Tabla espec. clave
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R, Rb, Sh||ICC, IH(P), RIA, WB||Rb||Serum||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Neat rabbit antisera. Liquid, with 0.1% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µL|
Ficha datos de seguridad (MSDS)
|Cargo||Número de lote|
|RABBIT ANTI-VASOPRESSIN POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY - 2118000||2118000|
|RABBIT ANTI-VASOPRESSIN POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY - 2428472||2428472|
|RABBIT ANTI-VASOPRESSIN -2607294||2607294|
|RABBIT ANTI-VASOPRESSIN -2689051||2689051|
|RABBIT ANTI-VASOPRESSIN -2707875||2707875|
|RABBIT ANTI-VASOPRESSIN -2772779||2772779|
|RABBIT ANTI-VASOPRESSIN -2812039||2812039|
|RABBIT ANTI-VASOPRESSIN -2829982||2829982|
|RABBIT ANTI-VASOPRESSIN POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY - 2191941||2191941|
|RABBIT ANTI-VASOPRESSIN POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY - 2365946||2365946|
|RABBIT ANTI-VASOPRESSIN POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY -2502889||2502889|
Referencias bibliográficas | 22 Disponible | Ver todas las referencias
|Visión general referencias||Pub Med ID|
|An ultrastructural analysis of the effects of ethanol self-administration on the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in rhesus macaques. |
Jimenez, VA; Helms, CM; Cornea, A; Meshul, CK; Grant, KA
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience 9 260 2015
A bidirectional relationship between stress and ethanol exists whereby stressful events are comorbid with problematic ethanol use and prolonged ethanol exposure results in adaptations of the physiological stress response. Endocrine response to stress is initiated in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) with the synthesis and release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP). Alterations in CRH and AVP following long-term ethanol exposure in rodents is well demonstrated, however little is known about the response to ethanol in primates or the mechanisms of adaptation. We hypothesized that long-term ethanol self-administration in nonhuman primates would lead to ultrastructural changes in the PVN underlying adaptation to chronic ethanol. Double-label immunogold electron microscopy (EM) was used to measure presynaptic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate density within synaptic terminals contacting CRH- and AVP-immunoreactive dendrites. Additionally, pituitary-adrenal hormones (ACTH, cortisol, DHEA-s and aldosterone) under two conditions (low and mild stress) were compared before and after self-administration. All hormones were elevated in response to the mild stressor independent of ethanol consumption. The presynaptic glutamate density in recurrent (i.e., intra-hypothalamic) CRH terminals was highly related to ethanol intake, and may be a permissive factor in increased drinking due to stress. Conversely, glutamate density within recurrent AVP terminals showed a trend-level increase following ethanol, but was not related to average daily consumption. Glutamate density in non-recurrent AVP terminals was related to aldosterone under the low stress condition while GABAergic density in this terminal population was related to water consumption. The results reveal distinct populations of presynaptic terminals whose glutamatergic or GABAergic density were uniquely related to water and ethanol consumption and circulating hormones.
