal biogenesis and cycling of empty synaptic vesicles in dopamine neurons of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 knockout mice. |
Croft, BG; Fortin, GD; Corera, AT; Edwards, RH; Beaudet, A; Trudeau, LE; Fon, EA
Molecular biology of the cell 16 306-15 2005
The neuronal isoform of vesicular monoamine transporter, VMAT2, is responsible for packaging dopamine and other monoamines into synaptic vesicles and thereby plays an essential role in dopamine neurotransmission. Dopamine neurons in mice lacking VMAT2 are unable to store or release dopamine from their synaptic vesicles. To determine how VMAT2-mediated filling influences synaptic vesicle morphology and function, we examined dopamine terminals from VMAT2 knockout mice. In contrast to the abnormalities reported in glutamatergic terminals of mice lacking VGLUT1, the corresponding vesicular transporter for glutamate, we found that the ultrastructure of dopamine terminals and synaptic vesicles in VMAT2 knockout mice were indistinguishable from wild type. Using the activity-dependent dyes FM1-43 and FM2-10, we also found that synaptic vesicles in dopamine neurons lacking VMAT2 undergo endocytosis and exocytosis with kinetics identical to those seen in wild-type neurons. Together, these results demonstrate that dopamine synaptic vesicle biogenesis and cycling are independent of vesicle filling with transmitter. By demonstrating that such empty synaptic vesicles can cycle at the nerve terminal, our study suggests that physiological changes in VMAT2 levels or trafficking at the synapse may regulate dopamine release by altering the ratio of fillable-to-empty synaptic vesicles, as both continue to cycle in response to neural activity.
|Low density of sympathetic nerve fibres and increased density of brain derived neurotrophic factor positive cells in RA synovium. |
Weidler, C; Holzer, C; Harbuz, M; Hofbauer, R; Angele, P; Schölmerich, J; Straub, RH
Annals of the rheumatic diseases 64 13-20 2005
To investigate the correlation between density of nerve fibres and the presence of BDNF(+) cells.Densities of nerve fibres and BDNF(+) cells were detected by quantitative immunohistochemistry in fresh synovial tissue from 52 patients with RA, 59 with OA, and 26 controls (Co). BDNF was also detected by in situ hybridisation.Sympathetic nerve fibre density was similar in Co and OA but markedly reduced in RA (p = 0.002), whereas density of substance P positive (SP(+)) sensory nerve fibres was lower in OA than in Co and RA (p = 0.002). The ratio of sympathetic/SP(+) sensory nerve fibre density was highest in OA and Co, followed by RA. The correlation between density of sympathetic nerve fibres and SP(+) sensory nerve fibres in OA (R = 0.425, p = 0.001) was strongly positive, had a positive trend in Co (R = 0.243, NS), but was negative in RA (R = -0.292, p = 0.040). In RA and OA tissue the density of BDNF(+) cells was high in sublining areas but markedly lower in Co (p = 0.001). BDNF(+) cell density correlated positively with the ratio of sympathetic/SP(+) sensory nerve fibre density in Co (R = 0.433, p = 0.045) and in OA (R = 0.613, p = 0.015), but not in RA (R = 0.101, NS). Immunohistochemical double staining demonstrated that some macrophages and fibroblasts were positive for BDNF.The correlation of density of SP(+) sensory with sympathetic nerve fibres was positive in Co and OA but negative in RA. BDNF may have a stimulatory role on growth of sympathetic in relation to SP(+) sensory nerve fibres in Co and OA, but not in RA.
|Directed differentiation of neural cells to hypothalamic dopaminergic neurons. |
Ohyama, K; Ellis, P; Kimura, S; Placzek, M
Development (Cambridge, England) 132 5185-97 2005
Hypothalamic neurons play a key role in homeostasis, yet little is known about their differentiation. Here, we demonstrate that Shh and Bmp7 from the adjacent prechordal mesoderm govern hypothalamic neural fate, their sequential action controlling hypothalamic dopaminergic neuron generation in a Six3-dependent manner. Our data suggest a temporal distinction in the requirement for the two signals. Shh acts early to specify dopaminergic neurotransmitter phenotype. Subsequently, Bmp7 acts on cells that are ventralised by Shh, establishing aspects of hypothalamic regional identity in late-differentiating/postmitotic cells. The concerted actions of Shh and Bmp7 can direct mouse embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells to a hypothalamic dopaminergic fate ex vivo.
