Tabla espec. clave
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Vrt, H||IP, WB, ChIP-seq||Rb||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||200 µg|
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Referencias bibliográficas | 93 Disponible | Ver todas las referencias
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|Analysis of the Relationships between DNA Double-Strand Breaks, Synaptonemal Complex and Crossovers Using the Atfas1-4 Mutant. |
Varas, J; Sánchez-Morán, E; Copenhaver, GP; Santos, JL; Pradillo, M
PLoS genetics 11 e1005301 2015
Chromatin Assembly Factor 1 (CAF-1) is a histone chaperone that assembles acetylated histones H3/H4 onto newly synthesized DNA, allowing the de novo assembly of nucleosomes during replication. CAF-1 is an evolutionary conserved heterotrimeric protein complex. In Arabidopsis, the three CAF-1 subunits are encoded by FAS1, FAS2 and MSI1. Atfas1-4 mutants have reduced fertility due to a decrease in the number of cells that enter meiosis. Interestingly, the number of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), measured by scoring the presence of γH2AX, AtRAD51 and AtDMC1 foci, is higher than in wild-type (WT) plants, and meiotic recombination genes such AtCOM1/SAE2, AtBRCA1, AtRAD51 and AtDMC1 are overexpressed. An increase in DSBs in this mutant does not have a significant effect in the mean chiasma frequency at metaphase I, nor a different number of AtMLH1 nor AtMUS81 foci per cell compared to WT at pachytene. Nevertheless, this mutant does show a higher gene conversion (GC) frequency. To examine how an increase in DSBs influences meiotic recombination and synaptonemal complex (SC) formation, we analyzed double mutants defective for AtFAS1 and different homologous recombination (HR) proteins. Most showed significant increases in both the mean number of synapsis initiation points (SIPs) and the total length of AtZYP1 stretches in comparison with the corresponding single mutants. These experiments also provide new insight into the relationships between the recombinases in Arabidopsis, suggesting a prominent role for AtDMC1 versus AtRAD51 in establishing interhomolog interactions. In Arabidopsis an increase in the number of DSBs does not translate to an increase in the number of crossovers (COs) but instead in a higher GC frequency. We discuss different mechanisms to explain these results including the possible existence of CO homeostasis in plants.
|Arabidopsis PCH2 Mediates Meiotic Chromosome Remodeling and Maturation of Crossovers. |
Lambing, C; Osman, K; Nuntasoontorn, K; West, A; Higgins, JD; Copenhaver, GP; Yang, J; Armstrong, SJ; Mechtler, K; Roitinger, E; Franklin, FC
PLoS genetics 11 e1005372 2015
Meiotic chromosomes are organized into linear looped chromatin arrays by a protein axis localized along the loop-bases. Programmed remodelling of the axis occurs during prophase I of meiosis. Structured illumination microscopy (SIM) has revealed dynamic changes in the chromosome axis in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica oleracea. We show that the axis associated protein ASY1 is depleted during zygotene concomitant with synaptonemal complex (SC) formation. Study of an Atpch2 mutant demonstrates this requires the conserved AAA+ ATPase, PCH2, which localizes to the sites of axis remodelling. Loss of PCH2 leads to a failure to deplete ASY1 from the axes and compromizes SC polymerisation. Immunolocalization of recombination proteins in Atpch2 indicates that recombination initiation and CO designation during early prophase I occur normally. Evidence suggests that CO interference is initially functional in the mutant but there is a defect in CO maturation following designation. This leads to a reduction in COs and a failure to form COs between some homologous chromosome pairs leading to univalent chromosomes at metaphase I. Genetic analysis reveals that CO distribution is also affected in some chromosome regions. Together these data indicate that the axis remodelling defect in Atpch2 disrupts normal patterned formation of COs.
|BMCC1, which is an interacting partner of BCL2, attenuates AKT activity, accompanied by apoptosis. |
Tatsumi, Y; Takano, R; Islam, MS; Yokochi, T; Itami, M; Nakamura, Y; Nakagawara, A
Cell death & disease 6 e1607 2015
BNIP2 and Cdc42GAP homology (BCH) motif-containing molecule at the carboxyl-terminal region 1 (BMCC1) gene is highly expressed in patients with favorable neuroblastoma (NB). It encodes a 340-kDa protein with a conserved BCH scaffold domain that may regulate signaling networks and multiple cellular functions, including apoptosis. In this study, we determined the mechanism by which BMCC1 promotes apoptosis in human NB and non-NB cells, as BMCC1 is normally expressed in various organs, particularly in neuronal and epithelial tissues. We demonstrated in this report that BMCC1 was induced by DNA damage, one of the triggers of intrinsic apoptosis. Accordingly, we investigated whether BMCC1 expression impacts intracellular signals in the regulation of apoptosis via its C-terminal region containing BCH scaffold domain. BMCC1 decreased phosphorylation of survival signals on AKT and its upstream kinase PDK1. BMCC1 upregulation was correlated with the activation of forkhead box-O3a (FOXO3a) (a downstream inducer of apoptosis, which is suppressed by AKT) and induction of BCL2 inhibitor BIM, suggesting that BMCC1 negatively regulates phosphorylation pathway of AKT, resulted in apoptosis. In addition, we found that BNIP2 homology region of BMCC1 interacts with BCL2. Intrinsic apoptosis induced by DNA damage was enhanced by BMCC1 overexpression, and was diminished by knockdown of BMCC1. Taken together, we conclude that BMCC1 promotes apoptosis at multiple steps in AKT-mediated survival signal pathway. These steps include physical interaction with BCL2 and attenuation of AKT-dependent inhibition of FOXO3a functions, such as transcriptional induction of BIM and phosphorylation of ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) after DNA damage. We propose that downregulation of BMCC1 expression, which is frequently observed in unfavorable NB and epithelial-derived cancers, may facilitate tumor development by abrogating DNA damage repair and apoptosis.
|Double-strand break repair deficiency in NONO knockout murine embryonic fibroblasts and compensation by spontaneous upregulation of the PSPC1 paralog. |
Li, S; Li, Z; Shu, FJ; Xiong, H; Phillips, AC; Dynan, WS
Nucleic acids research 42 9771-80 2014
NONO, SFPQ and PSPC1 make up a family of proteins with diverse roles in transcription, RNA processing and DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. To understand long-term effects of loss of NONO, we characterized murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from knockout mice. In the absence of genotoxic stress, wild-type and mutant MEFs showed similar growth rates and cell cycle distributions, and the mutants were only mildly radiosensitive. Further investigation showed that NONO deficiency led to upregulation of PSPC1, which replaced NONO in a stable complex with SFPQ. Knockdown of PSPC1 in a NONO-deficient background led to severe radiosensitivity and delayed resolution of DSB repair foci. The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) inhibitor, NU7741, sensitized wild-type and singly deficient MEFs, but had no additional effect on doubly deficient cells, suggesting that NONO/PSPC1 and DNA-PK function in the same pathway. We tested whether NONO and PSPC1 might also affect repair indirectly by influencing mRNA levels for other DSB repair genes. Of 12 genes tested, none were downregulated, and several were upregulated. Thus, NONO or related proteins are critical for DSB repair, NONO and PSPC1 are functional homologs with partially interchangeable functions and a compensatory response involving PSPC1 blunts the effect of NONO deficiency.
|STAG3-mediated stabilization of REC8 cohesin complexes promotes chromosome synapsis during meiosis. |
Fukuda, T; Fukuda, N; Agostinho, A; Hernández-Hernández, A; Kouznetsova, A; Höög, C
The EMBO journal 33 1243-55 2014
Cohesion between sister chromatids in mitotic and meiotic cells is promoted by a ring-shaped protein structure, the cohesin complex. The cohesin core complex is composed of four subunits, including two structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) proteins, one α-kleisin protein, and one SA protein. Meiotic cells express both mitotic and meiosis-specific cohesin core subunits, generating cohesin complexes with different subunit composition and possibly separate meiotic functions. Here, we have analyzed the in vivo function of STAG3, a vertebrate meiosis-specific SA protein. Mice with a hypomorphic allele of Stag3, which display a severely reduced level of STAG3, are viable but infertile. We show that meiocytes in homozygous mutant Stag3 mice display chromosome axis compaction, aberrant synapsis, impaired recombination and developmental arrest. We find that the three different α-kleisins present in meiotic cells show different dosage-dependent requirements for STAG3 and that STAG3-REC8 cohesin complexes have a critical role in supporting meiotic chromosome structure and functions.
|BRCA1 pathway function in basal-like breast cancer cells. |
Hill, SJ; Clark, AP; Silver, DP; Livingston, DM
Molecular and cellular biology 34 3828-42 2014
Sporadic basal-like cancers (BLCs) are a common subtype of breast cancer that share multiple biological properties with BRCA1-mutated breast tumors. Despite being BRCA1(+/+), sporadic BLCs are widely viewed as phenocopies of BRCA1-mutated breast cancers, because they are hypothesized to manifest a BRCA1 functional defect or breakdown of a pathway(s) in which BRCA1 plays a major role. The role of BRCA1 in the repair of double-strand DNA breaks by homologous recombination (HR) is its best understood function and the function most often implicated in BRCA1 breast cancer suppression. Therefore, it is suspected that sporadic BLCs exhibit a defect in HR. To test this hypothesis, multiple DNA damage repair assays focused on several types of repair were performed on a group of cell lines classified as sporadic BLCs and on controls. The sporadic BLC cell lines failed to exhibit an overt HR defect. Rather, they exhibited defects in the repair of stalled replication forks, another BRCA1 function. These results provide insight into why clinical trials of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, which require an HR defect for efficacy, have been unsuccessful in sporadic BLCs, unlike cisplatin, which elicits DNA damage that requires stalled fork repair and has shown efficacy in sporadic BLCs.
|Long-term quiescent fibroblast cells transit into senescence. |
Marthandan, S; Priebe, S; Hemmerich, P; Klement, K; Diekmann, S
PloS one 9 e115597 2014
Cellular senescence is described to be a consequence of telomere erosion during the replicative life span of primary human cells. Quiescence should therefore not contribute to cellular aging but rather extend lifespan. Here we tested this hypothesis and demonstrate that cultured long-term quiescent human fibroblasts transit into senescence due to similar cellular mechanisms with similar dynamics and with a similar maximum life span as proliferating controls, even under physiological oxygen conditions. Both, long-term quiescent and senescent fibroblasts almost completely fail to undergo apoptosis. The transition of long-term quiescent fibroblasts into senescence is also independent of HES1 which protects short-term quiescent cells from becoming senescent. Most significantly, DNA damage accumulates during senescence as well as during long-term quiescence at physiological oxygen levels. We suggest that telomere-independent, potentially maintenance driven gradual induction of cellular senescence during quiescence is a counterbalance to tumor development.
|GSK-3α is a central regulator of age-related pathologies in mice. |
Zhou, J; Freeman, TA; Ahmad, F; Shang, X; Mangano, E; Gao, E; Farber, J; Wang, Y; Ma, XL; Woodgett, J; Vagnozzi, RJ; Lal, H; Force, T
The Journal of clinical investigation 123 1821-32 2013
Aging is regulated by conserved signaling pathways. The glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) family of serine/threonine kinases regulates several of these pathways, but the role of GSK-3 in aging is unknown. Herein, we demonstrate premature death and acceleration of age-related pathologies in the Gsk3a global KO mouse. KO mice developed cardiac hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction as well as sarcomere disruption and striking sarcopenia in cardiac and skeletal muscle, a classical finding in aging. We also observed severe vacuolar degeneration of myofibers and large tubular aggregates in skeletal muscle, consistent with impaired clearance of insoluble cellular debris. Other organ systems, including gut, liver, and the skeletal system, also demonstrated age-related pathologies. Mechanistically, we found marked activation of mTORC1 and associated suppression of autophagy markers in KO mice. Loss of GSK-3α, either by pharmacologic inhibition or Gsk3a gene deletion, suppressed autophagy in fibroblasts. mTOR inhibition rescued this effect and reversed the established pathologies in the striated muscle of the KO mouse. Thus, GSK-3α is a critical regulator of mTORC1, autophagy, and aging. In its absence, aging/senescence is accelerated in multiple tissues. Strategies to maintain GSK-3α activity and/or inhibit mTOR in the elderly could retard the appearance of age-related pathologies.
|Differential contribution of HP1 proteins to DNA end resection and homology-directed repair. |
Soria, G; Almouzni, G
Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 12 422-9 2013
Heterochromatin protein 1 paralogs (HP1α, β and γ in mammals) are not only central in heterochromatin organization, but have also been linked to transcriptional activation at euchromatic regions, maintenance of telomere stability and, most recently, to the DNA damage response (DDR). However, how HP1 proteins contribute to the DDR at a molecular level, and whether HP1 paralogs within the same organism, as well as their respective orthologs, have overlapping or unique roles in the DDR, remain to be elucidated. Herein, we have combined the analysis of the efficiency and kinetics of recruitment of key repair proteins to sites of DNA damage with specific DNA repair assays to demonstrate that human HP1 paralogs differentially modulate homology-directed repair (HDR) pathways, including homologous recombination (HR) and single-strand annealing (SSA). We find that while HP1α and β stimulate HR and SSA, HP1γ has an inhibitory role. In addition, we show that the stimulatory role of HP1α and β in HDR is linked to the DNA-end resection step of DNA breaks, through the promotion of RPA loading and phosphorylation at damage sites. Altogether, our findings provide mechanistic insight into how human HP1 proteins participate in the recombination process, emerging as important chromatin regulators during HDR.
|Western Blotting, Immunofluorescence||23287531|
|Ketogenic diets enhance oxidative stress and radio-chemo-therapy responses in lung cancer xenografts. |
Allen, BG; Bhatia, SK; Buatti, JM; Brandt, KE; Lindholm, KE; Button, AM; Szweda, LI; Smith, BJ; Spitz, DR; Fath, MA
Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 19 3905-13 2013
Ketogenic diets are high in fat and low in carbohydrates as well as protein which forces cells to rely on lipid oxidation and mitochondrial respiration rather than glycolysis for energy metabolism. Cancer cells (relative to normal cells) are believed to exist in a state of chronic oxidative stress mediated by mitochondrial metabolism. The current study tests the hypothesis that ketogenic diets enhance radio-chemo-therapy responses in lung cancer xenografts by enhancing oxidative stress.Mice bearing NCI-H292 and A549 lung cancer xenografts were fed a ketogenic diet (KetoCal 4:1 fats: proteins+carbohydrates) and treated with either conventionally fractionated (1.8-2 Gy) or hypofractionated (6 Gy) radiation as well as conventionally fractionated radiation combined with carboplatin. Mice weights and tumor size were monitored. Tumors were assessed for immunoreactive 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-(4HNE)-modified proteins as a marker of oxidative stress as well as proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and γH2AX as indices of proliferation and DNA damage, respectively.The ketogenic diets combined with radiation resulted in slower tumor growth in both NCI-H292 and A549 xenografts (P less than 0.05), relative to radiation alone. The ketogenic diet also slowed tumor growth when combined with carboplatin and radiation, relative to control. Tumors from animals fed a ketogenic diet in combination with radiation showed increases in oxidative damage mediated by lipid peroxidation as determined by 4HNE-modified proteins as well as decreased proliferation as assessed by decreased immunoreactive PCNA.These results show that a ketogenic diet enhances radio-chemo-therapy responses in lung cancer xenografts by a mechanism that may involve increased oxidative stress.
|Targeting telomere-containing chromosome ends with a near-infrared femtosecond laser to study the activation of the DNA damage response and DNA damage repair pathways. |
Silva, BA; Stambaugh, JR; Berns, MW
Journal of biomedical optics 18 095003 2013
Telomeres are at the ends of chromosomes. Previous evidence suggests that laser-induced deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) breaks at chromosome ends during anaphase results in delayed cytokinesis. A possible explanation for this delay is that the DNA damage response (DDR) mechanism has been activated. We describe a live imaging method to study the effects of DDR activation following focal point near-infrared femtosecond laser microirradiation either at a single chromosome end or at a chromosome arm in mitotic anaphase cells. Laser microirradiation is used in combination with dual fluorescent labeling to monitor the co-localization of double-strand break marker γH2AX along with the DDR factors in PtK2 (Potorous tridactylus) cells. Laser-induced DNA breaks in chromosome ends as well as in chromosome arms results in recruitment of the following: poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1, checkpoint sensors (p-Chk1, p-Chk2), DNA repair protein Ku70/Ku80, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. However, phosphorylated p53 at serine 15 is detected only at chromosome ends and not at chromosome arms. Full activation of DDR on damaged chromosome ends may explain previously published results that showed the delay of cytokinesis.