|Sleep is related to neuron numbers in the ventrolateral preoptic/intermediate nucleus in older adults with and without Alzheimer's disease. |
Lim, AS; Ellison, BA; Wang, JL; Yu, L; Schneider, JA; Buchman, AS; Bennett, DA; Saper, CB
Brain : a journal of neurology 137 2847-61 2014
Fragmented sleep is a common and troubling symptom in ageing and Alzheimer's disease; however, its neurobiological basis in many patients is unknown. In rodents, lesions of the hypothalamic ventrolateral preoptic nucleus cause fragmented sleep. We previously proposed that the intermediate nucleus in the human hypothalamus, which has a similar location and neurotransmitter profile, is the homologue of the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, but physiological data in humans were lacking. We hypothesized that if the intermediate nucleus is important for human sleep, then intermediate nucleus cell loss may contribute to fragmentation and loss of sleep in ageing and Alzheimer's disease. We studied 45 older adults (mean age at death 89.2 years; 71% female; 12 with Alzheimer's disease) from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a community-based study of ageing and dementia, who had at least 1 week of wrist actigraphy proximate to death. Upon death a median of 15.5 months later, we used immunohistochemistry and stereology to quantify the number of galanin-immunoreactive intermediate nucleus neurons in each individual, and related this to ante-mortem sleep fragmentation. Individuals with Alzheimer's disease had fewer galaninergic intermediate nucleus neurons than those without (estimate -2872, standard error = 829, P = 0.001). Individuals with more galanin-immunoreactive intermediate nucleus neurons had less fragmented sleep, after adjusting for age and sex, and this association was strongest in those for whom the lag between actigraphy and death was less than 1 year (estimate -0.0013, standard error = 0.0005, P = 0.023). This association did not differ between individuals with and without Alzheimer's disease, and similar associations were not seen for two other cell populations near the intermediate nucleus. These data are consistent with the intermediate nucleus being the human homologue of the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus. Moreover, they demonstrate that a paucity of galanin-immunoreactive intermediate nucleus neurons is accompanied by sleep fragmentation in older adults with and without Alzheimer's disease.
|Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion in patients with olfactory neuroblastoma. |
Stacey T Gray,Eric H Holbrook,Mohammed H Najm,Peter M Sadow,William T Curry,Derrick T Lin
Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery 147 2012
The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) has been reported as a paraneoplastic syndrome in many different types of malignancies. Several case reports of SIADH have been reported in patients with olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB), but the exact incidence is unknown. The purpose of this study was to review our experience with olfactory neuroblastoma and to identify all patients who had a history of SIADH prior to the diagnosis of ONB.
|Early life stress disrupts peripubertal development of aggression in male mice. |
Tsuda MC, Yamaguchi N, Ogawa S
Neuroreport 22 259-63. 2011
To investigate the effects of early life stress on the development of social behaviors in male mice, we examined behavioral responses toward same sex stimulus mice in the social investigation test and aggressive behaviors in peripubertal male mice exposed to maternal separation (MS) during the first 2 weeks of life. MS suppressed aggressive behaviors from 5-9 weeks of age, but had no effect on social investigative behaviors in the social investigation test. Investigation of neuroendocrine bases of behavioral effects of MS showed that MS reduced plasma testosterone levels and decreased arginine vasopressin and increased oxytocin immunoreactivity in the paraventricular nucleus of peripubertal males. These results collectively suggest that early life stress disrupts the development of male aggressive behaviors and associated neuroendocrine systems.
|Novel FGF8 mutations associated with recessive holoprosencephaly, craniofacial defects, and hypothalamo-pituitary dysfunction. |
Mark J McCabe,Carles Gaston-Massuet,Vaitsa Tziaferi,Louise C Gregory,Kyriaki S Alatzoglou,Massimo Signore,Eduardo Puelles,Dianne Gerrelli,I Sadaf Farooqi,Jamal Raza,Joanna Walker,Scott I Kavanaugh,Pei-San Tsai,Nelly Pitteloud,Juan-Pedro Martinez-Barbera,Mehul T Dattani
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 96 2011
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 8 is important for GnRH neuronal development with human mutations resulting in Kallmann syndrome. Murine data suggest a role for Fgf8 in hypothalamo-pituitary development; however, its role in the etiology of wider hypothalamo-pituitary dysfunction in humans is unknown.