|Probing inner retinal circuits in the rod pathway: a comparison of c-fos activation in mutant mice. |
Brett W Hanzlicek, Neal S Peachey, Christian Grimm, Stephanie A Hagstrom, Sherry L Ball
Visual neuroscience 21 873-81 2004
We have used wild-type mice and mice possessing defects in specific retinal circuits in order to more clearly define functional circuits of the inner retina. The retina of the nob mouse lacks communication between photoreceptors and depolarizing bipolar cells (DBCs). Thus, all light driven activity in the nob mouse is mediated via remaining hyperpolarizing bipolar cell (HBC) circuits. Transducin null (Tr alpha-/-) mice lack rod photoreceptor activity and thus remaining retinal circuits are solely generated via cone photoreceptor activity. Activation in inner retinal circuits in each of these mice was identified by monitoring light-induced expression of an immediate early gene, c-fos. The number of cells expressing c-fos in the inner retina was dependent upon stimulus intensity and was altered in a systematic fashion in mice with known retinal mutations. To determine whether c-fos is activated via circuits other than photoreceptors in the outer retina, we examined c-fos expression in tulp1-/- mice that lack photoreceptors in the outer retina; these mice showed virtually no c-fos activity following light exposure. Double-labeling immunohistochemical studies were carried out to more clearly define the population of c-fos expressing amacrine cells. Our results indicate that c-fos may be used to map functional circuits in the retina.
|Cocaine-induced inhibition of process outgrowth in locus coeruleus neurons: role of gestational exposure period and offspring sex. |
Diane M Snow, Heidi M Carman, Jeffrey D Smith, Rosemarie M Booze, Marian A Welch, Charles F Mactutus
International journal of developmental neuroscience : the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience 22 297-308 2004
Cocaine use during pregnancy is associated with neurobehavioral problems in school-aged children that implicate alterations in attentional processes, potentially due to impairments in the noradrenergic system. We analyzed locus coeruleus (LC) neurite outgrowth characteristics following the administration of a physiologically relevant dose of cocaine (3.0 mg/kg) issued during critical phases of gestation (gestational day (GD)8-14, GD15-21, GD8-21). Results showed that cocaine inhibits LC neurite outgrowth and development, as evidenced by a decrease in total neurite length, a decrease in neurite length per cell, and a decrease in the percentage of cells with neurites. Morphological differences between cultures treated with and without cocaine were also evident. Further, the specific gestational exposure period effects were also dependent upon sex of the fetus. Finally, a discriminant function analysis suggested that the pattern and magnitude of alterations that defined the GD8-14 exposure were significantly different from that of the GD15-21 or GD8-21 exposures. Collectively, these data demonstrate a direct, disruptive effect of cocaine on noradrenergic neurons and may provide a neurobiological basis for changes in attentional function seen in offspring exposed to cocaine in utero.
|Activity-dependent phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase in dopaminergic neurons of the rat retina. |
Witkovsky, Paul, et al.
J. Neurosci., 24: 4242-9 (2004) 2004
We studied in vivo activity-dependent phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the rat retina. TH phosphorylation (TH-P) was evaluated by immunocytochemistry, using antibodies specific for each of three regulated phosphorylation sites. TH synthesis rate was measured by dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) accumulation in the presence of NSD-1015, an inhibitor of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase. TH-P was increased markedly by light or after intraocular injection of GABA(A) and glycine inhibitors. All three phosphospecific antibodies responded similarly to test drugs or light. A 30 min exposure to light increased DOPA accumulation by threefold over that seen after 30 min in darkness. Immunostaining to an anti-panNa channel antibody was found in all parts of the DA neuron. TTX blocked TH-P induced by light or GABA/glycine inhibitors but only in varicosities of the DA axon plexus, not in perikarya or dendrites. Veratridine increased TH-P in all parts of the DA neuron. The distribution of the monoamine vesicular transporter 2 was shown by immunocytochemistry to reside in varicosities of the DA plexus but not in dendrites, indicating that the varicosities are sites of dopamine release. Collectively, these data indicate that, in the retina, dopamine synthesis in varicosities is affected by the spiking activity of retinal neurons, possibly including that of the DA neurons themselves.