|Mitotic arrest and apoptosis in breast cancer cells induced by Origanum majorana extract: upregulation of TNF-α and downregulation of survivin and mutant p53. |
Al Dhaheri, Y; Eid, A; AbuQamar, S; Attoub, S; Khasawneh, M; Aiche, G; Hisaindee, S; Iratni, R
PloS one 8 e56649 2013
In the present study, we investigated the effect of Origanum majorana ethanolic extract on the survival of the highly proliferative and invasive triple-negative p53 mutant breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231.We found that O. majorana extract (OME) was able to inhibit the viability of the MDA-MB-231 cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The effect of OME on cellular viability was further confirmed by the inhibition of colony growth. We showed, depending on the concentration used, that OME elicited different effects on the MDA-MB 231 cells. Concentrations of 150 and 300 µg/mL induced an accumulation of apoptotic-resistant population of cells arrested in mitotis and overexpressing the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21 and the inhibitor of apoptosis, survivin. On the other hand, higher concentrations of OME (450 and 600 µg/mL) triggered a massive apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway, including the activation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), caspase 8, caspase 3, and cleavage of PARP, downregulation of survivin as well as depletion of the mutant p53 in MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, OME induced an upregulation of γ-H2AX, a marker of double strand DNA breaks and an overall histone H3 and H4 hyperacetylation.Our findings provide strong evidence that O. majorana may be a promising chemopreventive and therapeutic candidate against cancer especially for highly invasive triple negative p53 mutant breast cancer; thus validating its complementary and alternative medicinal use.
|The loss of the BH3-only Bcl-2 family member Bid delays T-cell leukemogenesis in Atm-/- mice. |
Biswas, S; Shi, Q; Wernick, A; Aiello, A; Zinkel, SS
Cell death and differentiation 20 869-77 2013
Multicellular organisms maintain genomic integrity and resist tumorigenesis through a tightly regulated DNA damage response (DDR) that prevents propagation of deleterious mutations either through DNA repair or programmed cell death. An impaired DDR leads to tumorigenesis that is accelerated when programmed cell death is prevented. Loss of the ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated)-mediated DDR in mice results in T-cell leukemia driven by accumulation of DNA damage accrued during normal T-cell development. Pro-apoptotic BH3-only Bid is a substrate of Atm, and Bid phosphorylation is required for proper cell cycle checkpoint control and regulation of hematopoietic function. In this report, we demonstrate that, surprisingly, loss of Bid increases the latency of leukemogenesis in Atm-/- mice. Bid-/-Atm-/- mice display impaired checkpoint control and increased cell death of DN3 thymocytes. Loss of Bid thus inhibits T-cell tumorigenesis by increasing clearance of damaged cells, and preventing propagation of deleterious mutations.
|PCNA promotes processive DNA end resection by Exo1. |
Chen, X; Paudyal, SC; Chin, RI; You, Z
Nucleic acids research 41 9325-38 2013
Exo1-mediated resection of DNA double-strand break ends generates 3' single-stranded DNA overhangs required for homology-based DNA repair and activation of the ATR-dependent checkpoint. Despite its critical importance in inducing the overall DNA damage response, the mechanisms and regulation of the Exo1 resection pathway remain incompletely understood. Here, we identify the ring-shaped DNA clamp PCNA as a new factor in the Exo1 resection pathway. Using mammalian cells, Xenopus nuclear extracts and purified proteins, we show that after DNA damage, PCNA loads onto double-strand breaks and promotes Exo1 damage association through direct interaction with Exo1. By tethering Exo1 to the DNA substrate, PCNA confers processivity to Exo1 in resection. This role of PCNA in DNA resection is analogous to its function in DNA replication where PCNA serves as a processivity co-factor for DNA polymerases.
|Disruption of TTDA results in complete nucleotide excision repair deficiency and embryonic lethality. |
Theil, AF; Nonnekens, J; Steurer, B; Mari, PO; de Wit, J; Lemaitre, C; Marteijn, JA; Raams, A; Maas, A; Vermeij, M; Essers, J; Hoeijmakers, JH; Giglia-Mari, G; Vermeulen, W
PLoS genetics 9 e1003431 2013
The ten-subunit transcription factor IIH (TFIIH) plays a crucial role in transcription and nucleotide excision repair (NER). Inactivating mutations in the smallest 8-kDa TFB5/TTDA subunit cause the neurodevelopmental progeroid repair syndrome trichothiodystrophy A (TTD-A). Previous studies have shown that TTDA is the only TFIIH subunit that appears not to be essential for NER, transcription, or viability. We studied the consequences of TTDA inactivation by generating a Ttda knock-out (Ttda(-/-) ) mouse-model resembling TTD-A patients. Unexpectedly, Ttda(-/-) mice were embryonic lethal. However, in contrast to full disruption of all other TFIIH subunits, viability of Ttda(-/-) cells was not affected. Surprisingly, Ttda(-/-) cells were completely NER deficient, contrary to the incomplete NER deficiency of TTD-A patient-derived cells. We further showed that TTD-A patient mutations only partially inactivate TTDA function, explaining the relatively mild repair phenotype of TTD-A cells. Moreover, Ttda(-/-) cells were also highly sensitive to oxidizing agents. These findings reveal an essential role of TTDA for life, nucleotide excision repair, and oxidative DNA damage repair and identify Ttda(-/-) cells as a unique class of TFIIH mutants.
|The histone methyltransferase MMSET regulates class switch recombination. |
Pei, H; Wu, X; Liu, T; Yu, K; Jelinek, DF; Lou, Z
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 190 756-63 2013
Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a genetic disease with characteristic facial features and developmental disorders. Of interest, loss of the MMSET gene (also known as WHSC1) is considered to be responsible for the core phenotypes of this disease. Patients with WHS also display Ab deficiency, although the underlying cause of this deficiency is unclear. Recent studies suggest that the histone methyltransferase activity of MMSET plays an important role in the DNA damage response by facilitating the recruitment of 53BP1 to sites of DNA damage. We hypothesize that MMSET also regulates class switch recombination (CSR) through its effect on 53BP1. In this study, we show that MMSET indeed plays an important role in CSR through its histone methyltransferase activity. Knocking down MMSET expression impaired 53BP1 recruitment as well as the germline transcription of the Igh switch regions, resulting in defective CSR but no effect on cell growth and viability. These results suggest that defective CSR caused by MMSET deficiency could be a cause of Ab deficiency in WHS patients.
|Synergistic interaction of Rnf8 and p53 in the protection against genomic instability and tumorigenesis. |
Halaby, MJ; Hakem, A; Li, L; El Ghamrasni, S; Venkatesan, S; Hande, PM; Sanchez, O; Hakem, R
PLoS genetics 9 e1003259 2013
Rnf8 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that plays a key role in the DNA damage response as well as in the maintenance of telomeres and chromatin remodeling. Rnf8(-/-) mice exhibit developmental defects and increased susceptibility to tumorigenesis. We observed that levels of p53, a central regulator of the cellular response to DNA damage, increased in Rnf8(-/-) mice in a tissue- and cell type-specific manner. To investigate the role of the p53-pathway inactivation on the phenotype observed in Rnf8(-/-) mice, we have generated Rnf8(-/-)p53(-/-) mice. Double-knockout mice showed similar growth retardation defects and impaired class switch recombination compared to Rnf8(-/-) mice. In contrast, loss of p53 fully rescued the increased apoptosis and reduced number of thymocytes and splenocytes in Rnf8(-/-) mice. Similarly, the senescence phenotype of Rnf8(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts was rescued in p53 null background. Rnf8(-/-)p53(-/-) cells displayed defective cell cycle checkpoints and DNA double-strand break repair. In addition, Rnf8(-/-)p53(-/-) mice had increased levels of genomic instability and a remarkably elevated tumor incidence compared to either Rnf8(-/-) or p53(-/-) mice. Altogether, the data in this study highlight the importance of p53-pathway activation upon loss of Rnf8, suggesting that Rnf8 and p53 functionally interact to protect against genomic instability and tumorigenesis.
|Sp1 facilitates DNA double-strand break repair through a nontranscriptional mechanism. |
Beishline, K; Kelly, CM; Olofsson, BA; Koduri, S; Emrich, J; Greenberg, RA; Azizkhan-Clifford, J
Molecular and cellular biology 32 3790-9 2012
Sp1 is a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor that is phosphorylated by ataxia telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM) in response to ionizing radiation and H(2)O(2). Here, we show by indirect immunofluorescence that Sp1 phosphorylated on serine 101 (pSp1) localizes to ionizing radiation-induced foci with phosphorylated histone variant γH2Ax and members of the MRN (Mre11, Rad50, and Nbs1) complex. More precise analysis of occupancy of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) shows that Sp1, like Nbs1, resides within 200 bp of DSBs. Using laser microirradiation of cells, we demonstrate that pSp1 is present at DNA DSBs by 7.5 min after induction of damage and remains at the break site for at least 8 h. Depletion of Sp1 inhibits repair of site-specific DNA breaks, and the N-terminal 182-amino-acid peptide, which contains targets of ATM kinase but lacks the zinc finger DNA binding domain, is phosphorylated, localizes to DSBs, and rescues the repair defect resulting from Sp1 depletion. Together, these data demonstrate that Sp1 is rapidly recruited to the region immediately adjacent to sites of DNA DSBs and is required for DSB repair, through a mechanism independent of its sequence-directed transcriptional effects.
|Histone ADP-ribosylation facilitates gene transcription by directly remodeling nucleosomes. |
Martinez-Zamudio, R; Ha, HC
Molecular and cellular biology 32 2490-502 2012
The packaging of DNA into nucleosomes imposes obstacles on gene transcription, and histone-modifying and nucleosome-remodeling complexes work in concert to alleviate these obstacles so as to facilitate transcription. Emerging evidence shows that chromatin-associated poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) and its enzymatic activity facilitate inflammatory gene transcription and modulate the inflammatory response in animal models. However, the molecular mechanisms by which PARP-1 enzymatic activity facilitates transcription are not well understood. Here we show that through an intracellular signaling pathway, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation induces PARP-1 enzymatic activity and the ADP-ribosylation of histones at transcriptionally active and accessible chromatin regions in macrophages. In vitro DNase I footprinting and restriction endonuclease accessibility assays reveal that histone ADP-ribosylation directly destabilizes histone-DNA interactions in the nucleosome and increases the site accessibility of the nucleosomal DNA to nucleases. Consistent with this, LPS stimulation-induced ADP-ribosylation at the nucleosome-occupied promoters of il-1β, mip-2, and csf2 facilitates NF-κB recruitment and the transcription of these genes in macrophages. Therefore, our data suggest that PARP-1 enzymatic activity facilitates gene transcription through increasing promoter accessibility by histone ADP-ribosylation.
|Meiotic cohesin complexes are essential for the formation of the axial element in mice. |
Llano, E; Herrán, Y; García-Tuñón, I; Gutiérrez-Caballero, C; de Álava, E; Barbero, JL; Schimenti, J; de Rooij, DG; Sánchez-Martín, M; Pendás, AM
The Journal of cell biology 197 877-85 2012
Cohesin is a conserved multisubunit protein complex that participates in chromosome segregation, DNA damage repair, chromatin regulation, and synaptonemal complex (SC) formation. Yeast, but not mice, depleted of the cohesin subunit Rec8 are defective in the formation of the axial elements (AEs) of the SC, suggesting that, in mammals, this function is not conserved. In this paper, we show that spermatocytes from mice lacking the two meiosis-specific cohesin subunits RAD21L and REC8 were unable to initiate RAD51- but not DMC1-mediated double-strand break repair, were not able to assemble their AEs, and arrested as early as the leptotene stage of prophase I, demonstrating that cohesin plays an essential role in AE assembly that is conserved from yeast to mammals.
|Deregulation of DNA damage response pathway by intercellular contact. |
Kang, MA; So, EY; Ouchi, T
The Journal of biological chemistry 287 16246-55 2012
Deregulation of the DNA damage response (DDR) pathway could compromise genomic integrity in normal cells and reduce cancer cell sensitivity to anticancer treatments. We found that intercellular contact stabilizes histone H2AX and γH2AX (H2AX phosphorylated on Ser-139) by up-regulating N/E-cadherin and γ-catenin. γ-catenin and its DNA-binding partner LEF-1 indirectly increase levels of H2AX by suppressing the promoter of the RNF8 ubiquitin ligase, which decreases levels of H2AX protein under conditions of low intercellular contact. Hyperphosphorylation of DDR proteins is induced by up-regulated H2AX. Constitutive apoptosis is caused in confluent cells but is not further induced by DNA damage. This is conceivably due to insufficient p53 activation because ChIP assay shows that its DNA binding ability is not induced in those cells. Together, our results illustrate a novel mechanism of the regulation of DDR proteins by the cadherin-catenin pathway.
|MeCP2 binds to nucleosome free (linker DNA) regions and to H3K9/H3K27 methylated nucleosomes in the brain. |
Thambirajah, AA; Ng, MK; Frehlick, LJ; Li, A; Serpa, JJ; Petrotchenko, EV; Silva-Moreno, B; Missiaen, KK; Borchers, CH; Adam Hall, J; Mackie, R; Lutz, F; Gowen, BE; Hendzel, M; Georgel, PT; Ausió, J
Nucleic acids research 40 2884-97 2012
Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is a chromatin-binding protein that mediates transcriptional regulation, and is highly abundant in brain. The nature of its binding to reconstituted templates has been well characterized in vitro. However, its interactions with native chromatin are less understood. Here we show that MeCP2 displays a distinct distribution within fractionated chromatin from various tissues and cell types. Artificially induced global changes in DNA methylation by 3-aminobenzamide or 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, do not significantly affect the distribution or amount of MeCP2 in HeLa S3 or 3T3 cells. Most MeCP2 in brain is chromatin-bound and localized within highly nuclease-accessible regions. We also show that, while in most tissues and cell lines, MeCP2 forms stable complexes with nucleosome, in brain, a fraction of it is loosely bound to chromatin, likely to nucleosome-depleted regions. Finally, we provide evidence for novel associations of MeCP2 with mononucleosomes containing histone H2A.X, H3K9me(2) and H3K27me(3) in different chromatin fractions from brain cortex and in vitro. We postulate that the functional compartmentalization and tissue-specific distribution of MeCP2 within different chromatin types may be directed by its association with nucleosomes containing specific histone variants, and post-translational modifications.
|Mediator subunits MED1 and MED24 cooperatively contribute to pubertal mammary gland development and growth of breast carcinoma cells. |
Hasegawa, N; Sumitomo, A; Fujita, A; Aritome, N; Mizuta, S; Matsui, K; Ishino, R; Inoue, K; Urahama, N; Nose, J; Mukohara, T; Kamoshida, S; Roeder, RG; Ito, M
Molecular and cellular biology 32 1483-95 2012
The Mediator subunit MED1 is essential for mammary gland development and lactation, whose contribution through direct interaction with estrogen receptors (ERs) is restricted to involvement in pubertal mammary gland development and luminal cell differentiation. Here, we provide evidence that the MED24-containing submodule of Mediator functionally communicates specifically with MED1 in pubertal mammary gland development. Mammary glands from MED1/MED24 double heterozygous knockout mice showed profound retardation in ductal branching during puberty, while single haploinsufficient glands developed normally. DNA synthesis of both luminal and basal cells were impaired in double mutant mice, and the expression of ER-targeted genes encoding E2F1 and cyclin D1, which promote progression through the G(1)/S phase of the cell cycle, was attenuated. Luciferase reporter assays employing double mutant mouse embryonic fibroblasts showed selective impairment in ER functions. Various breast carcinoma cell lines expressed abundant amounts of MED1, MED24, and MED30, and attenuated expression of MED1 and MED24 in breast carcinoma cells led to attenuated DNA synthesis and growth. These results indicate functional communications between the MED1 subunit and the MED24-containing submodule that mediate estrogen receptor functions and growth of both normal mammary epithelial cells and breast carcinoma cells.