|A role of the LIM-homeobox gene Lhx2 in the regulation of pituitary development. |
Zhao Y, Mailloux CM, Hermesz E, PalkÃ³vits M, Westphal H
Developmental biology 337 313-23 2010
The mammalian pituitary gland originates from two separate germinal tissues during embryonic development. The anterior and intermediate lobes of the pituitary are derived from Rathke's pouch, a pocket formed by an invagination of the oral ectoderm. The posterior lobe is derived from the infundibulum, which is formed by evagination of the neuroectoderm in the ventral diencephalon. Previous studies have shown that development of Rathke's pouch and the generation of distinct populations of hormone-producing endocrine cell lineages in the anterior/intermediate pituitary lobes is regulated by a number of transcription factors expressed in the pouch and by inductive signals from the ventral diencephalon/infundibulum. However, little is known about factors that regulate the development of the posterior pituitary lobe. In this study, we show that the LIM-homeobox gene Lhx2 is extensively expressed in the developing ventral diencephalon, including the infundibulum and the posterior lobe of the pituitary. Deletion of Lhx2 gene results in persistent cell proliferation, a complete failure of evagination of the neuroectoderm in the ventral diencephalon, and defects in the formation of the distinct morphological features of the infundibulum and the posterior pituitary lobe. Rathke's pouch is formed and endocrine cell lineages are generated in the anterior/intermediate pituitary lobes of the Lhx2 mutant. However, the shape and organization of the pouch and the anterior/intermediate pituitary lobes are severely altered due to the defects in development of the infundibulum and the posterior lobe. Our study thus reveals an essential role for Lhx2 in the regulation of posterior pituitary development and suggests a mechanism whereby development of the posterior lobe may affect the development of the anterior and intermediate lobes of the pituitary gland.Artículo Texto completo
|Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea due to increased CRH tone in melanocortin receptor 2-deficient mice. |
Matsuwaki, T; Nishihara, M; Sato, T; Yoda, T; Iwakura, Y; Chida, D
Endocrinology 151 5489-96 2010
Exposure to chronic stressors results in dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and a disruption in reproduction. CRH, the principal regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis induces the secretion of ACTH from the pituitary, which stimulates adrenal steroidogenesis via the specific cell-surface melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R). Previously, we demonstrated that MC2R(-/-) mice had undetectable levels of corticosterone despite high ACTH levels. Here, we evaluated the reproductive functions of female MC2R(-/-) mice and analyzed the mechanism of the disrupted cyclicity of these mice. The expression of CRH in the paraventricular nucleus was significantly increased in MC2R(-/-) mice under nonstressed conditions. Although MC2R(-/-) females were fertile, they showed a prolonged estrous cycle. After hormonal stimulation, MC2R(-/-) females produced nearly-normal numbers of eggs, but slightly less than MC2R(+/-) females, and showed near-normal ovarian histology. During diestrus, the number of GnRH-positive cells in the medial preoptic area was significantly reduced in MC2R(-/-) females. CRH type 1 receptor antagonist restored estrous cyclicity in MC2R(-/-) females. Kisspeptin-positive areas in the arcuate nucleus were comparable, whereas kisspeptin-positive areas in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus in MC2R(-/-) females were significantly reduced compared with MC2R(+/-) females, suggesting that arcuate nucleus kisspeptin is not involved, but anteroventral periventricular nucleus kisspeptin may be involved, in the maintenance of estrous cyclicity. Our findings show that high levels of hypothalamic CRH disturb estrous cyclicity in the female animals and that the MC2R(-/-) female is a unique animal model of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.