|Rotenone induces apoptosis via activation of bad in human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells. |
Watabe, M; Nakaki, T
The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics 311 948-53 2004
Chronic complex I inhibition caused by rotenone induces features of Parkinson's disease in rats, including selective nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration and Lewy bodies with alpha-synuclein-positive inclusions. To determine the mechanisms underlying rotenone-induced neuronal death, we used an in vitro model of human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells. In rotenone-induced cell death, rotenone induced Bad dephosphorylation without changing the amount of Bad proteins. Rotenone also increased the amount of alpha-synuclein in cells showing morphological changes in response to rotenone. Because Bad and alpha-synuclein are known to bind to 14-3-3 proteins, we examined the effects of rotenone on these complexes. Whereas a decreased Bad amount bound to 14-3-3 proteins, rotenone increased alpha-synuclein binding to these proteins. Because dephosphorylation by calcineurin activates Bad, we examined the possible involvement of Bad activation in rotenone-induced apoptosis by using the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus (FK506). Tacrolimus suppressed two rotenone-induced actions: Bad dephosphorylation and apoptosis. Furthermore, the inhibition of caspase-9, which functions downstream from Bad, completely suppressed rotenone-induced apoptosis. Our findings demonstrate that Bad activation plays a role in rotenone-induced apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells.
|Application of antigen retrieval by heating for double-label fluorescent immunohistochemistry with identical species-derived primary antibodies. |
The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society 52 1209-17 2004
Double-label fluorescent immunohistochemistry (IHC) is frequently used to identify cellular and subcellular co-localization of independent antigens. In general, primary antibodies for double labeling should be derived from independent species. However, such convenient pairs of antibodies are not always available. To overcome this problem, several methods for double labeling with primary antibodies from identical species have been proposed. Among them are methods using monovalent secondary antibodies, such as Fab fragments. Soluble immune complexes consisting of primary and monovalent secondary antibodies are first formed. After absorption of the excess secondary antibody with nonspecific immunoglobulin, the immune complexes are applied to sections. By this procedure, unwanted cross-reaction between false pairs of antibodies is avoidable. However, soluble immune complexes often show reduced or no immunoreactivity to antigens on sections. I noted that antigen retrieval (AR) of tissues by heating often but not always showed improved immunoreactivity for soluble immune complexes. Here I demonstrate the examination of conditions for this soluble immune complex method using AR-treated sections and show examples of double-label fluorescent IHC with identical species-derived primary antibodies.
|Characterization of the dopamine defect in primary cultures of dopaminergic neurons from hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase knockout mice. |
Smith, DW; Friedmann, T
Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy 1 486-91 2000
Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND) is an X-linked metabolic disorder caused by lack of activity of the purine salvage enzyme hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) and characterized by hyperuricemia and debilitating neurological manifestations. The mechanisms underlying the neuropathology are not well understood and the principal neurochemical lesion characterized to date is a deficiency of the dopamine system in the basal ganglia. To facilitate the study of mechanism(s) by which HPRT deficiency causes the dopamine defect, we have compared the survival and dopamine phenotype of primary cultures of dopamine neurons derived from HPRT-deficient mice with the dopaminergic neurons from wild-type mice. The survival of dopaminergic neurons from both sources was promoted to an equal extent by glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), a potent survival factor for dopamine neurons in vitro. Although the survival of the HPRT-deficient neurons was indistinguishable from that of cells derived from wild-type counterparts, the HPRT-deficient cells demonstrated a persistent deficiency of dopamine content and dopamine uptake with increasing neuritic differentiation, indicating that GDNF does not restore the normal phenotype in HPRT-deficient dopamine neurons despite its well-known protective and regenerative properties in several neurodegeneration models. Nevertheless, the demonstration that GDNF trophic support promotes the survival of these dopaminergic neurons will facilitate gaining a better understanding of the neuropathological mechanisms of LND by allowing a more extensive analysis of the cells central to the Lesch-Nyhan phenotype, the dopaminergic neurons of the basal ganglia.