|Loss of CCDC6 affects cell cycle through impaired intra-S-phase checkpoint control. |
Thanasopoulou, A; Stravopodis, DJ; Dimas, KS; Schwaller, J; Anastasiadou, E
PloS one 7 e31007 2012
In most cancers harboring Ccdc6 gene rearrangements, like papillary thyroid tumors or myeloproliferative disorders, the product of the normal allele is supposed to be functionally impaired or absent. To address the consequence of the loss of CCDC6 expression, we applied lentiviral shRNA in several cell lines. Loss of CCDC6 resulted in increased cell death with clear shortening of the S phase transition of the cell cycle. Upon exposure to etoposide, the cells lacking CCDC6 did not achieve S-phase accumulation. In the absence of CCDC6 and in the presence of genotoxic stress, like etoposide treatment or UV irradiation, increased accumulation of DNA damage was observed, as indicated by a significant increase of pH2Ax Ser139. 14-3-3σ, a major cell cycle regulator, was down-regulated in CCDC6 lacking cells, regardless of genotoxic stress. Interestingly, in the absence of CCDC6, the well-known genotoxic stress-induced cytoplasmic sequestration of the S-phase checkpoint CDC25C phosphatase did not occur. These observations suggest that CCDC6 plays a key role in cell cycle control, maintenance of genomic stability and cell survival and provide a rational of how disruption of CCDC6 normal function contributes to malignancy.
|Inter-homolog crossing-over and synapsis in Arabidopsis meiosis are dependent on the chromosome axis protein AtASY3. |
Ferdous, M; Higgins, JD; Osman, K; Lambing, C; Roitinger, E; Mechtler, K; Armstrong, SJ; Perry, R; Pradillo, M; Cuñado, N; Franklin, FC
PLoS genetics 8 e1002507 2012
In this study we have analysed AtASY3, a coiled-coil domain protein that is required for normal meiosis in Arabidopsis. Analysis of an Atasy3-1 mutant reveals that loss of the protein compromises chromosome axis formation and results in reduced numbers of meiotic crossovers (COs). Although the frequency of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) appears moderately reduced in Atasy3-1, the main recombination defect is a reduction in the formation of COs. Immunolocalization studies in wild-type meiocytes indicate that the HORMA protein AtASY1, which is related to Hop1 in budding yeast, forms hyper-abundant domains along the chromosomes that are spatially associated with DSBs and early recombination pathway proteins. Loss of AtASY3 disrupts the axial organization of AtASY1. Furthermore we show that the AtASY3 and AtASY1 homologs BoASY3 and BoASY1, from the closely related species Brassica oleracea, are co-immunoprecipitated from meiocyte extracts and that AtASY3 interacts with AtASY1 via residues in its predicted coiled-coil domain. Together our results suggest that AtASY3 is a functional homolog of Red1. Since studies in budding yeast indicate that Red1 and Hop1 play a key role in establishing a bias to favor inter-homolog recombination (IHR), we propose that AtASY3 and AtASY1 may have a similar role in Arabidopsis. Loss of AtASY3 also disrupts synaptonemal complex (SC) formation. In Atasy3-1 the transverse filament protein AtZYP1 forms small patches rather than a continuous SC. The few AtMLH1 foci that remain in Atasy3-1 are found in association with the AtZYP1 patches. This is sufficient to prevent the ectopic recombination observed in the absence of AtZYP1, thus emphasizing that in addition to its structural role the protein is important for CO formation.
|Phosphorylation of chromosome core components may serve as axis marks for the status of chromosomal events during mammalian meiosis. |
Fukuda, T; Pratto, F; Schimenti, JC; Turner, JM; Camerini-Otero, RD; Höög, C
PLoS genetics 8 e1002485 2012
Meiotic recombination and chromosome synapsis between homologous chromosomes are essential for proper chromosome segregation at the first meiotic division. While recombination and synapsis, as well as checkpoints that monitor these two events, take place in the context of a prophase I-specific axial chromosome structure, it remains unclear how chromosome axis components contribute to these processes. We show here that many protein components of the meiotic chromosome axis, including SYCP2, SYCP3, HORMAD1, HORMAD2, SMC3, STAG3, and REC8, become post-translationally modified by phosphorylation during the prophase I stage. We found that HORMAD1 and SMC3 are phosphorylated at a consensus site for the ATM/ATR checkpoint kinase and that the phosphorylated forms of HORMAD1 and SMC3 localize preferentially to unsynapsed chromosomal regions where synapsis has not yet occurred, but not to synapsed or desynapsed regions. We investigated the genetic requirements for the phosphorylation events and revealed that the phosphorylation levels of HORMAD1, HORMAD2, and SMC3 are dramatically reduced in the absence of initiation of meiotic recombination, whereas BRCA1 and SYCP3 are required for normal levels of phosphorylation of HORMAD1 and HORMAD2, but not of SMC3. Interestingly, reduced HORMAD1 and HORMAD2 phosphorylation is associated with impaired targeting of the MSUC (meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin) machinery to unsynapsed chromosomes, suggesting that these post-translational events contribute to the regulation of the synapsis surveillance system. We propose that modifications of chromosome axis components serve as signals that facilitate chromosomal events including recombination, checkpoint control, transcription, and synapsis regulation.
|Human male meiotic sex chromosome inactivation. |
de Vries, M; Vosters, S; Merkx, G; D'Hauwers, K; Wansink, DG; Ramos, L; de Boer, P
PloS one 7 e31485 2012
In mammalian male gametogenesis the sex chromosomes are distinctive in both gene activity and epigenetic strategy. At first meiotic prophase the heteromorphic X and Y chromosomes are placed in a separate chromatin domain called the XY body. In this process, X,Y chromatin becomes highly phosphorylated at S139 of H2AX leading to the repression of gonosomal genes, a process known as meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI), which has been studied best in mice. Post-meiotically this repression is largely maintained. Disturbance of MSCI in mice leads to harmful X,Y gene expression, eventuating in spermatocyte death and sperm heterogeneity. Sperm heterogeneity is a characteristic of the human male. For this reason we were interested in the efficiency of MSCI in human primary spermatocytes. We investigated MSCI in pachytene spermatocytes of seven probands: four infertile men and three fertile controls, using direct and indirect in situ methods. A considerable degree of variation in the degree of MSCI was detected, both between and within probands. Moreover, in post-meiotic stages this variation was observed as well, indicating survival of spermatocytes with incompletely inactivated sex chromosomes. Furthermore, we investigated the presence of H3K9me3 posttranslational modifications on the X and Y chromatin. Contrary to constitutive centromeric heterochromatin, this heterochromatin marker did not specifically accumulate on the XY body, with the exception of the heterochromatic part of the Y chromosome. This may reflect the lower degree of MSCI in man compared to mouse. These results point at relaxation of MSCI, which can be explained by genetic changes in sex chromosome composition during evolution and candidates as a mechanism behind human sperm heterogeneity.
|The canonical NF-κB pathway differentially protects normal and human tumor cells from ROS-induced DNA damage. |
Sfikas, A; Batsi, C; Tselikou, E; Vartholomatos, G; Monokrousos, N; Pappas, P; Christoforidis, S; Tzavaras, T; Kanavaros, P; Gorgoulis, VG; Marcu, KB; Kolettas, E
Cellular signalling 24 2007-23 2012
DNA damage responses (DDR) invoke senescence or apoptosis depending on stimulus intensity and the degree of activation of the p53-p21(Cip1/Waf1) axis; but the functional impact of NF-κB signaling on these different outcomes in normal vs. human cancer cells remains poorly understood. We investigated the NF-κB-dependent effects and mechanism underlying reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated DDR outcomes of normal human lung fibroblasts (HDFs) and A549 human lung cancer epithelial cells. To activate DDR, ROS accumulation was induced by different doses of H(2)O(2). The effect of ROS induction caused a G2 or G2-M phase cell cycle arrest of both human cell types. However, ROS-mediated DDR eventually culminated in different end points with HDFs undergoing premature senescence and A549 cancer cells succumbing to apoptosis. NF-κB p65/RelA nuclear translocation and Ser536 phosphorylation were induced in response to H(2)O(2)-mediated ROS accumulation. Importantly, blocking the activities of canonical NF-κB subunits with an IκBα super-repressor or suppressing canonical NF-κB signaling by IKKβ knock-down accelerated HDF premature senescence by up-regulating the p53-p21(Cip1/Waf1) axis; but inhibiting the canonical NF-κB pathway exacerbated H(2)O(2)-induced A549 cell apoptosis. HDF premature aging occurred in conjunction with γ-H2AX chromatin deposition, senescence-associated heterochromatic foci and beta-galactosidase staining. p53 knock-down abrogated H(2)O(2)-induced premature senescence of vector control- and IκBαSR-expressing HDFs functionally linking canonical NF-κB-dependent control of p53 levels to ROS-induced HDF senescence. We conclude that IKKβ-driven canonical NF-κB signaling has different functional roles for the outcome of ROS responses in the contexts of normal vs. human tumor cells by respectively protecting them against DDR-dependent premature senescence and apoptosis.
|Synthetic lethal interactions between EGFR and PARP inhibition in human triple negative breast cancer cells. |
Nowsheen, S; Cooper, T; Stanley, JA; Yang, ES
PloS one 7 e46614 2012
Few therapeutic options exist for the highly aggressive triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs). In this study, we report that a contextual synthetic lethality can be achieved both in vitro and in vivo with combined EGFR and PARP inhibition with lapatinib and ABT-888, respectively. The mechanism involves a transient DNA double strand break repair deficit induced by lapatinib and subsequent activation of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Further dissection of the mechanism reveals that EGFR and BRCA1 can be found in the same protein complex, which is reduced by lapatinib. Interestingly, lapatinib also increases cytosolic BRCA1 and EGFR, away from their nuclear DNA repair substrates. Taken together, these results reveal a novel regulation of homologous recombination repair involving EGFR and BRCA1 interaction and alteration of subcellular localization. Additionally, a contextual synthetic lethality may exist between combined EGFR and PARP inhibitors.
|Absence of Wip1 partially rescues Atm deficiency phenotypes in mice. |
Darlington, Y; Nguyen, TA; Moon, SH; Herron, A; Rao, P; Zhu, C; Lu, X; Donehower, LA
Oncogene 31 1155-65 2012
Wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 (WIP1) is a serine/threonine phosphatase that dephosphorylates proteins in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-initiated DNA damage response pathway. WIP1 may have a homeostatic role in ATM signaling by returning the cell to a normal pre-stress state following completion of DNA repair. To better understand the effects of WIP1 on ATM signaling, we crossed Atm-deficient mice to Wip1-deficient mice and characterized phenotypes of the double knockout progeny. We hypothesized that the absence of Wip1 might rescue Atm deficiency phenotypes. Atm null mice, like ATM-deficient humans with the inherited syndrome ataxia telangiectasia, exhibit radiation sensitivity, fertility defects, and are T-cell lymphoma prone. Most double knockout mice were largely protected from lymphoma development and had a greatly extended lifespan compared with Atm null mice. Double knockout mice had increased p53 and H2AX phosphorylation and p21 expression compared with their Atm null counterparts, indicating enhanced p53 and DNA damage responses. Additionally, double knockout splenocytes displayed reduced chromosomal instability compared with Atm null mice. Finally, doubly null mice were partially rescued from gametogenesis defects observed in Atm null mice. These results indicate that inhibition of WIP1 may represent a useful strategy for cancer treatment in general and A-T patients in particular.
|Cyclic GMP signaling in rat urinary bladder, prostate, and epididymis: tissue-specific changes with aging and in response to Leydig cell depletion. |
Müller, D; Mukhopadhyay, AK; Davidoff, MS; Middendorff, R
Reproduction (Cambridge, England) 142 333-43 2011
Aging of the male reproductive system leads to changes in endocrine signaling and is frequently associated with the emergence of prostate hyperplasia and bladder dysfunctions. Recent reports highlight prostate and bladder as promising targets for therapeutic interventions with inhibitors of the cyclic GMP (cGMP)-degrading phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5). However, the cGMP signaling system in these organs is as yet poorly characterized, and the possibility of age-related alterations has not been addressed. This study investigates key proteins of cGMP pathways in bladder, prostate, and epididymis of young (3 months) and old (23-24 months) Wistar rats. Local differences in the abundance of PDE5, soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) and particulate guanylyl cyclases (GC-A, GC-B), endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (PRKG1 (cGKI)) revealed pronounced tissue-specific peculiarities. Although cGMP-generating enzymes were not affected by age in all organs, we recognized age-related decreases of PDE5 expression in bladder and a selective diminishment of membrane-associated PRKG1 in epididymis. In disagreement with published data, all cGMP pathway proteins including PDE5 are poorly expressed in prostate. However, prostatic PRKG1 expression increases with aging. Androgen withdrawal during temporary Leydig cell elimination induced a massive (greater than 12-fold) upregulation of PRKG1 in prostate but not in other (penis and epididymis) androgen-dependent organs. These findings identify PRKG1 as a key androgen-sensitive signaling protein in prostate of possible importance for growth regulation. The elucidated effects may have significance for age-associated pathologies in the male lower-urinary tract.
|Contribution of decreased expression of Ku70 to enhanced radiosensitivity by sodium butyrate in glioblastoma cell line (U251). |
Yuhui Li,Hongxia Zhou,Enming Xing,Meera Dassarath,Jinghua Ren,Xiaorong Dong,Hongli Liu,Kunyu Yang,Gang Wu
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical sciences = Hua zhong ke ji da xue xue bao. Yi xue Ying De wen ban = Huazhong keji daxue xuebao. Yixue Yingdewen ban 31 2011
The present study investigated the enhanced radiosensitivity of U-251 cells induced by sodium butyrate (NaB) and its possible mechanisms. Increased radiosensitivity of U251 cells was examined by clonogenic cell survival assays. The expression of Ku70 mRNA and protein was detected by using RT-PCR and Western blotting respectively. ?-H2AX foci were measured at different time points after ionizing irradiation alone or combined with NaB treatment. The results showed that cell survival rate was significantly reduced, both D0 and Dq values were decreased (D0: 1.43 Gy vs. 1.76 Gy; Dq: 1.22 Gy vs. 2.05 Gy) after the combined treatment as compared with irradiation alone, and sensitivity enhancing ratio (SER) reached 1.23. The average number of ?-H2AX foci per cell receiving the combined treatment was significantly increased at different time points, and the expression levels of Ku70 mRNA and protein were suppressed by NaB in a dose-dependent manner. It was concluded that enhanced radiosensitivity induced by NaB involves an inhibited expression of Ku70 and an increase in ?-H2AX foci, which suggests decreased ability in DSB repair.
|Role of senataxin in DNA damage and telomeric stability. |
Andrea De Amicis,Maria Piane,Francesca Ferrari,Maurizio Fanciulli,Domenico Delia,Luciana Chessa
DNA repair 10 2011
Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cerebellar ataxia and oculomotor apraxia. The gene mutated in AOA2, SETX, encodes senataxin (SETX), a putative DNA/RNA helicase. The presence of the helicase domain led us to investigate whether SETX might play a role in DNA damage repair and telomere stability. We analyzed the response of AOA2 lymphocytes and lymphoblasts after treatment with camptothecin (CPT), mitomycin C (MMC), H?O? and X-rays by cytogenetic and Q-FISH (quantitative-FISH) assays. The rate of chromosomal aberrations was normal in AOA2 cells after treatment with CPT, MMC, H?O? and X-rays. Conversely, Q-FISH analysis showed constitutively reduced telomere length in AOA2 lymphocytes, compared to age-matched controls. Furthermore, CPT- or X-ray-induced telomere shortening was more marked in AOA2 than in control cells. The partial co-localization of SETX with telomeric DNA, demonstrated by combined immunofluorescence-Q-FISH and chromatin immunoprecipitation, suggests a possible involvement of SETX in telomere stability.
|Estrogen receptor α-mediated transcription induces cell cycle-dependent DNA double-strand breaks. |
Williamson, LM; Lees-Miller, SP
Carcinogenesis 32 279-85 2011
Prolonged exposure to estrogen increases breast cancer risk. Estrogen is known to induce chromosomal aberrations, yet the mechanisms by which estrogen promotes genomic instability are not fully understood. Here, we show that exposure of MCF-7 cells to 17β-estradiol (E2) induces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), as determined by the formation of γH2AX foci. Foci formation was dependent upon estrogen receptor-α (ERα) and the catalytic activity of the type II topoisomerase, topoisomerase IIβ (topoIIβ). Moreover, we show by chromatin immunoprecipitation that topoIIβ-dependent E2-induced γH2AX localizes to the promoter of the estrogen-inducible gene, trefoil factor 1. E2-induced foci were associated with cyclin A expression and inhibited by pre-incubation with the DNA polymerase inhibitor aphidicolin suggesting that E2-induced DSBs are mediated by progression through S phase. Furthermore, E2-induced γH2AX foci colocalized with Rad51, suggesting that E2-induced DSBs are repaired by homologous recombination. We propose that DNA DSBs formed by the strand-cleaving activity of the topoIIβ-DNA cleavage complex at estrogen-inducible genes can present a barrier to DNA replication, leading to persistent DNA DSBs in ERα-positive breast cancer cells.