|Different antipsychotics elicit different effects on magnocellular oxytocinergic and vasopressinergic neurons as revealed by Fos immunohistochemistry. |
A Kiss, J Bundzikova, Z Pirnik, JD Mikkelsen
Journal of neuroscience research 88 677-85 2010
Acute administration of antipsychotics elicits regionally distinct patterns of Fos expression in the rat brain. Stimulation of oxytocin (OXY) and vasopressin (AVP) release in the hypothalamic paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei indicates that antipsychotics may play a role in autonomic, neuroendocrine, and behavioral processes. This study was focused to reveal the responsiveness of hypothalamic OXY- and AVP- producing magnocellular neurons, in terms of quantitative and topographical distinctions, to antipsychotics displaying different pharmacological profiles. Naive male Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally with haloperidol (1 mg/kg), clozapine (30 mg/kg), olanzapine (30 mg/kg), risperidone (2mg/kg), and vehicle (5% chremophor) and were sacrificed 60 min later by a fixative. Fos, Fos/OXY, and Fos/AVP labelings were visualized by immunohistochemistry in the SON, 5 accessory (ACS) cell groups, and 4 distinct PVN subdivisions using a computerized light microscope. Most apparent activation of single Fos, Fos/OXY, and Fos/AVP cells was induced by clozapine and olanzapine; effects of risperidone and haloperidol were substantially lower; no colocalizations were revealed in naive or vehicle treated control rats. The data indicate the existence of a substantial diversity in the stimulatory effect of the selected antipsychotics on quantity of Fos, Fos/OXY, and Fos/AVP immunostainings with the preferential action of the atypicals clozapine over olanzapine and little effects of risperidone and haloperidol. Variabilities in Fos distribution in the PVN, SON, and ACS induced by antipsychotics may be helpful to understand more precisely the extent of their extra-forebrain actions with possible presumption of their functional impact and side effect consequences.
|Juvenile social experience regulates central neuropeptides relevant to emotional and social behaviors. |
K Tanaka, Y Osako, K Yuri
Neuroscience 166 1036-1042 2010
Stressful social experiences during early-life can increase the risk of developing neuropsychiatric disorders associated with anxiety, mood, and personality. Early neglect also alters peripheral arginine vasopression (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT). We hypothesized that a lack of social stimuli should adversely affect developmental AVP and OXT systems. To test this idea, we examined changes of central AVP- and OXT-immunoreactive (ir) cell number as well as its related behaviors in socially isolated rats. Animals were weaned at 23 days of age, divided into group- or isolation-reared conditions, and maintained for at least 2 weeks. At 38-48 days of age, animals were sacrificed for immunohistochemistry, or used for two behavioral tests: elevated plus-maze test and social recognition test. The results from immunohistochemistry showed that isolation-reared males have decreased AVP-ir cells in the paraventricular nucleus hypothalamus (PVH), medial parvicellular part, ventral zone, and that isolation-reared females have decreased OXT-ir cells in the PVH, medial parvicellular part, dorsal zone, when compared with group-reared counterparts. The results from behavioral assessment showed that isolation-reared animals have difficulty with social recognition, and that isolation-reared males, but not females, have anxiogenic profile. The present study demonstrates that post-weaning social isolation results in decrease of male AVP-ir cells and female OXT-ir cells in the PVH parvocellular divisions, and supports the idea that juvenile social environment may play a critical role in neuronal and behavioral development.,
|Vasopressin synthesis by the magnocellular neurons is different in the supraoptic nucleus and in the paraventricular nucleus in human and experimental septic shock. |
Sonneville R, Guidoux C, Barrett L, Viltart O, Mattot V, Polito A, Siami S, de la Grandmaison GL, Blanchard A, Singer M, Annane D, Gray F, Brouland JP, Sharshar T
Brain Pathol 20 613-22. Epub 2009 Nov 9. 2010
Impaired arginine vasopressin (AVP) synthesis and release by the neurohypophyseal system, which includes the neurohypophysis and magnocellular neurons of the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei, have been postulated in septic shock, but changes in this system have never been assessed in human septic shock, and only partially experimentally. We investigated AVP synthesis and release by the neurohypophyseal system in 9 patients who died from septic shock and 10 controls, and in 20 rats with fecal peritonitis-induced sepsis and 8 sham-operation controls. Ten rats died spontaneously from septic shock, and the others were sacrificed. In patients with septic shock, as in rats that died spontaneously following sepsis induction, AVP immunohistochemical expression was decreased in the neurohypophysis and supraoptic magnocellular neurons, whereas it was increased in the paraventricular magnocellular neurons. No significant change was observed in AVP messenger RiboNucleic Acid (mRNA) expression assessed by in situ hybridization in either paraventricular or supraoptic magnocellular cells. This study shows that both in human and experimental septic shock, AVP posttranscriptional synthesis and transport are differently modified in the magnocellular neurons of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei. This may account for the inappropriate AVP release in septic shock and suggests that distinct pathogenic mechanisms operate in these nuclei.