|Replication stress induces 53BP1-containing OPT domains in G1 cells. |
Harrigan, JA; Belotserkovskaya, R; Coates, J; Dimitrova, DS; Polo, SE; Bradshaw, CR; Fraser, P; Jackson, SP
The Journal of cell biology 193 97-108 2011
Chromosomal deletions and rearrangements in tumors are often associated with common fragile sites, which are specific genomic loci prone to gaps and breaks in metaphase chromosomes. Common fragile sites appear to arise through incomplete DNA replication because they are induced after partial replication inhibition by agents such as aphidicolin. Here, we show that in G1 cells, large nuclear bodies arise that contain p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1), phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX), and mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (MDC1), as well as components of previously characterized OPT (Oct-1, PTF, transcription) domains. Notably, we find that incubating cells with low aphidicolin doses increases the incidence and number of 53BP1-OPT domains in G1 cells, and by chromatin immunoprecipitation and massively parallel sequencing analysis of γH2AX, we demonstrate that OPT domains are enriched at common fragile sites. These findings invoke a model wherein incomplete DNA synthesis during S phase leads to a DNA damage response and formation of 53BP1-OPT domains in the subsequent G1.
|The ATM kinase signaling induced by the low-energy β-particles emitted by (33)P is essential for the suppression of chromosome aberrations and is greater than that induced by the energetic β-particles emitted by (32)P. |
White JS, Yue N, Hu J, Bakkenist CJ
Mutation research 708 28-36. Epub 2011 Feb 16. 2011
Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) encodes a nuclear serine/threonine protein kinase whose activity is increased in cells exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation (IR). Here we examine ATM kinase activation in cells exposed to either (32)P- or (33)P-orthophosphate under conditions typically employed in metabolic labelling experiments. We calculate that the absorbed dose of IR delivered to a 5cm×5cm monolayer of cells incubated in 2ml media containing 1mCi of the high-energy (1.70MeV) β-particle emitter (32)P-orthophosphate for 30min is ∼1Gy IR. The absorbed dose of IR following an otherwise identical exposure to the low-energy (0.24MeV) β-particle emitter (33)P-orthophosphate is ∼0.18Gy IR. We show that low-energy β-particles emitted by (33)P induce a greater number of ionizing radiation-induced foci (IRIF) and greater ATM kinase signaling than energetic β-particles emitted by (32)P. Hence, we demonstrate that it is inappropriate to use (33)P-orthophosphate as a negative control for (32)P-orthophosphate in experiments investigating DNA damage responses to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Significantly, we show that ATM accumulates in the chromatin fraction when ATM kinase activity is inhibited during exposure to either radionuclide. Finally, we also show that chromosome aberrations accumulate in cells when ATM kinase activity is inhibited during exposure to ∼0.36Gy β-particles emitted by (33)P. We therefore propose that direct cellular exposure to (33)P-orthophosphate is an excellent means to induce and label the IR-induced, ATM kinase-dependent phosphoproteome.Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
|HP1alpha recruitment to DNA damage by p150CAF-1 promotes homologous recombination repair. |
Baldeyron, C; Soria, G; Roche, D; Cook, AJ; Almouzni, G
The Journal of cell biology 193 81-95 2011
Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), a major component of constitutive heterochromatin, is recruited to DNA damage sites. However, the mechanism involved in this recruitment and its functional importance during DNA repair remain major unresolved issues. Here, by characterizing HP1α dynamics at laser-induced damage sites in mammalian cells, we show that the de novo accumulation of HP1α occurs within both euchromatin and heterochromatin as a rapid and transient event after DNA damage. This recruitment is strictly dependent on p150CAF-1, the largest subunit of chromatin assembly factor 1 (CAF-1), and its ability to interact with HP1α. We find that HP1α depletion severely compromises the recruitment of the DNA damage response (DDR) proteins 53BP1 and RAD51. Moreover, HP1α depletion leads to defects in homologous recombination-mediated repair and reduces cell survival after DNA damage. Collectively, our data reveal that HP1α recruitment at early stages of the DDR involves p150CAF-1 and is critical for proper DNA damage signaling and repair.
|Protein-Protein Interactions Occur Between p53 Phosphoforms and ATM and 53BP1 at Sites of Exogenous DNA Damage. |
Al Rashid ST, Harding SM, Law C, Coackley C, Bristow RG
Radiat Res 2011
Abstract We have previously shown that the Ser15-phosphorylated p53 phosphoform, p53(Ser15), can localize at sites of ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage. In this study, we hypothesized that the non-specific DNA binding domain (NSDBD) of the p53 carboxy-terminus (C-terminus) mediates chromatin anchoring at sites of DNA damage to interact with two key mediators of the DNA damage response (DDR): ATM and 53BP1. Exogenous YFP-p53 fusion constructs expressing C-terminus deletion mutants of p53 were transfected into p53-null H1299 cells and tracked by microscopy and biochemistry to determine relative chromatin-binding pre- and postirradiation. We observed that exogenous YFP-p53(WT) and YFP-p53(?367?393) associated with ATM(Ser1981) and 53BP1 in the nuclear, chromatin-bound fractions after DNA damage. Of interest, YFP-p53(?1?299) fusion proteins, which lack transcriptional trans-activation and the Ser15-residue, bound to ATM(Ser1981) but not to 53BP1. In support of these data, we used subnuclear UV-microbeam and immunoprecipitation analyses of irradiated normal human fibroblasts (HDFs) that confirmed an interaction between endogenous p53 and ATM or 53BP1. Based on these observations, we propose a model whereby a pre-existing pool of p53 responds immediately to radiation-induced DNA damage using the C-terminus to spatially facilitate protein-protein interactions and the DDR at sites of DNA damage.
|Retinoblastoma protein is essential for early meiotic events in Arabidopsis. |
Chen, Z; Higgins, JD; Hui, JT; Li, J; Franklin, FC; Berger, F
The EMBO journal 30 744-55 2011
We have analysed the role of RBR (retinoblastoma related), the Arabidopsis homologue of the tumour suppressor Retinoblastoma protein (pRb), during meiosis. We characterise the rbr-2 mutation, which causes a loss of RBR in male meiocytes. The rbr-2 plants exhibit strongly reduced fertility, while vegetative growth is generally unaffected. The reduced fertility is due to a meiotic defect that results in reduced chiasma formation and subsequent errors in chromosome disjunction. Immunolocalisation studies in wild-type meiocytes reveal that RBR is recruited as foci to the chromosomes during early prophase I in a DNA double-strand-break-dependent manner. In the absence of RBR, expression of several meiotic genes is reduced. The localisation of the recombinases AtRAD51 and AtDMC1 is normal. However, localisation of the MutS homologue AtMSH4 is compromised. Additionally, polymerisation of the synaptonemal complex protein AtZYP1 is abnormal. Together, these data indicate that loss of RBR during meiosis results in a reduction of crossover formation and an associated failure in chromosome synapsis. Our results indicate that RBR has an important role in meiosis affecting different aspects of this complex process.
|OsAM1 is required for leptotene-zygotene transition in rice. |
Che, L; Tang, D; Wang, K; Wang, M; Zhu, K; Yu, H; Gu, M; Cheng, Z
Cell research 21 654-65 2011
The events occurring at the onset of meiosis have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, OsAM1 was identified in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by map-based cloning. OsAM1, a homolog of Arabidopsis SWI1 and maize AM1, encodes a protein with a coiled-coil domain in its central region. In the Osam1 mutant, pollen mother cells are arrested at leptotene, showing that OsAM1 is required for the leptotene-zygotene transition. Immunocytological analysis revealed that OsAM1 exists as foci in early prophase I meiocytes. Very faint OsREC8 foci persisted in the Osam1 mutant, indicating that OsAM1 is not required for the initial meiotic recruitment of OsREC8. In the absence of OsAM1, many other critical meiotic components, including PAIR2, ZEP1 and OsMER3, could not be correctly installed onto chromosomes. In contrast, in pair2, Osmer3 and zep1 mutants, OsAM1 could be loaded normally, suggesting that OsAM1 plays a fundamental role in building the proper chromosome structure at the beginning of meiosis.
|A dual role for A-type lamins in DNA double-strand break repair. |
Redwood, AB; Perkins, SM; Vanderwaal, RP; Feng, Z; Biehl, KJ; Gonzalez-Suarez, I; Morgado-Palacin, L; Shi, W; Sage, J; Roti-Roti, JL; Stewart, CL; Zhang, J; Gonzalo, S
Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 10 2549-60 2011
A-type lamins are emerging as regulators of nuclear organization and function. Changes in their expression are associated with cancer and mutations are linked to degenerative diseases -laminopathies-. Although a correlation exists between alterations in lamins and genomic instability, the molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. We previously found that loss of A-type lamins leads to degradation of 53BP1 protein and defective long-range non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) of dysfunctional telomeres. Here, we determined how loss of A-type lamins affects the repair of short-range DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by ionizing radiation (IR). We find that lamins deficiency allows activation of the DNA damage response, but compromises the accumulation of 53BP1 at IR-induced foci (IRIF), hindering the fast phase of repair corresponding to classical-NHEJ. Importantly, reconstitution of 53BP1 is sufficient to rescue long-range and short-range NHEJ. Moreover, we demonstrate an unprecedented role for A-type lamins in the maintenance of homologous recombination (HR). Depletion of lamins compromises HR by a mechanism involving transcriptional downregulation of BRCA1 and RAD51 by the repressor complex formed by the Rb family member p130 and E2F4. In line with the DNA repair defects, lamins-deficient cells exhibit increased radiosensitivity. This study demonstrates that A-type lamins promote genomic stability by maintaining the levels of proteins with key roles in DNA DSBs repair by NHEJ and HR. Our results suggest that silencing of A-type lamins by DNA methylation in some cancers could contribute to the genomic instability that drives malignancy. In addition, lamins-deficient tumor cells could represent a good target for radiation therapy.
|A new pathway that regulates 53BP1 stability implicates cathepsin L and vitamin D in DNA repair. |
Gonzalez-Suarez, I; Redwood, AB; Grotsky, DA; Neumann, MA; Cheng, EH; Stewart, CL; Dusso, A; Gonzalo, S
The EMBO journal 30 3383-96 2011
Genomic instability due to telomere dysfunction and defective repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is an underlying cause of ageing-related diseases. 53BP1 is a key factor in DNA DSBs repair and its deficiency is associated with genomic instability and cancer progression. Here, we uncover a novel pathway regulating the stability of 53BP1. We demonstrate an unprecedented role for the cysteine protease Cathepsin L (CTSL) in the degradation of 53BP1. Overexpression of CTSL in wild-type fibroblasts leads to decreased 53BP1 protein levels and changes in its cellular distribution, resulting in defective repair of DNA DSBs. Importantly, we show that the defects in DNA repair associated with 53BP1 deficiency upon loss of A-type lamins are due to upregulation of CTSL. Furthermore, we demonstrate that treatment with vitamin D stabilizes 53BP1 and promotes DNA DSBs repair via inhibition of CTSL, providing an as yet unsuspected link between vitamin D action and DNA repair. Given that CTSL upregulation is a hallmark of cancer and progeria, regulation of this pathway could be of great therapeutic significance for these diseases.
|Repeated cleavage failure does not establish centrosome amplification in untransformed human cells. |
Krzywicka-Racka, A; Sluder, G
The Journal of cell biology 194 199-207 2011
We tested whether cleavage failure as a transient event establishes an incidence of centrosome amplification in cell populations. Five rounds of ∼30% cytochalasin-induced cleavage failure in untransformed human cell cultures did not establish centrosome amplification in the short or long terms. The progeny of binucleate cells progressively dropped out of the cell cycle and expressed p53/p21, and none divided a fourth time. We also tested whether cleavage failure established centrosome amplification in transformed cell populations. Tetraploid HCT116 p53(-/-) cells eventually all failed cleavage repeatedly and ceased proliferating. HeLa cells all died or arrested within four cell cycles. Chinese hamster ovary cells proliferated after cleavage failure, but five rounds of induced cleavage failure produced a modest increase in the incidence of centrosome amplification in the short term, which did not rise with more cycles of cleavage failure. This incidence dropped to close to control values in the long term despite a 2-6% rate of spontaneous cleavage failure in the progeny of tetraploid cells.
|Development of a short-term fluorescence-based assay to assess the toxicity of anticancer drugs on rat stem/progenitor spermatogonia in vitro. |
Marcon, L; Zhang, X; Hales, BF; Nagano, MC; Robaire, B
Biology of reproduction 83 228-37 2010
In vitro culture of rodent spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) has become an important asset in the study of mammalian SSC biology. Supported by added growth factors, SSCs divide in culture and form aggregates of stem/progenitor spermatogonia, termed clusters. Recent studies have shown that serial passaging of clusters results in long-term maintenance and amplification of the SSC pool and that this culture system can also be used for short-term semiquantification of SSC activity. Here, we report the development of an automated assay to assess the activity of rat stem/progenitor spermatogonia in vitro and its application for investigating the cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs on these cells. Cultures of EGFP-expressing rat spermatogenic cells allowed us to determine the number and two-dimensional surface area of clusters using an automated fluorescence imaging system, thereby providing quantitative data of SSC activity. Using this assay, we examined the germ cell toxicity of three drugs that are routinely used in testicular cancer therapy, namely, bleomycin, cisplatin, and etoposide, alone and in combination. All three drugs showed a significant and dose-dependent reduction of cluster number and surface area, indicating their adverse effects specific to spermatogonia. The inhibitory concentration at which cluster number and surface area are inhibited by 50% (IC(50)) was the lowest with etoposide and the highest with cisplatin, implying that etoposide was most toxic to spermatogonia in vitro. These results suggest that the SSC culture should provide an effective and efficient system to assess the germ cell toxicity of various drugs and chemical compounds.
|A cooperative activation loop among SWISNF, gamma-H2AX and H3 acetylation for DNA double-strand break repair. |
Lee HS, Park JH, Kim SJ, Kwon SJ, Kwon J
The EMBO journal 29 1434-45 Epub 2010 Mar 11 2010
Although recent studies highlight the importance of histone modifications and ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, how these mechanisms cooperate has remained largely unexplored. Here, we show that the SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complex, earlier known to facilitate the phosphorylation of histone H2AX at Ser-139 (S139ph) after DNA damage, binds to gamma-H2AX (the phosphorylated form of H2AX)-containing nucleosomes in S139ph-dependent manner. Unexpectedly, BRG1, the catalytic subunit of SWI/SNF, binds to gamma-H2AX nucleosomes by interacting with acetylated H3, not with S139ph itself, through its bromodomain. Blocking the BRG1 interaction with gamma-H2AX nucleosomes either by deletion or overexpression of the BRG1 bromodomain leads to defect of S139ph and DSB repair. H3 acetylation is required for the binding of BRG1 to gamma-H2AX nucleosomes. S139ph stimulates the H3 acetylation on gamma-H2AX nucleosomes, and the histone acetyltransferase Gcn5 is responsible for this novel crosstalk. The H3 acetylation on gamma-H2AX nucleosomes is induced by DNA damage. These results collectively suggest that SWI/SNF, gamma-H2AX and H3 acetylation cooperatively act in a feedback activation loop to facilitate DSB repair.
|Role of progerin-induced telomere dysfunction in HGPS premature cellular senescence. |
Benson, EK; Lee, SW; Aaronson, SA
Journal of cell science 123 2605-12 2010
Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) is a premature-aging syndrome caused by a dominant mutation in the gene encoding lamin A, which leads to an aberrantly spliced and processed protein termed progerin. Previous studies have shown that progerin induces early senescence associated with increased DNA-damage signaling and that telomerase extends HGPS cellular lifespan. We demonstrate that telomerase extends HGPS cellular lifespan by decreasing progerin-induced DNA-damage signaling and activation of p53 and Rb pathways that otherwise mediate the onset of premature senescence. We show further that progerin-induced DNA-damage signaling is localized to telomeres and is associated with telomere aggregates and chromosomal aberrations. Telomerase amelioration of DNA-damage signaling is relatively rapid, requires both its catalytic and DNA-binding functions, and correlates in time with the acquisition by HGPS cells of the ability to proliferate. All of these findings establish that HGPS premature cellular senescence results from progerin-induced telomere dysfunction.Artículo Texto completo
|DNA replication is intrinsically hindered in terminally differentiated myotubes. |
Pajalunga, D; Puggioni, EM; Mazzola, A; Leva, V; Montecucco, A; Crescenzi, M
PloS one 5 e11559 2010
Terminally differentiated (TD) cells permanently exit the mitotic cycle while acquiring specialized characteristics. Although TD cells can be forced to reenter the cell cycle by different means, they cannot be made to stably proliferate, as attempts to induce their replication constantly result in cell death or indefinite growth arrest. There is currently no biological explanation for this failure.Here we show that TD mouse myotubes, reactivated by depletion of the p21 and p27 cell cycle inhibitors, are unable to complete DNA replication and sustain heavy DNA damage, which triggers apoptosis or results in mitotic catastrophe. In striking contrast, quiescent, non-TD fibroblasts and myoblasts, reactivated in the same way, fully replicate their DNA, do not suffer DNA damage, and proliferate even in the absence of growth factors. Similar results are obtained when myotubes and fibroblasts are reactivated by forced expression of E1A or cyclin D1 and cdk4.We conclude that the inability of myotubes to complete DNA replication must be ascribed to peculiar features inherent in their TD state, rather than to the reactivation method. On reviewing the literature concerning reactivation of other TD cell types, we propose that similar mechanisms underlie the general inability of all kinds of TD cells to proliferate in response to otherwise mitogenic stimuli. These results define an unexpected basis for the well known incompetence of mammalian postmitotic cells to proliferate. Furthermore, this trait might contribute to explain the inability of these cells to play a role in tissue repair, unlike their counterparts in extensively regenerating species.Artículo Texto completo
|Prolonged prometaphase blocks daughter cell proliferation despite normal completion of mitosis. |
Uetake, Y; Sluder, G
Current biology : CB 20 1666-71 2010
The mitotic checkpoint maintains genomic stability by blocking the metaphase-anaphase transition until all kinetochores attach to spindle microtubules [1, 2]. However, some defects are not detected by this checkpoint. With low concentrations of microtubule-targeting agents, the checkpoint eventually becomes satisfied, though the spindles may be short and/or multipolar [3, 4] and the fidelity of chromosome distribution and cleavage completion are compromised. In real life, environmental toxins, radiation, or chemotherapeutic agents may lead to completed but inaccurate mitoses. It has been assumed that once the checkpoint is satisfied and cells divide, the daughter cells would proliferate regardless of prometaphase duration. However, when continuously exposed to microtubule inhibitors, untransformed cells eventually slip out of mitosis after 12-48 hr and arrest in G1 [5-8] (see also ). Interestingly, transient but prolonged treatments with nocodazole allow completion of mitosis, but the daughter cells arrest in interphase [10, 11] (see also [9, 12]). Here we characterize the relationship between prometaphase duration and the proliferative capacity of daughter cells. Our results reveal the existence of a mechanism that senses prometaphase duration; if prometaphase lasts greater than 1.5 hr, this mechanism triggers a durable p38- and p53-dependent G1 arrest of the daughter cells despite normal division of their mothers.
|Osteoclast differentiation factor RANKL controls development of progestin-driven mammary cancer. |
Schramek, D; Leibbrandt, A; Sigl, V; Kenner, L; Pospisilik, JA; Lee, HJ; Hanada, R; Joshi, PA; Aliprantis, A; Glimcher, L; Pasparakis, M; Khokha, R; Ormandy, CJ; Widschwendter, M; Schett, G; Penninger, JM
Nature 468 98-102 2010
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in humans and will on average affect up to one in eight women in their lifetime in the United States and Europe. The Women's Health Initiative and the Million Women Study have shown that hormone replacement therapy is associated with an increased risk of incident and fatal breast cancer. In particular, synthetic progesterone derivatives (progestins) such as medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), used in millions of women for hormone replacement therapy and contraceptives, markedly increase the risk of developing breast cancer. Here we show that the in vivo administration of MPA triggers massive induction of the key osteoclast differentiation factor RANKL (receptor activator of NF-κB ligand) in mammary-gland epithelial cells. Genetic inactivation of the RANKL receptor RANK in mammary-gland epithelial cells prevents MPA-induced epithelial proliferation, impairs expansion of the CD49f(hi) stem-cell-enriched population, and sensitizes these cells to DNA-damage-induced cell death. Deletion of RANK from the mammary epithelium results in a markedly decreased incidence and delayed onset of MPA-driven mammary cancer. These data show that the RANKL/RANK system controls the incidence and onset of progestin-driven breast cancer.
|Loss of ATM/Chk2/p53 pathway components accelerates tumor development and contributes to radiation resistance in gliomas. |
Squatrito, M; Brennan, CW; Helmy, K; Huse, JT; Petrini, JH; Holland, EC
Cancer cell 18 619-29 2010
Maintenance of genomic integrity is essential for adult tissue homeostasis and defects in the DNA-damage response (DDR) machinery are linked to numerous pathologies including cancer. Here, we present evidence that the DDR exerts tumor suppressor activity in gliomas. We show that genes encoding components of the DDR pathway are frequently altered in human gliomas and that loss of elements of the ATM/Chk2/p53 cascade accelerates tumor formation in a glioma mouse model. We demonstrate that Chk2 is required for glioma response to ionizing radiation in vivo and is necessary for DNA-damage checkpoints in the neuronal stem cell compartment. Finally, we observed that the DDR is constitutively activated in a subset of human GBMs, and such activation correlates with regions of hypoxia.
|Vorinostat increases carboplatin and paclitaxel activity in non-small cell lung cancer cells. |
TK Owonikoko, SS Ramalingam, B Kanterewicz, TE Balius, CP Belani, PA Hershberger
International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer 126 743-55 2010
We observed a 53% response rate in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with vorinostat plus paclitaxel/carboplatin in a Phase I trial. Studies were undertaken to investigate the mechanism (s) underlying this activity. Growth inhibition was assessed in NSCLC cells by MTT assay after 72 hr of continuous drug exposure. Vorinostat (1 muM) inhibited growth by: 17% +/- 7% in A549, 28% +/- 6% in 128-88T, 39% +/- 8% in Calu1 and 41% +/- 7% in 201T cells. Vorinostat addition to carboplatin or paclitaxel led to significantly greater growth inhibition than chemotherapy alone in all 4 cell lines. Vorinostat (1 muM) synergistically increased the growth inhibitory effects of carboplatin/paclitaxel in 128-88T cells. When colony formation was measured after drug withdrawal, vorinostat significantly increased the effects of carboplatin but not paclitaxel. The % colony formation was control 100%; 1 muM vorinostat, 83% +/- 10%; 5 muM carboplatin, 41% +/- 11%; carboplatin/vorinostat, 8% +/- 4%; 2 nM paclitaxel, 53% +/- 11%; paclitaxel/vorinostat, 46% +/- 21%. In A549 and 128-88T, vorinostat potentiated carboplatin induction of gamma-H2AX (a DNA damage marker) and increased alpha-tubulin acetylation (a marker for stabilized mictrotubules). In A549, combination of vorinostat with paclitaxel resulted in a synergistic increase in alpha-tubulin acetylation, which reversed upon drug washout. We conclude that vorinostat interacts favorably with carboplatin and paclitaxel in NSCLC cells, which may explain the provocative response observed in our clinical trial. This likely involves a vorinostat-mediated irreversible increase in DNA damage in the case of carboplatin and a reversible increase in microtubule stability in the case of paclitaxel.Artículo Texto completo
|Gtsf1/Cue110, a gene encoding a protein with two copies of a CHHC Zn-finger motif, is involved in spermatogenesis and retrotransposon suppression in murine testes. |
Yoshimura T, Toyoda S, Kuramochi-Miyagawa S, Miyazaki T, Miyazaki S, Tashiro F, Yamato E, Nakano T, Miyazaki J
Dev Biol 335 216-27. Epub 2009 Sep 6. 2009
We recently reported that the Gtsf1/Cue110 gene, a member of the evolutionarily conserved UPF0224 family, is expressed predominantly in male germ cells, and that the GTSF1/CUE110 protein is localized to the cytoplasm of these cells in the adult testis. Here, to analyze the roles of the Gtsf1/Cue110 gene in spermatogenesis, we produced Gtsf1/Cue110-null mice by gene targeting. The Gtsf1/Cue110-null mice grew normally and appeared healthy; however, the males were sterile due to massive apoptotic death of their germ cells after postnatal day 14. In contrast, the null females were fertile. Detailed analyses revealed that the Gtsf1/Cue110-null male meiocytes ceased meiotic progression before the zygotene stage. Thus, the Gtsf1/Cue110 gene is essential for spermatogenesis beyond the early meiotic phase. Furthermore, the loss of the Gtsf1/Cue110 gene caused increased transcription of the long interspersed nucleotide element (Line-1) and the intracisternal A-particle (IAP) retrotransposons, accompanied by demethylation of their promoter regions. These observations indicate that Gtsf1/Cue110 is required for spermatogenesis and involved in retrotransposon suppression in male germ cells.
|The ATR-Chk1 pathway plays a role in the generation of centrosome aberrations induced by Rad51C dysfunction. |
Mari Katsura, Takanori Tsuruga, Osamu Date, Takashi Yoshihara, Mari Ishida, Yoshitaka Tomoda, Miyuki Okajima, Motoki Takaku, Hitoshi Kurumizaka, Aiko Kinomura, Hiromu K Mishima, Kiyoshi Miyagawa, Mari Katsura, Takanori Tsuruga, Osamu Date, Takashi Yoshihara, Mari Ishida, Yoshitaka Tomoda, Miyuki Okajima, Motoki Takaku, Hitoshi Kurumizaka, Aiko Kinomura, Hiromu K Mishima, Kiyoshi Miyagawa, Mari Katsura, Takanori Tsuruga, Osamu Date, Takashi Yoshihara, Mari Ishida, Yoshitaka Tomoda, Miyuki Okajima, Motoki Takaku, Hitoshi Kurumizaka, Aiko Kinomura, Hiromu K Mishima, Kiyoshi Miyagawa
Nucleic acids research 37 3959-68 2009
Rad51C is a central component of two complexes formed by five Rad51 paralogs in vertebrates. These complexes are involved in repairing DNA double-strand breaks through homologous recombination. Despite accumulating evidence suggesting that the paralogs may prevent aneuploidy by controlling centrosome integrity, Rad51C's role in maintaining chromosome stability remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that Rad51C deficiency leads to both centrosome aberrations in an ATR-Chk1-dependent manner and increased aneuploidy in human cells. While it was reported that Rad51C deficiency did not cause centrosome aberrations in interphase in hamster cells, such aberrations were observed in interphase in HCT116 cells with Rad51C dysfunction. Caffeine treatment and down-regulation of ATR, but not that of ATM, reduced the frequency of centrosome aberrations in the mutant cells. Silencing of Rad51C by RNA interference in HT1080 cells resulted in similar aberrations. Treatment with a Chk1 inhibitor and silencing of Chk1 also reduced the frequency in HCT116 mutants. Accumulation of Chk1 at the centrosome and nuclear foci of gamma H2AX were increased in the mutants. Moreover, the mutant cells had a higher frequency of aneuploidy. These findings indicate that the ATR-Chk1 pathway plays a role in increased centrosome aberrations induced by Rad51C dysfunction.Artículo Texto completo
|Nucleotide excision repair-induced H2A ubiquitination is dependent on MDC1 and RNF8 and reveals a universal DNA damage response. |
Marteijn JA, Bekker-Jensen S, Mailand N, Lans H, Schwertman P, Gourdin AM, Dantuma NP, Lukas J, Vermeulen W
The Journal of cell biology 186 835-47 2009
Chromatin modifications are an important component of the of DNA damage response (DDR) network that safeguard genomic integrity. Recently, we demonstrated nucleotide excision repair (NER)-dependent histone H2A ubiquitination at sites of ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA damage. In this study, we show a sustained H2A ubiquitination at damaged DNA, which requires dynamic ubiquitination by Ubc13 and RNF8. Depletion of these enzymes causes UV hypersensitivity without affecting NER, which is indicative of a function for Ubc13 and RNF8 in the downstream UV-DDR. RNF8 is targeted to damaged DNA through an interaction with the double-strand break (DSB)-DDR scaffold protein MDC1, establishing a novel function for MDC1. RNF8 is recruited to sites of UV damage in a cell cycle-independent fashion that requires NER-generated, single-stranded repair intermediates and ataxia telangiectasia-mutated and Rad3-related protein. Our results reveal a conserved pathway of DNA damage-induced H2A ubiquitination for both DSBs and UV lesions, including the recruitment of 53BP1 and Brca1. Although both lesions are processed by independent repair pathways and trigger signaling responses by distinct kinases, they eventually generate the same epigenetic mark, possibly functioning in DNA damage signal amplification.Artículo Texto completo
|Reduced cell death, invasive and angiogenic features conferred by BRCA1-deficiency in mammary epithelial cells transformed with H-Ras. |
Arunasalam Navaraj,Niklas Finnberg,David T Dicker,Wensheng Yang,Elizabeth M Matthew,Wafik S El-Deiry
Cancer biology & therapy 8 2009
To investigate the role of tumor suppressors BRCA1 and p53 proteins in human breast tumorigenesis, we transformed immortalized human mammary epithelial cells, MCF10A, with or without BRCA1/p53 gene-specific knockdowns. Stable knockdown of BRCA1 alone in MCF10A cells led to centrosome amplification, impaired p53 protein stability, increased sensitivity towards DNA-damaging agents, defective chromosomal condensation at mitosis and elevated protein levels of cyclin D1 and c-myc. While over-expression of mutant H-Ras transformed MCF10A cells, depletion of BRCA1 dramatically enhanced the in vivo tumorigenesis that was associated with higher levels of VEGF, enhanced vascularization and less apoptosis in the BRCA1-deficient Ras-transformed tumors. The Ras-transformed BRCA1-deficient tumors exhibited features of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, appeared to secrete matrix metalloproteases as visualized by in vivo bio-imaging of tumors using fluorescent probe MMP680, and were locally metastatic to lymph nodes. Our results suggest that loss of BRCA1 function may contribute to the aggressiveness of Ras-MAPK driven human breast cancer with associated increase in levels of cyclin D1 and c-myc, enhanced MAPK activity, angiogenic potential & invasiveness. This mammary xenograft tumor model may be useful as a tool to understand human breast tumor angiogenesis and metastasis, as well as to test candidate therapeutics.Artículo Texto completo
|Constructive Technology Assessment (CTA) as a tool in coverage with evidence development: the case of the 70-gene prognosis signature for breast cancer diagnostics. |
Valesca P Retèl,Jolien M Bueno-de-Mesquita,Marjan J M Hummel,Marc J van de Vijver,Kirsten F L Douma,Kim Karsenberg,Frits S A M van Dam,Cees van Krimpen,Frank E Bellot,Rudi M H Roumen,Sabine C Linn,Wim H van Harten
International journal of technology assessment in health care 25 2009
Constructive Technology Assessment (CTA) is a means to guide early implementation of new developments in society, and can be used as an evaluation tool for Coverage with Evidence Development (CED). We used CTA for the introduction of a new diagnostic test in the Netherlands, the 70-gene prognosis signature (MammaPrint) for node-negative breast cancer patients.
|Altered hematopoiesis in mice lacking DNA polymerase mu is due to inefficient double-strand break repair. |
Lucas, D; Escudero, B; Ligos, JM; Segovia, JC; Estrada, JC; Terrados, G; Blanco, L; Samper, E; Bernad, A
PLoS genetics 5 e1000389 2009
Polymerase micro (Polmicro) is an error-prone, DNA-directed DNA polymerase that participates in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair. In vivo, Polmicro deficiency results in impaired Vkappa-Jkappa recombination and altered somatic hypermutation and centroblast development. In Polmicro(-/-) mice, hematopoietic development was defective in several peripheral and bone marrow (BM) cell populations, with about a 40% decrease in BM cell number that affected several hematopoietic lineages. Hematopoietic progenitors were reduced both in number and in expansion potential. The observed phenotype correlates with a reduced efficiency in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair in hematopoietic tissue. Whole-body gamma-irradiation revealed that Polmicro also plays a role in DSB repair in non-hematopoietic tissues. Our results show that Polmicro function is required for physiological hematopoietic development with an important role in maintaining early progenitor cell homeostasis and genetic stability in hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic tissues.