|Mutant huntingtin fragment selectively suppresses Brn-2 POU domain transcription factor to mediate hypothalamic cell dysfunction. |
Yamanaka T, Tosaki A, Miyazaki H, Kurosawa M, Furukawa Y, Yamada M, Nukina N
Human molecular genetics 2010
In polyglutamine diseases including Huntington's disease (HD), mutant proteins containing expanded polyglutamine stretches form nuclear aggregates in neurons. Although analysis of their disease models suggested a significance of transcriptional dysregulation in these diseases, how it mediates the specific neuronal cell dysfunction remains obscure. Here we performed a comprehensive analysis of altered DNA binding of multiple transcription factors using R6/2 HD model mice brains that express an N-terminal fragment of mutant huntingtin (mutant Nhtt). We found a reduction of DNA binding of Brn-2, a POU domain transcription factor involved in differentiation and function of hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons. We provide evidence supporting that Brn-2 loses its function through two pathways, its sequestration by mutant Nhtt and its reduced transcription, leading to reduced expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides. In contrast to Brn-2, its functionally related protein, Brn-1, was not sequestered by mutant Nhtt but was upregulated in R6/2 brain, except in hypothalamus. Our data indicate that functional suppression of Brn-2 together with a region-specific lack of compensation by Brn-1 mediates hypothalamic cell dysfunction by mutant Nhtt.
|Dehydration-induced modulation of kappa-opioid inhibition of vasopressin neurone activity. |
Scott V, Bishop VR, Leng G, Brown CH
The Journal of physiology 587 5679-89 2009
Dehydration increases vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) secretion from the posterior pituitary gland to reduce water loss in the urine. Vasopressin secretion is determined by action potential firing in vasopressin neurones, which can exhibit continuous, phasic (alternating periods of activity and silence), or irregular activity. Autocrine kappa-opioid inhibition contributes to the generation of activity patterning of vasopressin neurones under basal conditions and so we used in vivo extracellular single unit recording to test the hypothesis that changes in autocrine kappa-opioid inhibition drive changes in activity patterning of vasopressin neurones during dehydration. Dehydration increased the firing rate of rat vasopressin neurones displaying continuous activity (from 7.1 +/- 0.5 to 9.0 +/- 0.6 spikes s(1)) and phasic activity (from 4.2 +/- 0.7 to 7.8 +/- 0.9 spikes s(1)), but not those displaying irregular activity. The dehydration-induced increase in phasic activity was via an increase in intraburst firing rate. The selective -opioid receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine increased the firing rate of phasic neurones in non-dehydrated rats (from 3.4 +/- 0.8 to 5.3 +/- 0.6 spikes s(1)) and dehydrated rats (from 6.4 +/- 0.5 to 9.1 +/- 1.2 spikes s(1)), indicating that kappa-opioid feedback inhibition of phasic bursts is maintained during dehydration. In a separate series of experiments, prodynorphin mRNA expression was increased in vasopressin neurones of hyperosmotic rats, compared to hypo-osmotic rats. Hence, it appears that dynorphin expression in vasopressin neurones undergoes dynamic changes in proportion to the required secretion of vasopressin so that, even under stimulated conditions, autocrine feedback inhibition of vasopressin neurones prevents over-excitation.Artículo Texto completo
|The single-prolonged stress paradigm alters both the morphology and stress response of magnocellular vasopressin neurons. |
T Yoshii, H Sakamoto, M Kawasaki, H Ozawa, Y Ueta, T Onaka, K Fukui, M Kawata, T Yoshii, H Sakamoto, M Kawasaki, H Ozawa, Y Ueta, T Onaka, K Fukui, M Kawata
Neuroscience 156 466-74 2008
Vasopressin (AVP) plays an important role in anxiety-related and social behaviors. Single-prolonged stress (SPS) has been established as an animal acute severe stress model and has been shown to induce a lower adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) response upon cortisol challenge. Here, we show results from immunoassays for AVP, ACTH, and corticosterone (CORT), and in situ hybridizations for AVP mRNA performed 7 days after SPS exposure. Immunofluorescence for AVP was also performed during the 7-day period following SPS exposure and after an additional forced swimming stress paradigm. We observed that the plasma concentrations of AVP, ACTH, and CORT were not altered by SPS; ACTH content in the pituitary and AVP mRNA expression in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) were significantly reduced by SPS. During the 7-day period following SPS, the intensity of immunoreactivity, the size of the soma, and the immunoreactive optical density of the dendrites of AVP neurons in the SON all increased. An apparent reduction in the intensity of AVP immunoreactivity was observed in the SON at 4 h after additional stress. Additional forced swimming led to a rapid increase in the dendritic AVP content only in the controls and not in the SPS-treated rats. These findings suggest that AVP is a potential biomarker for past exposure to severe stress and that alterations in AVP may affect the development of pathogenesis in stress-related disorders.
|Differential involvement of hypothalamic vasopressin neurons in multiple system atrophy. |
Bennarroch, E. E. et al.
Brain, : (2006) 2006
|The use of heat-induced hydrolysis in immunohistochemistry on angiotensin II (AT1) receptors enhances the immunoreactivity in paraformaldehyde-fixed brain tissue of normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats. |
Thomas, Martin Alexander and Lemmer, Björn
Brain Res., 1119: 150-64 (2006) 2006
|Highly selective localization of leukotriene C4 synthase in hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic vasopressin systems of mouse brain. |
A Shimada, M Satoh, Y Chiba, Y Saitoh, N Kawamura, H Keino, M Hosokawa, T Shimizu
Neuroscience 131 683-9 2005
While leukotriene C4 (LTC4) was originally identified as a potent bronchoconstrictor, the compound has versatile biological activities besides inflammatory reactions. Although the high content of LTC4 has been reported in the hypothalamus and median eminence, the precise localization of the compound remained obscure. To elucidate its possible functions in the neuroendocrine systems, we determined immunohistochemical localization of LTC4 synthase, a key enzyme to produce LTC4 using mouse brains. Light microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that LTC4 synthase was selectively localized in the vasopressinergic magnocellular neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular, supraoptic and suprachiasmatic nuclei and in the retrochiasmatic area, as well as in axons that emanated from these neurons to the pars nervosa of the pituitary gland. At subcellular level, however, LTC4 synthase and arginine vasopressin appeared to localize differently within individual neurons. LTC4 synthase immunoreactivity was also observed in the axons of the extrahypothalamic system including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, lateral habenular nucleus, midbrain central gray, medial amygdaloid nucleus and ventral septal area, although this immunoreactivity was relatively minor. The other brain regions did not contain LTC4 synthase immunoreactivity. The distribution of LTC4 synthase did not overlap with that of either oxytocin or luteinizing hormone releasing hormone. Therefore, LTC4 is considered to be involved in neural functions of the brain magnocellular vasopressinergic system such as water retention. LTC4 may also be involved in extrahypothalamic vasopressinergic neural functions including the regulation of learning and memory, social recognition memory, sexual and aggressive behavior, etc.
|Novel neuronal phenotypes from neural progenitor cells. |
Markakis, Eleni A, et al.