|CBP/p300-mediated acetylation of histone H3 on lysine 56. |
Das, C; Lucia, MS; Hansen, KC; Tyler, JK
Nature 459 113-7 2009
Acetylation within the globular core domain of histone H3 on lysine 56 (H3K56) has recently been shown to have a critical role in packaging DNA into chromatin following DNA replication and repair in budding yeast. However, the function or occurrence of this specific histone mark has not been studied in multicellular eukaryotes, mainly because the Rtt109 enzyme that is known to mediate acetylation of H3K56 (H3K56ac) is fungal-specific. Here we demonstrate that the histone acetyl transferase CBP (also known as Nejire) in flies and CBP and p300 (Ep300) in humans acetylate H3K56, whereas Drosophila Sir2 and human SIRT1 and SIRT2 deacetylate H3K56ac. The histone chaperones ASF1A in humans and Asf1 in Drosophila are required for acetylation of H3K56 in vivo, whereas the histone chaperone CAF-1 (chromatin assembly factor 1) in humans and Caf1 in Drosophila are required for the incorporation of histones bearing this mark into chromatin. We show that, in response to DNA damage, histones bearing acetylated K56 are assembled into chromatin in Drosophila and human cells, forming foci that colocalize with sites of DNA repair. Furthermore, acetylation of H3K56 is increased in multiple types of cancer, correlating with increased levels of ASF1A in these tumours. Our identification of multiple proteins regulating the levels of H3K56 acetylation in metazoans will allow future studies of this critical and unique histone modification that couples chromatin assembly to DNA synthesis, cell proliferation and cancer.
|CHK1 inhibition as a strategy for targeting Fanconi Anemia (FA) DNA repair pathway deficient tumors. |
Chen, CC; Kennedy, RD; Sidi, S; Look, AT; D'Andrea, A
Molecular cancer 8 24 2009
DNA repair deficient tumor cells have been shown to accumulate high levels of DNA damage. Consequently, these cells become hyper-dependent on DNA damage response pathways, including the CHK1-kinase-mediated response. These observations suggest that DNA repair deficient tumors should exhibit increased sensitivity to CHK1 inhibition. Here we offer experimental evidence in support of this hypothesis.Using isogenic pairs of cell lines differing only in the Fanconi Anemia (FA) DNA repair pathway, we showed that FA deficient cell lines were hypersensitive to CHK1 silencing by independent siRNAs as well as CHK1 pharmacologic inhibition by Gö6976 and UCN-01. In parallel, an siRNA screen designed to identify gene silencings synthetically lethal with CHK1 inhibition identified genes required for FA pathway function. To confirm these findings in vivo, we demonstrated that whole zebrafish embryos, depleted for FANCD2 by a morpholino approach, were hypersensitive to Gö6976. Silencing of FA genes led to hyper-activation of CHK1 and vice versa. Furthermore, inactivation of CHK1 in FA deficient cell lines caused increased accumulation of DNA strand and chromosomal breakages. These results suggest that the functions subserved by CHK1 and the FA pathway mutually compensate in maintaining genome integrity. As CHK1 inhibition has been under clinical trial in combination with cisplatin, we showed that the FA specific tumoricidal effect of CHK1 inhibition and cisplatin was synergistic.Taken together, these results suggest CHK1 inhibition as a strategy for targeting FA deficient tumors.
|c-Myc accelerates S-phase and requires WRN to avoid replication stress. |
Robinson, K; Asawachaicharn, N; Galloway, DA; Grandori, C
PloS one 4 e5951 2009
c-Myc interacts with components of the pre-replication complex and directly regulates DNA replication . However the consequences of this novel c-Myc function on cell cycle dynamics and replication-associated damage are unknown. Here, we show that c-Myc overexpression in primary human fibroblasts markedly accelerates S-phase while c-Myc deficient fibroblasts exhibit a prolonged S-phase. We also show that the Werner DNA helicase protein (WRN) plays a critical role in supporting c-Myc-driven S-phase, as depletion of WRN in c-Myc overexpressing cells increases DNA damage specifically at sites of DNA synthesis. This excess DNA damage activates a "replication stress" pathway involving ATR, CHK1, CHK2, and p53, leading to rapid senescence of WRN deficient c-Myc overexpressing cells. Indeed, depletion of p53 rescues this senescence response. We propose that WRN functions to repair abnormal replication structures caused by the acceleration of DNA replication by c-Myc. This work provides an additional mechanistic explanation for c-Myc-induced DNA damage and senescence, and reveals a vulnerability of c-Myc overexpressing cells that could potentially be exploited in cancer therapy.
|Trial assessing individualized options for treatment for breast cancer: the TAILORx trial. |
Jo Anne Zujewski,Leah Kamin
Future oncology (London, England) 4 2008
Novel genetic profiling tests of breast cancer tissue have been shown to be prognostic for overall survival and predictive of local and distant rates of recurrence in breast cancer patients. One of these tests, Oncotype DXtrade mark, is a diagnostic test comprised of a 21-gene assay applied to paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissue, which allows physicians to predict subgroups of hormone-receptor-positive, node-negative patients who may benefit from hormonal therapy alone or require adjuvant chemotherapy to attain the best survival outcome. The results of the assay are converted to a recurrence score (0-100) that has been found to be predictive of 10- and 15-year local and distant recurrence in node-negative, estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer patients. Previous studies have shown that patients with high recurrence scores benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy, whereas patients with low recurrence scores do not. To evaluate the ability to guide treatment decisions in the group with a mid-range recurrence score, the North American Cooperative Groups developed the Trial Assessing IndiviuaLized Options for Treatment for breast cancer, a randomized trial of chemotherapy followed by hormonal therapy versus hormonal therapy alone on invasive disease-free survival-ductal carcinoma in situ (IDFS-DCIS) survival in women with node-negative, estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer with a recurrence score of 11-25. The study was initiated in May 2006 and approximately 4500 patients will be randomized. This article describes the rationale, methodology, statistical ana-lysis and implications of the results on clinical practice.
|Retinoblastoma loss modulates DNA damage response favoring tumor progression. |
Seoane, M; Iglesias, P; Gonzalez, T; Dominguez, F; Fraga, M; Aliste, C; Forteza, J; Costoya, JA
PloS one 3 e3632 2008
Senescence is one of the main barriers against tumor progression. Oncogenic signals in primary cells result in oncogene-induced senescence (OIS), crucial for protection against cancer development. It has been described in premalignant lesions that OIS requires DNA damage response (DDR) activation, safeguard of the integrity of the genome. Here we demonstrate how the cellular mechanisms involved in oncogenic transformation in a model of glioma uncouple OIS and DDR. We use this tumor type as a paradigm of oncogenic transformation. In human gliomas most of the genetic alterations that have been previously identified result in abnormal activation of cell growth signaling pathways and deregulation of cell cycle, features recapitulated in our model by oncogenic Ras expression and retinoblastoma (Rb) inactivation respectively. In this scenario, the absence of pRb confers a proliferative advantage and activates DDR to a greater extent in a DNA lesion-independent fashion than cells that express only HRas(V12). Moreover, Rb loss inactivates the stress kinase DDR-associated p38MAPK by specific Wip1-dependent dephosphorylation. Thus, Rb loss acts as a switch mediating the transition between premalignant lesions and cancer through DDR modulation. These findings may have important implications for the understanding the biology of gliomas and anticipate a new target, Wip1 phosphatase, for novel therapeutic strategies.Artículo Texto completo
|Double strand breaks can initiate gene silencing and SIRT1-dependent onset of DNA methylation in an exogenous promoter CpG island. |
O'Hagan, HM; Mohammad, HP; Baylin, SB
PLoS genetics 4 e1000155 2008
Chronic exposure to inducers of DNA base oxidation and single and double strand breaks contribute to tumorigenesis. In addition to the genetic changes caused by this DNA damage, such tumors often contain epigenetically silenced genes with aberrant promoter region CpG island DNA hypermethylation. We herein explore the relationships between such DNA damage and epigenetic gene silencing using an experimental model in which we induce a defined double strand break in an exogenous promoter construct of the E-cadherin CpG island, which is frequently aberrantly DNA hypermethylated in epithelial cancers. Following the onset of repair of the break, we observe recruitment to the site of damage of key proteins involved in establishing and maintaining transcriptional repression, namely SIRT1, EZH2, DNMT1, and DNMT3B, and the appearance of the silencing histone modifications, hypoacetyl H4K16, H3K9me2 and me3, and H3K27me3. Although in most cells selected after the break, DNA repair occurs faithfully with preservation of activity of the promoter, a small percentage of the plated cells demonstrate induction of heritable silencing. The chromatin around the break site in such a silent clone is enriched for most of the above silent chromatin proteins and histone marks, and the region harbors the appearance of increasing DNA methylation in the CpG island of the promoter. During the acute break, SIRT1 appears to be required for the transient recruitment of DNMT3B and subsequent methylation of the promoter in the silent clones. Taken together, our data suggest that normal repair of a DNA break can occasionally cause heritable silencing of a CpG island-containing promoter by recruitment of proteins involved in silencing. Furthermore, with contribution of the stress-related protein SIRT1, the break can lead to the onset of aberrant CpG island DNA methylation, which is frequently associated with tight gene silencing in cancer.
|ASY1 mediates AtDMC1-dependent interhomolog recombination during meiosis in Arabidopsis. |
Sanchez-Moran, E; Santos, JL; Jones, GH; Franklin, FC
Genes & development 21 2220-33 2007
ASY1 is an Arabidopsis protein required for synapsis and crossover formation during meiosis. The chronology of meiotic recombination has been investigated in wild type and an asy1 mutant. We observe a delay between the appearance of chromatin-associated AtSPO11-1 foci and DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation, which occurs contemporaneously with chromosome axis formation and transition of ASY1 from chromatin-associated foci to a linear axis-associated signal. DSBs are formed independently of ASY1 in an AtSPO11-1-dependent manner. They are partially restored in Atspo11-1-3 using cisplatin, but their control appears abnormal. Axis morphogenesis is independent of ASY1, but axis structure may be compromised in asy1. Localization of the strand exchange proteins AtRAD51 and AtDMC1 to the chromatin occurs asynchronously shortly after DSB formation, with AtDMC1 localizing in advance of AtRAD51. In wild-type nuclei, both recombinases form numerous foci that persist for approximately 12 h before gradually decreasing in number. In asy1, initial localization of AtDMC1 is normal, but declines abruptly such that interhomolog recombination is severely compromised. Limited ASY1-independent, DMC1-dependent interhomolog recombination remains, but appears restricted to subtelomeric sequences where the homologs are fortuitously in proximity. Thus, ASY1 plays a key role in coordinating the activity of the RecA homologs to create a bias in favor of interhomolog recombination.Artículo Texto completo
|Fanconi anemia pathway-deficient tumor cells are hypersensitive to inhibition of ataxia telangiectasia mutated. |
Richard D Kennedy, Clark C Chen, Patricia Stuckert, Elyse M Archila, Michelle A De la Vega, Lisa A Moreau, Akiko Shimamura,
The Journal of clinical investigation 117 1440-9 2007
The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway maintains genomic stability in replicating cells. Some sporadic breast, ovarian, pancreatic, and hematological tumors are deficient in FA pathway function, resulting in sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. FA pathway dysfunction in these tumors may result in hyperdependence on alternative DNA repair pathways that could be targeted as a treatment strategy. We used a high-throughput siRNA screening approach that identified ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) as a critical kinase for FA pathway-deficient human fibroblasts. Human fibroblasts and murine embryonic fibroblasts deficient for the FA pathway were observed to have constitutive ATM activation and Fancg(-/-)Atm(-/-) mice were found to be nonviable. Abrogation of ATM function in FA pathway-deficient cells resulted in DNA breakage, cell cycle arrest, and apoptotic cell death. Moreover, Fanconi anemia complementation group G- (FANCG-) and FANCC-deficient pancreatic tumor lines were more sensitive to the ATM inhibitor KU-55933 than isogenic corrected lines. These data suggest that ATM and FA genes function in parallel and compensatory roles to maintain genomic integrity and cell viability. Pharmaceutical inhibition of ATM may have a role in the treatment of FA pathway-deficient human cancers.Artículo Texto completo
|Deregulated E2f-2 underlies cell cycle and maturation defects in retinoblastoma null erythroblasts. |
Dirlam, A; Spike, BT; Macleod, KF
Molecular and cellular biology 27 8713-28 2007
By assessing the contribution of deregulated E2F activity to erythroid defects in Rb null mice, we have identified E2f-2 as being upregulated in end-stage red cells, where we show it is the major pRb-associated E2f and the predominant E2f detected at key target gene promoters. Consistent with its expression pattern, E2f-2 loss restored terminal erythroid maturation to Rb null red cells, including the ability to undergo enucleation. Deletion of E2f-2 also extended the life span of Rb null mice despite persistent defects in placental development, indicating that deregulated E2f-2 activity in differentiating erythroblasts contributes to the premature lethality of Rb null mice. We show that the aberrant entry of Rb null erythroblasts into S phase at times in differentiation when wild-type erythroblasts are exiting the cell cycle is inhibited by E2f-2 deletion. E2f-2 loss induced cell cycle arrest in both wild-type and Rb null erythroblasts and was associated with increased DNA double-strand breaks. These results implicate deregulated E2f-2 in the cell cycle defects observed in Rb null erythroblasts and reveal a novel role for E2f-2 during terminal red blood cell differentiation. The identification of a tissue-restricted role for E2f-2 in erythropoiesis highlights the nonredundant nature of E2f transcription factor activities in cell growth and differentiation.Artículo Texto completo
|Roles of ATM and NBS1 in chromatin structure modulation and DNA double-strand break repair. |
Elijahu Berkovich, Raymond J Monnat, Michael B Kastan
Nature cell biology 9 683-90 2007
We developed a novel system to create DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at defined endogenous sites in the human genome, and used this system to detect protein recruitment and loss at and around these breaks by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). The detection of human ATM protein at site-specific DSBs required functional NBS1 protein, ATM kinase activity and ATM autophosphorylation on Ser 1981. DSB formation led to the localized disruption of nucleosomes, a process that depended on both functional NBS1 and ATM. These two proteins were also required for efficient recruitment of the repair cofactor XRCC4 to DSBs, and for efficient DSB repair. These results demonstrate the functional importance of ATM kinase activity and phosphorylation in the response to DSBs, and support a model in which ordered chromatin structure changes that occur after DNA breakage depend on functional NBS1 and ATM, and facilitate DNA DSB repair.
|Protein phosphorylation in irradiated human melanoma cells. |
Raymond L Warters, Dustin L Williams, Sergey B Zhuplatov, Chris D Pond, Sancy A Leachman
Radiation research 168 535-44 2007
In the present study, we examined the response of confluent, primary human fibroblasts and cells of a melanoma (YUSAC2) cell line to ionizing radiation mediated through post-translational protein phosphorylation. Since the purpose of our study was to identify novel radiation-induced phosphoproteins in the DNA damage stress response of melanoma cells, we were primarily interested in changes in protein phosphoserine expression at early times after irradiation. Our rationale was that by examining the overall protein phosphorylation profile (the phosphoproteome) in irradiated cells, we might discover novel radiation-induced phosphoproteins that distinguish fibroblasts from melanoma cells. Cell proteins were separated by gel electrophoresis and phosphoproteins were identified by Western blot analysis using nonspecific anti-phosphoamino acid antibodies. This approach was not pursued previously since adequate antibodies for examining global protein phosphoserine expression were unavailable. While some radiation-induced phosphoprotein changes in high-abundance proteins were identified, in general the sensitivity of this approach was not sufficient to detect changes in low-abundance, regulatory proteins. Characterization of these phosphoproteins will require greater enrichment of low-abundance proteins.
|Disparity of histone deacetylase inhibition on repair of radiation-induced DNA damage on euchromatin and constitutive heterochromatin compartments. |
Karagiannis, TC; Harikrishnan, KN; Kn, H; El-Osta, A
Oncogene 26 3963-71 2007
Epigenetic regulation of chromatin structure is central to the process of DNA repair. A well-characterized epigenetic feature is the dynamic phosphorylation of the histone H2AX (gammaH2AX) and mobilization of double strand break (DSB) recognition and repair factors to the site. How chromatin structure is altered in response to DNA damage and how such alterations influence DSB repair mechanisms are currently relevant issues. Despite the clear link between histone deacetylases (HDACs) and radiosensitivity, how histone hyperacetylation influence DSB repair remains poorly understood. We have determined the structure of chromatin is a major factor determining radiosensitivity and repair in human cells. Trichostatin A (TSA) enhances radiosensitivity with dose modification factors of 1.2 and 1.9 at 0.2 and 1 microM, respectively. Cells treated with TSA causing hyperacetylation and remodelling on euchromatic alleles coexist with gammaH2AX accumulation in radiosensitized cells. Formation of gammaH2AX on heterochromatin was significantly reduced even when cells were treated with TSA, suggesting that chromatin structure and histone hyperacetylation are pronounced features of radiation sensitivity and repair in euchromatic regions.
|A dominant, recombination-defective allele of Dmc1 causing male-specific sterility. |
Bannister, LA; Pezza, RJ; Donaldson, JR; de Rooij, DG; Schimenti, KJ; Camerini-Otero, RD; Schimenti, JC
PLoS biology 5 e105 2007
DMC1 is a meiosis-specific homolog of bacterial RecA and eukaryotic RAD51 that can catalyze homologous DNA strand invasion and D-loop formation in vitro. DMC1-deficient mice and yeast are sterile due to defective meiotic recombination and chromosome synapsis. The authors identified a male dominant sterile allele of Dmc1, Dmc1(Mei11), encoding a missense mutation in the L2 DNA binding domain that abolishes strand invasion activity. Meiosis in male heterozygotes arrests in pachynema, characterized by incomplete chromosome synapsis and no crossing-over. Young heterozygous females have normal litter sizes despite having a decreased oocyte pool, a high incidence of meiosis I abnormalities, and susceptibility to premature ovarian failure. Dmc1(Mei11) exposes a sex difference in recombination in that a significant portion of female oocytes can compensate for DMC1 deficiency to undergo crossing-over and complete gametogenesis. Importantly, these data demonstrate that dominant alleles of meiosis genes can arise and propagate in populations, causing infertility and other reproductive consequences due to meiotic prophase I defects.
|Expression analysis of the mouse multi-copy X-linked gene Xlr-related, meiosis-regulated (Xmr), reveals that Xmr encodes a spermatid-expressed cytoplasmic protein, SLX/XMR. |
Reynard, LN; Turner, JM; Cocquet, J; Mahadevaiah, SK; Touré, A; Höög, C; Burgoyne, PS
Biology of reproduction 77 329-35 2007
The mouse multi-copy X-linked gene Xlr-related, meiosis-regulated (Xmr/Slx) has previously been described as encoding a testis-specific nuclear protein expressed during male meiotic prophase, and during which it becomes concentrated in the inactive X and Y chromatin domain. These conclusions were based on Western blot and immunolocalization analysis using an antibody raised against a related lymphocyte protein, XLR; however, our recently published RNA in situ for Xmr revealed that transcripts are predominantly or exclusively postmeiotic, and this is supported by a growing body of microarray data. This led us to reanalyze the expression of Xmr, both at the RNA level by RT-PCR and by RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization, and at the protein level by using antibodies raised against XMR that do not recognize XLR. In agreement with our previous RNA in situ data, our further transcription analysis showed almost exclusive expression in spermatids, and Western blot and immunostaining with the XMR antibodies showed that the protein is cytoplasmic and restricted to spermatids. Furthermore, the previously used XLR antibody was shown not to cross-react with XMR, and it is suggested that the meiotically expressed nuclear protein recognized by this antibody is another member of the complex Xlr superfamily. As a result of these findings, the gene previously known as Xmr is now officially know as Slx, Sycp3-like, X-linked.
|Use of sex chromosome bivalent pairing in spermatocytes of nonobstructive azoospermic men for the prediction of successful sperm retrieval. |
Leah Yogev, Einav Zeharia, Sandra E Kleiman, Batia B Maymon, Ron Hauser, Amnon Botchan, Haim Yavetz, Gedalia Paz
Fertility and sterility 86 106-12 2006
OBJECTIVE: To find the most informative method of XY bivalent detection for spermatozoa presence in testicular tissue of nonobstructive azoospermic men. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Institute for the Study of Fertility, affiliated with a university medical faculty. PATIENT(S): Thirty-five men with azoospermia, divided into subgroups: complete maturation arrest (n = 10), mixed atrophy (n = 14), and obstructive azoospermia (n = 11). INTERVENTION(S): Testicular tissue biopsies for sperm extraction. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Histopathologic and cytology analyses and the presence of XY bivalent formation by fluorescence in situ hybridization probes for centromere and subtelomere regions. Immunostaining of gamma-H2AX for sex body (SB) identification was also performed. RESULT(S): Percentage of spermatocytes with X-Y pairing, determined by the paired short arms pseudoautosomal region, was significantly higher than percentage of spermatocytes with long arm telomeres in proximity in all three groups. The parameter of q telomeres in proximity was the most sensitive index to distinguish one group from the other. Stained SB by gamma-H2AX was found to be the most informative for the prediction of successful sperm retrieval. CONCLUSION(S): Alignment of the X and Y axes that occurs in the late zygotene stage probably precedes the stage in which the SB is stained by gamma-H2AX. Consequently, because of the nonhomogeneity of the testis, when histology raises suspicion of complete maturation arrest percentage of spermatocytes with stained SB is the most informative parameter for sperm presence on sperm retrieval.
|DNA damage triggers nucleotide excision repair-dependent monoubiquitylation of histone H2A. |
Bergink, S; Salomons, FA; Hoogstraten, D; Groothuis, TA; de Waard, H; Wu, J; Yuan, L; Citterio, E; Houtsmuller, AB; Neefjes, J; Hoeijmakers, JH; Vermeulen, W; Dantuma, NP
Genes & development 20 1343-52 2006
Chromatin changes within the context of DNA repair remain largely obscure. Here we show that DNA damage induces monoubiquitylation of histone H2A in the vicinity of DNA lesions. Ultraviolet (UV)-induced monoubiquitylation of H2A is dependent on functional nucleotide excision repair and occurs after incision of the damaged strand. The ubiquitin ligase Ring2 is required for the DNA damage-induced H2A ubiquitylation. UV-induced ubiquitylation of H2A is dependent on the DNA damage signaling kinase ATR (ATM- and Rad3-related) but not the related kinase ATM (ataxia telangiectasia-mutated). Although the response coincides with phosphorylation of variant histone H2AX, H2AX was not required for H2A ubiquitylation. Together our data show that monoubiquitylation of H2A forms part of the cellular response to UV damage and suggest a role of this modification in DNA repair-induced chromatin remodeling.Artículo Texto completo
|Defective p53 response and apoptosis associated with an ataxia-telangiectasia-like phenotype. |
Gueven, N; Becherel, OJ; Birrell, G; Chen, P; DelSal, G; Carney, JP; Grattan-Smith, P; Lavin, MF
Cancer research 66 2907-12 2006
Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), the protein defective in ataxia-telangiectasia, plays a central role in DNA damage response and signaling to cell cycle checkpoints. We describe here a cell line from a patient with an ataxia-telangiectasia-like clinical phenotype defective in the p53 response to radiation but with normal ATM activation and efficient downstream phosphorylation of other ATM substrates. No mutations were detected in ATM cDNA. A normal level of interaction between p53 and peptidyl-prolyl-isomerase Pin1 suggests that posttranslational modification was intact in these cells but operating at reduced level. Defective p53 stabilization was accompanied by defective induction of p53 effector genes and failure to induce apoptosis in response to DNA-damaging agents. Continued association between p53 and murine double minute-2 (Mdm2) occurred in irradiated ATL2ABR cells in response to DNA damage, and incubation with Mdm2 antagonists, nutlins, increased the stabilization of p53 and its transcriptional activity but failed to induce apoptosis. These results suggest that ATM-dependent stabilization of p53 and induction of apoptosis by radiation involve an additional factor(s) that is defective in ATL2ABR cells.
|Arsenite induces prominent mitotic arrest via inhibition of G2 checkpoint activation in CGL-2 cells |
Yih, L. H., et al
Carcinogenesis, 26:53-63 (2005) 2005
|Immunoblotting (Western), Immunofluorescence||15471901|
|Identification and functional consequences of a novel MRE11 mutation affecting 10 Saudi Arabian patients with the ataxia telangiectasia-like disorder. |
Fernet, M; Gribaa, M; Salih, MA; Seidahmed, MZ; Hall, J; Koenig, M
Human molecular genetics 14 307-18 2005
Ten new patients with ataxia telangiectasia-like disorder (ATLD) from three unrelated Saudi Arabian families have been identified aged 5-37 representing the largest cohort of ATLD patients ever identified. They presented with an early-onset, slowly progressive, ataxia plus ocular apraxia phenotype with an absence of tumor development, even in the oldest patient. Extra-neurological features such as telangiectasia, raised alpha-fetoprotein and reduced immunoglobulin levels were absent. No translocations were found in the two investigated patients, and the presence of microcephaly was noted in four out of eight ascertained patients. All patients are homozygous for a novel missense mutation (630G--greater than C, W210C) of the MRE11 gene. The cellular consequences of this amino acid change, localized in the nuclease domain of the Mre11 protein, have been determined in fibroblast cultures established from two individuals. They showed high constitutive levels of Mre11 and Rad50 proteins compared with cells from normal individuals but a very low level of the Nbs1 protein. After exposure to ionizing radiation, a dose-dependent defect in ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-serine 1981, p53-serine 15 and Chk2 phosphorylation, and p53 stabilization were noted, together with a failure to form Mre11 foci and enhanced radiation sensitivity. Formation of gammaH2AX foci was similar to that seen in normal fibroblasts under the experimental conditions examined. These results emphasize the importance of functional interactions among the three proteins of the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex and lend support to a role of this complex as a sensor of DNA double-strand breaks, acting upstream of ATM.
|Frag1, a homolog of alternative replication factor C subunits, links replication stress surveillance with apoptosis. |
Ishii, H; Inageta, T; Mimori, K; Saito, T; Sasaki, H; Isobe, M; Mori, M; Croce, CM; Huebner, K; Ozawa, K; Furukawa, Y
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102 9655-60 2005
We report the identification and characterization of a potent regulator of genomic integrity, mouse and human FRAG1 gene, a conserved homolog of replication factor C large subunit that is homologous to the alternative replication factor C subunits Elg1, Ctf18/Chl12, and Rad24 of budding yeast. FRAG1 was identified in a search for key caretaker genes involved in the regulation of genomic stability under conditions of replicative stress. In response to stress, Atr participates in the down-regulation of FRAG1 expression, leading to the induction of apoptosis through the release of Rad9 from damaged chromatin during the S phase of the cell cycle, allowing Rad9-Bcl2 association and induction of proapoptotic Bax protein. We propose that the Frag1 signal pathway, by linking replication stress surveillance with apoptosis induction, plays a central role in determining whether DNA damage is compatible with cell survival or whether it requires cell elimination by apoptosis.Artículo Texto completo
|Distinct populations of human PCNA are required for initiation of chromosomal DNA replication and concurrent DNA repair. |
Dávid Szüts, Christo Christov, Lisa Kitching, Torsten Krude
Experimental cell research 311 240-50 2005
The integrity of genomic DNA during the cell division cycle in eukaryotic cells is maintained by regulated chromosomal DNA replication and repair of damaged DNA. We have used fractionation and reconstitution experiments to purify essential factors for the initiation of human chromosomal DNA replication in late G1 phase template nuclei from human cells. Here, we report the identification of soluble PCNA as an essential initiation factor in this system. Recombinant histidine-tagged human PCNA can substitute for purified endogenous human PCNA to initiate human chromosomal DNA replication. It is recruited specifically to discrete DNA replication foci formed during initiation in vitro. The template nuclei also contain DNA breaks as result of the synchronisation procedure. A separate population of chromatin-bound PCNA is already present in these template nuclei at discrete DNA damage foci, co-localising with gamma-H2AX, RPA and Rad51. This DNA damage-associated PCNA population is marked by mono-ubiquitination, suggesting that it is involved in DNA repair. Importantly, the population of damage focus-associated PCNA is neither involved in, nor required for, the initiation of chromosomal DNA replication in the same nuclei.
|Melanoma cells express elevated levels of phosphorylated histone H2AX foci. |
Warters, RL; Adamson, PJ; Pond, CD; Leachman, SA
The Journal of investigative dermatology 124 807-17 2005
When human cells sustain a DNA double-strand break (dsb), histone H2AX in chromatin surrounding the DNA break is phosphorylated, marking repair foci. The number of phosphorylated histone H2AX (gammaH2AX) foci approximates the number of dsb present in the cell's nuclear DNA. We observed 0.4 gammaH2AX foci per nucleus in primary human melanocytes. In contrast, in four melanoma cell lines, we detected 7-17 gammaH2AX foci per nucleus, a 17-42 times increase in the basal level of gammaH2AX foci in melanoma cells relative to melanocytes (MC). Thus, untreated melanoma cells express significantly greater numbers of gammaH2AX foci than do untreated MC. Detection and rejoining of ionizing radiation-induced DNA dsb proceeded as rapidly in melanoma cells as in MC. Melanoma cells, however, reduced the number of radiation-induced gammaH2AX foci down only to pre-irradiation levels. Co-localization of the majority of gammaH2AX foci with ataxia telangiectasia mutated, BRCA1, 53BP1, and Nbs1 foci in untreated melanoma cells indicated that the additional foci in melanoma cells were associated with a DNA change that the cells interpret as DNA dsb. Co-localization of gammaH2AX foci with the telomere replication factor 1 protein in untreated melanoma cells indicates that the additional foci in untreated melanoma cells are associated with dysfunctional telomeres that induce a DNA damage stress response.
|Inhibition of human Chk1 causes increased initiation of DNA replication, phosphorylation of ATR targets, and DNA breakage. |
Syljuåsen, RG; Sørensen, CS; Hansen, LT; Fugger, K; Lundin, C; Johansson, F; Helleday, T; Sehested, M; Lukas, J; Bartek, J
Molecular and cellular biology 25 3553-62 2005
Human checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) is an essential kinase required to preserve genome stability. Here, we show that Chk1 inhibition by two distinct drugs, UCN-01 and CEP-3891, or by Chk1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) leads to phosphorylation of ATR targets. Chk1-inhibition triggered rapid, pan-nuclear phosphorylation of histone H2AX, p53, Smc1, replication protein A, and Chk1 itself in human S-phase cells. These phosphorylations were inhibited by ATR siRNA and caffeine, but they occurred independently of ATM. Chk1 inhibition also caused an increased initiation of DNA replication, which was accompanied by increased amounts of nonextractable RPA protein, formation of single-stranded DNA, and induction of DNA strand breaks. Moreover, these responses were prevented by siRNA-mediated downregulation of Cdk2 or the replication initiation protein Cdc45, or by addition of the CDK inhibitor roscovitine. We propose that Chk1 is required during normal S phase to avoid aberrantly increased initiation of DNA replication, thereby protecting against DNA breakage. These results may help explain why Chk1 is an essential kinase and should be taken into account when drugs to inhibit this kinase are considered for use in cancer treatment.
|Histone modifications associated with somatic hypermutation. |
Odegard, VH; Kim, ST; Anderson, SM; Shlomchik, MJ; Schatz, DG
Immunity 23 101-10 2005
A number of modified histones, including acetylated H3 and H4 and phosphorylated H2AX (gammaH2AX), are associated with V(D)J recombination and class switch recombination (CSR). In contrast, little is known concerning the chromatin modifications associated with somatic hypermutation (SHM) in vivo. Here, we report that several modifications--including histone acetylation and H3-lysine 4 methylation--fail to demarcate an actively hypermutating immunoglobulin (Ig) locus or to correlate spatially with SHM within Ig loci. Furthermore, no obvious association between SHM and gammaH2AX could be detected. Instead, we find that the phosphorylated form of histone H2B (H2B(Ser14P)) correlates tightly with SHM and CSR. Phosphorylation of H2B within Ig variable and switch regions requires AID and may be mediated by the histone kinase Mst1. These findings indicate that SHM and CSR trigger distinct DNA damage responses and identify a novel histone modification pattern for SHM consisting of H2B(Ser14P) in the absence of gammaH2AX.