J. Neurosci., 24: 2886-97 (2004) 2004
|Nicotinic cholinergic activation of magnocellular neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. |
M Zaninetti, E Tribollet, D Bertrand, M Raggenbass
Neuroscience 110 287-99 2002
The aim of the present work was to determine whether paraventricular neurons possess functional acetylcholine nicotinic receptors. Using infrared videomicroscopy and differential interference contrast optics, we performed whole-cell recordings in hypothalamic slices containing the paraventricular nucleus. Acetylcholine, locally applied by pressure microejection in the presence of the muscarinic antagonist atropine, evoked a rapidly rising inward current in paraventricular magnocellular endocrine neurons. This current persisted in the presence of blockers of synaptic transmission. It could be reversibly suppressed by nanomolar concentrations of methyllycaconitine, a selective antagonist of alpha 7-containing nicotinic receptors, but was insensitive to micromolar concentrations of dihydro-beta-erythroidine, an antagonist acting preferentially on non-alpha 7 nicotinic receptors. In addition, the effect of acetylcholine could be mimicked by exo-2-(2-pyridyl)-7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane, a recently synthesized nicotinic agonist specific for alpha 7 receptors. Acetylcholine also desensitized paraventricular nicotinic receptors. Desensitization was pronounced and recovery from desensitization was rapid, consistent with the notion that paraventricular nicotinic receptors contain the alpha 7 subunit. Nicotinic currents could not be evoked in paraventricular parvocellular neurons, suggesting that these neurons are devoid of functional nicotinic receptors. The electrophysiological data were corroborated by light microscopic autoradiography, showing that [(125)I]alpha-bungarotoxin binding sites are present in all the magnocellular divisions of the paraventricular nucleus but are undetectable in other areas of this nucleus. Immunohistochemistry, performed using antibodies directed against vasopressin and oxytocin, indicated that responsiveness to nicotinic agonists was a property of vasopressin as well as of oxytocin magnocellular endocrine neurons, in both the paraventricular and the supraoptic nucleus. We conclude that nicotinic agonists can influence the magnocellular neurosecretory system by directly increasing the excitability of magnocellular neurons. By contrast, they are probably without direct effects on paraventricular parvocellular neurons.
|Altered midline axon pathways and ectopic neurons in the developing hypothalamus of netrin-1- and DCC-deficient mice. |
Deiner, M S and Sretavan, D W
J. Neurosci., 19: 9900-12 (1999) 1999
Optic nerve formation in mouse involves interactions between netrin-1 at the optic disk and the netrin-1 receptor DCC (deleted in colorectal cancer) expressed on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons. Deficiency in either protein causes RGC pathfinding defects at the disk leading to optic nerve hypoplasia (). Here we show that further along the visual pathway, RGC axons in netrin-1- or DCC-deficient mice grow in unusually angular trajectories within the ventral hypothalamus. In heterozygous Sey(neu) mice that also have a small optic nerve, RGC axon trajectories appear normal, indicating that the altered RGC axon trajectories in netrin-1 and DCC mutants are not secondarily caused by optic nerve hypoplasia. Intrinsic hypothalamic patterning is also affected in netrin-1 and DCC mutants, including a severe reduction in the posterior axon projections of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons. In addition to axon pathway defects, antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin neurons are found ectopically in the ventromedial hypothalamus, apparently no longer confined to the supraoptic nucleus in mutants. In summary, netrin-1 and DCC, presumably via direct interactions, govern both axon pathway formation and neuronal position during hypothalamic development, and loss of netrin-1 or DCC function affects both visual and neuroendocrine systems. Netrin protein localization also indicates that unlike in more caudal CNS, guidance about the hypothalamic ventral midline does not require midline expression of netrin.