|Mutually exclusive subsets of BH3-only proteins are activated by the p53 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase/c-Jun signaling pathways during cortical neuron apoptosis induced by arsenite. |
Wong, HK; Fricker, M; Wyttenbach, A; Villunger, A; Michalak, EM; Strasser, A; Tolkovsky, AM
Molecular and cellular biology 25 8732-47 2005
The c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK)/c-Jun and p53 pathways form distinct death-signaling modules in neurons that culminate in Bax-dependent apoptosis. To investigate whether this signaling autonomy is due to recruitment of particular BH3-only proteins, we searched for a toxic signal that would activate both pathways in the same set of neurons. We show that arsenite activates both the JNK/c-Jun and p53 pathways in cortical neurons, which together account for greater than 95% of apoptosis, as determined by using the mixed-lineage kinase (JNK/c-Jun) pathway inhibitor CEP11004 and p53-null mice. Despite the coexistence of both pathways in at least 30% of the population, Bim mRNA and protein expression was increased only by the JNK/c-Jun signaling pathway, whereas Noxa and Puma mRNA and Puma protein expression was entirely JNK/c-Jun independent. About 50% of Puma/Noxa expression was p53 dependent, with the remaining signal being independent of both pathways and possibly facilitated by arsenite-induced reduction in P-Akt. However, functionally, Puma was predominant in mediating Bax-dependent apoptosis, as evidenced by the fact that more than 90% of apoptosis was prevented in Puma-null neurons, although Bim was still upregulated, while Bim- and Noxa-null neurons died similarly to wild-type neurons. Thus, the p53 and JNK/c-Jun pathways can activate mutually exclusive subclasses of BH3-only proteins in the same set of neurons. However, other factors besides expression may determine which BH3-only proteins mediate apoptosis.
|Cells adapted to high NaCl have many DNA breaks and impaired DNA repair both in cell culture and in vivo. |
Natalia I Dmitrieva, Qi Cai, Maurice B Burg
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101 2317-22 2004
Acute exposure of cells in culture to high NaCl damages DNA and impairs its repair. However, after several hours of cell cycle arrest, cells multiply in the hypertonic medium. Here, we show that, although adapted cells proliferate rapidly and do not become apoptotic, they nevertheless contain numerous DNA breaks, which do not elicit a DNA damage response. Thus, in adapted cells, Mre11 exonuclease is mainly present in the cytoplasm, rather than nucleus, and histone H2AX and chk1 are not phosphorylated, as they normally would be in response to DNA damage. Also, the adapted cells are deficient in repair of luciferase reporter plasmids damaged by UV irradiation. On the other hand, the DNA damage response activates rapidly when the level of NaCl is reduced. Then, Mre11 moves into the nucleus, and H2AX and chk1 become phosphorylated. Renal inner medullary cells in vivo are normally exposed to a variable, but always high, level of NaCl. As with adapted cells in culture, inner medullary cells in normal mice exhibit numerous DNA breaks. These DNA breaks are rapidly repaired when the NaCl level is decreased by injection of the diuretic furosemide. Moreover, repair of DNA breaks induced by ionizing radiation is inhibited in the inner medulla. Histone H2AX does not become phosphorylated, and repair synthesis is not detectable in response to total body irradiation unless NaCl is lowered by furosemide. Thus, both in cell culture and in vivo, although cells adapt to high NaCl, their DNA is damaged and its repair is inhibited.Artículo Texto completo
|Cell cycle arrest at the initiation step of human chromosomal DNA replication causes DNA damage. |
Szüts, D; Krude, T
Journal of cell science 117 4897-908 2004
Cell cycle arrest in response to environmental effects can lead to DNA breaks. We investigated whether inhibition of DNA replication during the initiation step can lead to DNA damage and characterised a cell-cycle-arrest point at the replication initiation step before the establishment of active replication forks. This arrest can be elicited by the iron chelators mimosine, ciclopirox olamine or 2,2'-bipyridyl, and can be reversed by the removal of the drugs or the addition of excess iron. Iron depletion induces DNA double-strand breaks in treated cells, and activates a DNA damage response that results in focal phosphorylation of histone H2AX, focal accumulation of replication protein A (RPA) and ATR (ATM and Rad3-related kinase), and activation of CHK1 kinase. Abrogation of the checkpoint response does not abolish the cell cycle arrest before the establishment of active DNA replication forks. DNA breaks appear concomitantly with the arrival of cells at the arrest point and persist upon release from the cell cycle block. We conclude that DNA double-strand breaks are the consequence, and not the cause, of cell cycle arrest during the initiation step of DNA replication by iron chelation.
|c-Jun-deficient cells undergo premature senescence as a result of spontaneous DNA damage accumulation. |
MacLaren, A; Black, EJ; Clark, W; Gillespie, DA
Molecular and cellular biology 24 9006-18 2004
Mouse embryo fibroblasts deficient for the c-Jun proto-oncogene (c-Jun-/- MEF) undergo p53-dependent premature senescence in conventional culture. This phenotype becomes evident only after several cell divisions, suggesting that senescence may result from exposure to unknown environmental factors. Here, we show that c-Jun-/- MEF can proliferate successfully in low oxygen (3% O2), indicating that premature senescence under conventional culture conditions is a consequence of hyperoxic stress. c-Jun-/- MEF exhibit higher basal levels of DNA damage compared to normal fibroblasts in high but not low oxygen, implying that senescence results from chronic accumulation of spontaneous DNA damage. This accumulation may be attributable, at least in part, to inefficient repair, since DNA damage induced by gamma ionizing radiation and H2O2 persists for longer in c-Jun-/- MEF than in wild-type MEF. Unexpectedly, p53 expression, phosphorylation, and transcriptional activity are largely unaffected by oxygen exposure, indicating that the accumulation of spontaneous DNA damage does not result in chronic activation of p53 as judged by conventional criteria. Finally, we find that c-Jun associates with nuclear foci containing gammaH2AX and ATM following irradiation, suggesting a potential role for c-Jun in DNA repair processes per se.
|DNA double-strand breaks and gamma-H2AX signaling in the testis |
Hamer, G., et al
Biol Reprod, 68:628-34 (2003) 2003
|Tumor promoter arsenite stimulates histone H3 phosphoacetylation of proto-oncogenes c-fos and c-jun chromatin in human diploid fibroblasts. |
Li, Ji, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 278: 13183-91 (2003) 2003
Although epidemiological studies have long established that inorganic arsenic is a potent human carcinogen, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that inorganic arsenic may act as a tumor promoter by perturbing key signaling transduction pathways. We have shown previously that arsenite can potently activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades and induce the expression of proliferation-associated genes, including proto-oncogenes c-jun and c-fos. In order to elucidate further the molecular mechanisms underlying its tumor-promoting properties, we investigated the signaling events involved in arsenite-mediated induction of c-fos and c-jun. We found that induction of both c-fos and c-jun by arsenite can be substantially inhibited by the MEK- selective inhibitor U0126, suggesting that the ERK pathway is critically involved in their up-regulation. Interestingly, arsenite dramatically induced the phosphorylation and acetylation of histone H3 preceding the induction of mRNAs encoding c-fos and c-jun. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that arsenite treatment markedly induced the phosphorylation/acetylation of histone H3 associated with the c-fos and c-jun genes through an ERK-dependent pathway. Our results strongly suggest that arsenic-triggered alterations in chromatin structure perturb specific gene transcription, including that of proto-oncogenes c-jun and c-fos, and may thereby contribute to the carcinogenic process.
|Toxicity of acetaminophen, salicylic acid, and caffeine for first-passage rat renal inner medullary collecting duct cells. |
Cai, Q; Dmitrieva, NI; Michea, LF; Rocha, G; Ferguson, D; Burg, MB
The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics 306 35-42 2003
Chronic excess ingestion of nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs causes renal medullary necrosis. Previously, using an immortalized line of mouse inner medullary collecting ducts cells (mIMCD3), we found that acetaminophen, salicylic acid, and caffeine are toxic, and the effects of acetaminophen and caffeine are strongly additive. Furthermore, toxicity was greater in proliferating than in nonproliferating cells. Important limitations were that mIMCD3 cells do not readily tolerate the high concentrations of salt and urea normally present in renal inner medullas and proliferate much more rapidly than inner medullary cells in vivo. Thus, these cells may not serve as an appropriate model for the in vivo IMCD. The present studies address these limitations by using passage-1 rat inner medullary collecting duct (p1rIMCD) cells, which tolerate high salt and urea and become contact inhibited when confluent. At 640 mOsmol/kg (the lowest normal inner medullary osmolality), the drugs, singly and in combination, reduce the number of proliferating (i.e., subconfluent) p1rIMCD cells more than they do confluent cells. Effects of acetaminophen and caffeine are strongly additive. Addition of as little as 0.1 mM caffeine significantly enhances the toxicity of acetaminophen plus salicylic acid. With confluent cells at 640 mOsmol/kg and very slowly growing cells at 1370 mOsmol/kg, combinations of drugs that include acetaminophen increase proliferation, accompanied by DNA damage and apoptosis. We conclude that these drugs are toxic to renal inner medullary collecting duct cells under the conditions of high osmolality normally present in the inner medulla, that combinations of the drugs are more toxic than are the drugs individually, and that the toxicity includes induction of proliferation of these cells that are otherwise quiescent in the presence of high osmolality.
|High NaCl causes Mre11 to leave the nucleus, disrupting DNA damage signaling and repair. |
Natalia I Dmitrieva, Dmitry V Bulavin, Maurice B Burg
American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 285 F266-74 2003
High NaCl causes DNA double-strand breaks and cell cycle arrest, but the mechanism of its genotoxicity has been unclear. In this study, we describe a novel mechanism that contributes to this genotoxicity. The Mre11 exonuclease complex is a central component of DNA damage response. This complex assembles at sites of DNA damage, where it processes DNA ends for subsequent activation of repair and initiates cell cycle checkpoints. However, this does not occur with DNA damage caused by high NaCl. Rather, following high NaCl, Mre11 exits from the nucleus, DNA double-strand breaks accumulate in the S and G2 phases of the cell cycle, and DNA repair is inhibited. Furthermore, the exclusion of Mre11 from the nucleus by high NaCl persists following UV or ionizing radiation, also preventing DNA repair in response to those stresses, as evidenced by absence of H2AX phosphorylation at places of DNA damage and by impaired repair of damaged reporter plasmids. Activation of chk1 by phosphorylation on Ser345 generally is required for DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest. However, chk1 does not become phosphorylated during high NaCl-induced cell cycle arrest. Also, high NaCl prevents ionizing and UV radiation-induced phosphorylation of chk1, but cell cycle arrest still occurs, indicating the existence of alternative mechanisms for the S and G2/M delays. DNA breaks that occur normally during processes such as DNA replication and transcription, as well as damages to DNA induced by genotoxic stresses, ordinarily are rapidly repaired. We propose that inhibition of this repair by high NaCl results in accumulation of DNA damage, accounting for the genotoxicity of high NaCl, and that cell cycle delay induced by high NaCl slows accumulation of DNA damage until the DNA damage-response network can be reactivated.
|Comparison of hypoxia-induced replication arrest with hydroxyurea and aphidicolin-induced arrest. |
Ester M Hammond, Susannah L Green, Amato J Giaccia
Mutation research 532 205-13 2003
Severe levels of hypoxia (oxygen concentrations of less that 0.02%) have been shown to induce a rapid S-phase arrest. The mechanism behind hypoxia-induced S-phase arrest is unclear, we show here that it was not mediated by a shortage of nucleosides and was not dependent on p53, p21 or Hif 1alpha status. The drugs aphidicolin and hydroxyurea both induce rapid replication arrest and have been used throughout the literature to study the ATR-mediated response to stalled replication. We have shown previously that hypoxia induces ATR-dependent phosphorylation of p53, Chk1 and histone H2AX. Using comet-assays to detect DNA-damage we found that both aphidicolin and hydroxyurea induced significant levels of DNA-damage while hypoxia did not. Here we show that like aphidicolin and hydroxyurea, hypoxia induces phosphorylation of Nbs1 at serine 343 and Rad17 serine 645. Hypoxia-dependent phosphorylation of Nbs1 and Rad17 was ATM-independent and therefore likely to be a result of the ATR kinase activity. In contrast, p53 was phosphorylated differentially in response to the three treatments considered here. p53 was phosphorylated at serine 15 in response to all three treatments but was only phosphorylated at serine 20 in response to the drug treatments. We propose that treatment with either aphidicolin or hydroxyurea leads to not only replication arrest but also DNA-damage and therefore both ATM and ATR-mediated signaling. In contrast replication arrest induced by severe hypoxia is sensed exclusively through ATR, with ATM only having a role to play after re-oxygenation.
|ATR/ATM targets are phosphorylated by ATR in response to hypoxia and ATM in response to reoxygenation. |
Hammond, EM; Dorie, MJ; Giaccia, AJ
The Journal of biological chemistry 278 12207-13 2003
The ATR kinase phosphorylates both p53 and Chk1 in response to extreme hypoxia (oxygen concentrations of less than 0.02%). In contrast to ATR, loss of ATM does not affect the phosphorylation of these or other targets in response to hypoxia. However, hypoxia within tumors is often transient and is inevitably followed by reoxygenation. We hypothesized that ATR activity is induced under hypoxic conditions because of growth arrest and ATM activity increases in response to the oxidative stress of reoxygenation. Using the comet assay to detect DNA damage, we find that reoxygenation induced significant amounts of DNA damage. Two ATR/ATM targets, p53 serine 15 and histone H2AX, were both phosphorylated in response to hypoxia in an ATR-dependent manner. These phosphorylations were then maintained in response to reoxygenation-induced DNA damage in an ATM-dependent manner. The reoxygenation-induced p53 serine 15 phosphorylation was inhibited by the addition of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), indicating that free radical-induced DNA damage was mediated by reactive oxygen species. Taken together these data implicate both ATR and ATM as critical roles in the response of hypoxia and reperfusion in solid tumors.
|Rapid activation of G2/M checkpoint after hypertonic stress in renal inner medullary epithelial (IME) cells is protective and requires p38 kinase. |
Dmitrieva, NI; Bulavin, DV; Fornace, AJ; Burg, MB
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99 184-9 2002
Cells in the kidney medulla are subject to variable and often extreme osmotic stress during concentration of the urine. Previous studies showed that renal inner medullary epithelial (IME) cells respond to hypertonicity by G(2) arrest. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms involved in initiation and maintenance of G(2) arrest. Rapid initiation of G(2) arrest after UV radiation is mediated by p38 kinase. Here we find that p38 kinase is responsible for rapid initiation of the G(2) delay in IME cells after the hypertonic stress created by adding NaCl. High NaCl, but not high urea, rapidly initiates G(2) arrest. Inhibition of p38 kinase by SB202190 (10 microM) blocks the rapid initiation of this checkpoint both in an immortalized cell line (mIMCD3) and in second-passage IME cells from mouse renal inner medulla. p38 inhibition does not affect exit from G(2) arrest. The rapid initiation of G(2) arrest is followed by inhibition of cdc2 kinase, which is also prevented by SB202190. To assess the possible protective role of G(2) arrest, we measured DNA strand breaks as reflected by immunostaining against phospho-histone H2AX, which becomes phosphorylated on Ser-139 associated with DNA breaks. Abrogation of rapid G(2)/M checkpoint activation by SB202190 increases the histone H2AX phosphorylation in G(2)/M cells. We propose that the rapid initiation of G(2) delay by p38 kinase after hypertonicity protects the cells by decreasing the level of DNA breaks caused by aberrant mitosis entry.
|Megabase chromatin domains involved in DNA double-strand breaks in vivo. |
Rogakou, E P, et al.
J. Cell Biol., 146: 905-16 (1999) 1999
The loss of chromosomal integrity from DNA double-strand breaks introduced into mammalian cells by ionizing radiation results in the specific phosphorylation of histone H2AX on serine residue 139, yielding a specific modified form named gamma-H2AX. An antibody prepared to the unique region of human gamma-H2AX shows that H2AX homologues are phosphorylated not only in irradiated mammalian cells but also in irradiated cells from other species, including Xenopus laevis, Drosophila melanogaster, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The antibody reveals that gamma-H2AX appears as discrete nuclear foci within 1 min after exposure of cells to ionizing radiation. The numbers of these foci are comparable to the numbers of induced DNA double-strand breaks. When DNA double-strand breaks are introduced into specific partial nuclear volumes of cells by means of a pulsed microbeam laser, gamma-H2AX foci form at these sites. In mitotic cells from cultures exposed to nonlethal amounts of ionizing radiation, gamma-H2AX foci form band-like structures on chromosome arms and on the end of broken arms. These results offer direct visual confirmation that gamma-H2AX forms en masse at chromosomal sites of DNA double-strand breaks. The results further suggest the possible existence of units of higher order chromatin structure involved in monitoring DNA integrity.