|Tumour-specific arginine vasopressin promoter activation in small-cell lung cancer. |
Coulson, JM; Stanley, J; Woll, PJ
British journal of cancer 80 1935-44 1999
Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) can produce numerous mitogenic neuropeptides, which are not found in normal respiratory epithelium. Arginine vasopressin is detected in up to two-thirds of SCLC tumours whereas normal physiological expression is essentially restricted to the hypothalamus. This presents the opportunity to identify elements of the gene promoter which could be exploited for SCLC-specific targeting. A series of human vasopressin 5' promoter fragments (1048 bp, 468 bp and 199 bp) were isolated and cloned upstream of a reporter gene. These were transfected into a panel of ten cell lines, including SCLC with high or low endogenous vasopressin transcription, non-SCLC and bronchial epithelium. All these fragments directed reporter gene expression in the five SCLC cell lines, but had negligible activity in the control lines. The level of reporter gene expression reflected the level of endogenous vasopressin production, with up to 4.9-fold (s.d. 0.34) higher activity than an SV40 promoter. The elements required for this strong, restricted, SCLC-specific promoter activity are contained within the 199-bp fragment. Further analysis of this region indicated involvement of E-box transcription factor binding sites, although tumour-specificity was retained by a 65-bp minimal promoter fragment. These data show that a short region of the vasopressin promoter will drive strong expression in SCLC in vitro and raise the possibility of targeting gene therapy to these tumours.
|Water-deprived white-footed mice express c-fos on a day/night cycle graded according to the duration of deprivation. |
H E Chae, P D Heideman
Brain research 791 1-10 1998
Mammals respond to electrolyte and water imbalance by a variety of neural and endocrine mechanisms that regulate water and salt intake and loss. We used the expression of c-fos and Fos-related antigens to indicate neuronal activation in hypothalamic neurons of members of an outbred laboratory population of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) deprived of water for biologically reasonable periods of time (6-18 h). We examined Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-LIR) in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN). During the dark period, when these animals are normally active, 6 h of water deprivation produced near-maximal increases in the number of cells positive for Fos-LIR in the SON and PVN. In contrast, during the light period, when these mice are normally inactive and do not have access to water, 6 h of water deprivation only slightly affected Fos-LIR. During the day, it required as much as 12 h of water deprivation to produce increases in Fos-LIR cells approaching those achieved at night. Plasma osmolarity was directly related to the number of Fos-LIR cells. In addition, mice lost weight more rapidly at night than during the day when water-deprived, and also recovered that lost weight more rapidly when access to water was returned. Our results show (1) that biologically reasonable levels of water restriction (and resulting changes in blood osmolarity) induce changes in Fos-LIR in this wild mouse species, and (2) that these mice have a daily cycle of sensitivity to water deprivation that is demonstrated by both behavioral, psychological and immunohistological assessment of reactions to water deprivation.
|Water intake in rats subjected to hypothalamic immunoneutralization of angiotensin II, atrial natriuretic peptide, vasopressin, or oxytocin. |
Franci, C R, et al.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 86: 2952-6 (1989) 1989
To investigate the influence of various peptides on control of dehydration-induced drinking, water intake elicited by overnight water deprivation was analyzed in groups of male rats after intracerebroventricular (third ventricle, icv) injection of 2 microliters of normal rabbit serum or an equal volume of antiserum directed against angiotensin II (Ab-AII), atrial natriuretic peptide, vasopressin, or oxytocin. There was no difference in water intake after normal rabbit serum and antiserum injections when water was offered immediately after icv injections. Water intake was greatly reduced by Ab-AII when water was offered 1 hr and 3 hr after icv injection. The other antisera were partially effective only when water was offered 3 hr after icv injection. The dipsogenic effect of icv injection of AII in normally hydrated rats was reduced only by icv injection of Ab-AII 3 hr before and not by the other antisera. Ab-AII injected icv had no effect on the drinking that occurred just before and after the onset of darkness and that was associated with eating (prandial drinking). The results indicate that AII is primarily responsible for dehydration-induced drinking, and the other peptides may play a permissive role since their antisera were partially effective, with longer latencies after antiserum injection, which is perhaps the result of gradual diffusion to effective sites within the hypothalamus. In contrast, endogenous AII appears to play little, if any, role in prandial drinking.
|Anti-Vasopressin - Data Sheet|